battle of Königgrätz
decides the German war in favor of Prussia .
Wilhelm von Tegetthoff
defeats the Regia Marina
in the naval battle of Lissa .
Karl von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen becomes Prince
of Romania .
|1866 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1314/15 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1858/59 (September 10-11)|
|Baha'i calendar||22/23 (March 20/21)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1271/72 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2409/10 (southern Buddhism); 2408/09 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||76th (77th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1228/29 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4199/4200 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1244/45 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1282/83 (May 15/16)|
|Jewish calendar||5626/27 (9/10 September)|
|Coptic Calendar||1582/83 (September 10-11)|
|Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire)||1281/82 (March 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2176/77 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2177/78 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1922/23 (April)|
In 1866 , the political map of Germany , which had largely remained unchanged since the Congress of Vienna, was rearranged. After Prussia's victory in the German War , some of its opponents are annexed , others are forced into alliances. The existing since 1815 German federal government is dissolved and instead of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership established . Despite the victory in the naval battle of Lissa, the Austrian Empire, which was annihilated in the Battle of Königgrätz, had to cede territories to Italy , which was allied with Prussia .
In the Principality of Romania , the first Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza is overthrown and replaced by the German Karl Eitel Friedrich, son of Prince Karl Anton zu Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , who ascends the Romanian throne as Carol I.
After the end of the Civil War , the United States under President Andrew Johnson intervened more intensely in the spirit of the Monroe Doctrine in the conflict between the French troop- backed Empire of Mexico under Maximilian I and the republican opposition under Benito Juárez . France and Austria are asked to withdraw the intervention troops from Mexico. With the exception of a few volunteer corps, the foreign units then leave the country, which makes the situation for Maximilian and his wife Charlotte of Belgium hopeless until the end of the year.
Politics and world events
|French intervention in Mexico (since 1861)|
|Rotativismo in Portugal (since 1856)|
|Nian uprising (since 1853) against the Qing dynasty in China (since 1644)|
|Bakumatsu (since 1853) of the Edo period in Japan (since 1603)|
|Second French Empire in France (since 1852)|
|Founding days in Germany and Austria (since around 1840)|
|Tanzimat reforms in the Ottoman Empire (since 1839)|
|Victorian Age in Great Britain (since 1837)|
- February 23: A conspiratorial group of military forces penetrates the palace of the reform-oriented first prince of Romania Alexandru Ioan Cuza and forces him to abdicate. In the following days he was taken out of the country across the border. Ion Ghica replaces Nicolae Crețulescu as Prime Minister with a provisional government . He first tried to appoint the brother of the Belgian King Leopold II , Philip of Flanders , as prince, but he refused. The choice then falls after a recommendation by Napoleon III. on Karl Eitel Friedrich, the son of Prince Karl Anton zu Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen .
- April 20: After a positive referendum, Karl Eitel Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is elected as the new Prince of Romania .
- May 22nd: Carol I. moves into Bucharest . Romania is still under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire at this point in time .
German Confederation and Italy
- April 8th: Prussia and Italy conclude the Prussian-Italian alliance contract for a limited period of three months . With this offensive and defensive alliance in the event of a war against the Austrian Empire , Prussia violates Article XI of the German Federal Act , which obliges the federal states not to enter into any ties that are directed against the security of the German federal or individual federal states.
- April 9: Prussia applies to the Bundestag to elect a national parliament . The individual German states react negatively. The motion is pushed into a nine-member committee, which consists mainly of opponents of the motion.
- May 7: Ferdinand Cohen-Blind carried out an assassination attempt on the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck on Unter den Linden in order to avert the threatening "fratricidal war" between Prussia and Austria. Bismarck is only slightly injured, the assassin commits suicide in police custody that night.
- June 1: Austria turns to the Bundestag of the German Confederation and, in agreement with the population, gives it the decision on the future of Holstein . The Elbe Duchy is under Austrian administration, but to the chagrin of Prussia, Austria tolerates the subsidiary government of Duke Friedrich VIII of Schleswig-Holstein from the House of Oldenburg and, in agreement with him, decides to convene the Holstein meeting of estates. Prussia regards this procedure as a breach of the Gastein Convention of 1865.
- June 9th: Prussian troops march into Holstein, whereupon Austria applies to the Bundestag for the mobilization of federal troops for the purpose of a federal execution for the forbidden self-help of Prussia.
- June 10: Prussia presents the Federal Assembly with a reform plan to reorganize the German Confederation without Austria, the so-called Little German Solution .
- June 12th: Between the French Emperor Napoleon III. and the Empire of Austria is a secret agreement reached, which in the case of an Austrian victory Veneto at the price of neutrality of France in the impending German war promises. Austria also violates the German Federal Act.
- June 14th: The Bundestag approves Austria's motion for federal execution against Prussia and appoints Karl von Bayern as federal commander . The German war begins. Prussia leaves the German Confederation after a majority vote .
- June 15: Prussia gives the kingdoms of Hanover and Saxony as well as the Electorate of Hesse an ultimatum after they have agreed to a federal execution in the German Confederation against Prussia. The rejection of this demand leads to the declaration of war and the invasion of Prussian troops on the same or the following day.
- June 16: Prussia turns to 19 northern and central German states and offers them to conclude an alliance on the basis of the reform plan of June 10 and promise them independence and territorial integrity. To do this, however, they must subordinate their armies to Prussia. Seventeen accept the offer, some under pressure. The Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen and Reuss older line refuse. At the
- June 20: With Italy's declaration of war on the Austrian Empire, the Third Italian War of Independence begins .
- June 24th: In the battle of Custozza , Italy's attempt to conquer Veneto and Trentino from the Austrian Empire fails . Albrecht Friedrich of Austria defeats the Italian general Alfonso La Marmora with his troops .
- June 26th: The battle near Hühnerwasser is the first battle of the German War and ends with a victory for the Prussian army under Eberhard Herwarth von Bittenfeld . Austria loses almost 20% of the troops deployed under the command of Eduard Clam-Gallas .
- June 27th: In the Battle of Podol, the Austrian troops again suffer heavy losses against the Prussian units equipped with needle guns.
- June 27th: The Battle of Langensalza between Prussia, allied with the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha , and the Kingdom of Hanover in the German War win the Hanoverians, but suffer heavy losses.
- June 27th: In the battle of Trautenau, the Austrians under Ludwig Karl Wilhelm von Gablenz achieve a loss-making victory. It takes place at the same time as the Battle of Nachod , which the Prussians under Karl Friedrich von Steinmetz decide for themselves.
- June 28: In the German War , the Prussians achieve successes over the Austrians . You win the battles of Skalitz and Münchengrätz .
- June 29th: Despite winning the battle of Langensalza on June 27th, the Kingdom of Hanover had to surrender to Prussia due to military exhaustion in the German war .
- June 29th: In the Battle of Gitschin , the Prussian army triumphs over allied Austro-Saxon troops in the German War . On the same day Prussia also wins in the battle at Schweinskullel and in the battle at Königinhof .
- July 1st to 27th: The Prussian Main Army carries out the Main Campaign .
- July 3: The Battle of Königgrätz is the decisive battle of the German War. Near the village of Sadowa , the troops of Prussia, under the command of Helmuth von Moltke, meet the armies of Austria and Saxony led by Ludwig von Benedek and defeat them. The Prussian 1st Army under Friedrich Karl then pursued the Austrians to Brno; the 2nd Army under the Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Prussia marches on Olmütz and the Elbarmee follows the Austrians via Iglau to Znaim. The Prussians reached the Danube region in mid-July and proceeded without major resistance to the Stockerau and Gänserndorf line in the northern apron of Vienna.
- July 4th: The battle near Dermbach is the first encounter between Prussian and Bavarian troops in the German War, the former being won.
- July 8th: Prague is occupied by the Prussians without a fight.
- July 10th: In the Battle of Kissingen , Prussian corps defeat units of the Bavarian troops belonging to the German Federal Army .
- July 12: A soldier from Nassau is killed in the Battle of Zorn , a skirmish between Nassau and Prussian troops in the town of Zorn, now a district of Heidenrod in the Rheingau-Taunus district in Hesse .
- July 13th: Prussia defeats the Grand Duchy of Hesse in a battle near Frohnhofen and thus secures the Spessart crossings.
- July 14th: Prussian troops conquer Aschaffenburg in fierce street fighting against Austrian troops under Lieutenant Field Marshal Erwin von Neipperg . The federal troops have to move west across the Main.
- July 15: In a war plan presented by the Italian Naval Minister Agostino Depretis in Ancona , Fleet Admiral Carlo Pellion di Persano is ordered to attack the Austrian fleet in the Adriatic . The plan also provides for an attack on the Austrian base on the island of Lissa . Persano leaves Ancona the next day.
- July 16: Prussia occupies the city of Frankfurt am Main without a fight .
- July 18-20: The Italian Navy fired a total of 34 warships (252 cannons), including the tower ship RN Affondatore , at the Austrian fortress and port facilities on Lissa. Persano and his subordinate admirals Giovanni Vacca and Giovanni Battista Albini fell out on July 19 because of differing opinions about the ineffective use of artillery near Lissa.
- July 20: The Austrian fleet under Wilhelm von Tegetthoff defeated the numerically superior Italian Navy in the naval battle of Lissa using ramming tactics . The Battle of Lissa, the first naval battle in European history to use ironclad ships, influenced the development of naval tactics in the second half of the 19th century. However, the battle no longer has any influence on the war itself.
- July 21: In the Third Italian War of Independence , the Italians under Giuseppe Garibaldi achieve the only victory against Austrian troops in the Battle of Bezzecca .
- July 22nd: In the German War, a five-day ceasefire comes into force. In Mikulov chateau in Mikulov peace negotiations begin. For this reason , the battle at Blumenau , which took place on the same day, was broken off in the middle of the battle. The negotiations are led by the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck and the Austrian plenipotentiaries Alajos Károlyi and Adolph von Brenner-Felsach . In doing so, Bismarck, with the intention of sparing Austria from further relinquishing of territory beyond Veneto , in order not to lose it as an ally of tomorrow, encountered fierce resistance from King Wilhelm I and some military. Bismarck can only prevail when he threatens to resign and Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm takes his side.
- July 23: Prussia defeats the Grand Duchy of Baden in the battle near Hundheim .
- July 24th: In the battle near Tauberbischofsheim , Prussia defeated the German federal army again, just as in the battle near Werbach .
- July 25: In the battle near Gerchsheim , too , the Prussian Alliance triumphs over the German Federal Army.
- July 26th: Prussia and Austria sign the preliminary peace in Nikolsburg .
- After the lost German war , the southern German states of Bavaria (August 22nd), Württemberg (August 13th) and Baden (August 17th) conclude protective and defensive alliances with Prussia , which also serve as peace treaties.
- August 18: Prussia and its allies conclude the August Alliance and thereby commit to founding the North German Confederation .
- August 23: With the Peace of Prague , Austria and Prussia end the German war . Austria must recognize the dissolution of the German Confederation and agree to a new design of Germany without Austria's participation. It also promises to recognize the closer federal relationship that Prussia will establish “north of the line of the Main ”. Austria also agrees that the German states located south of this line form a confederation of states ( Süddeutscher Bund ), which will enter into a “national connection” with the North German Confederation and which will have an independent international existence. To Italy must Austria, the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia cede. Furthermore, Austria renounces its rights to Schleswig and Holstein in favor of Prussia . Prussia promises to keep the territory of the Kingdom of Saxony in its current extent. The Habsburg Monarchy does not have to cede any land in the Peace of Prague, and the amount of reparations is relatively low at 20 million thalers.
- August 24th: The last session of the German Bundestag takes place in Augsburg , at which the dissolution of the German Confederation is decided.
- August 25: King Ludwig II of Bavaria donates the army memorial in 1866 .
- September 3: The peace treaty between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Grand Duchy of Hesse stipulates reparations, assignment of territory and the regulation of future relations between Hesse and the North German Confederation .
- September 3: With the passing of the Indemnity Act by the House of Representatives , the simmering constitutional conflict over the Prussian army reform is ended. In this context, the National Liberal Party emerges from the ranks of parliamentarians of the Progressive Party who have approved the law.
- September 14: The Prussian Indemnity Act comes into force. The conflict between the army and the constitution is now resolved.
- September 21: The victorious Prussian army enters Berlin .
- October 1: Prussia annexes four of its war opponents north of the Main line , which become Prussian provinces or parts of provinces. These are the Kingdom of Hanover , the Electorate of Hesse (Hessen-Kassel), the Duchy of Nassau and the Free City of Frankfurt . There are also smaller areas of the Kingdom of Bavaria and the Grand Duchy of Hesse (Hessen-Darmstadt). Other war opponents north of the Main Line remain as states, but have to join the North German Confederation . These are the Kingdom of Saxony , the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen and the Principality of Reuss older line .
- October 3: Peace of Vienna : Peace between Italy and Austria to end the German War in Northern Italy .
- January 1: Josef Martin Knüsel becomes President of Switzerland for the second time .
- January 14th: The Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation is subject to a partial revision. Jews receive equality with regard to settlement, but they do not receive any cantonal or communal voting rights .
- October 28: In the Swiss parliamentary elections in 1866 , 128 seats in the National Council are available for election by majority voting. As was the case three years before, the liberals (or radical liberals) remain the strongest force, but have to accept further losses of seats and again fail to gain an absolute majority. The election winner will be the left-wing democratic movement . In all cantons, the elections to the Council of States are indirect and take place through the respective cantonal parliaments . The newly elected parliament meets for the first time in the 7th legislative period on December 3rd.
- June 22nd: The revolt against Queen Isabella II in the barracks of San Gil in Madrid is quickly put down by Francisco Serrano Domínguez , numerous people involved are shot. The main participants, Práxedes Mateo Sagasta and Manuel Ruiz Zorrilla, evade execution by fleeing abroad, from where they, together with Juan Prim, plan further actions to overthrow Isabella. Even Emilio Castelar has to flee abroad.
- April 16: The Russian revolutionary Dimitri Karakosow attempts an assassination attempt on Tsar Alexander II in St. Petersburg. It fails due to the intervention of some farmers. The assassin will be executed on September 3rd.
- November 7th: Ottoman troops attack the Arkadi monastery on Crete , where around 1000 Greek insurgents, including 325 men who are capable of fighting, have holed up. After a two-day siege, the besieged withdraw into the powder magazine of the monastery and blow it up. Except for one girl, all the people inside and dozens of Turkish attackers were killed.
United States of America
- MARCH 27: President Andrew Johnson vetoed adopted by the Congress Civil Rights Act of 1866, one that everyone in the United States , the infants citizenship granted unless that it is Indians are. On April 9, a coalition of radical and moderate Republicans overruled the president's veto .
- June: The Red Cloud War along the Bozeman Trail begins after negotiations between representatives of the US government and surrounding tribes at Fort Laramie fail. The Lakota, led by Oglala chief Red Cloud , are concentrating on attacking the supply lines of the US Army and besieging the forts built along the Bozeman Trail. However, they avoid a direct attack on fortified structures or larger army units.
- June 4th: Elections to the United States House of Representatives 1866 will take place on several election days . The Republicans celebrate an overwhelming election victory and can build on their two-thirds majority. At the time of the elections, the United States consists of 37 states, but in reality, with the exception of Tennessee, the southern states, which formerly formed the Confederate States , have not yet been officially reintegrated into the Union and excluded from the elections. All active and passive voting rights are white men.
- June 13: As a further reaction to the presidential veto, the US Congress passes the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution , which comes into force in 1868. It includes the non-discrimination clause, the right to due process in the states, and the basics of citizenship law.
- August 20th: This date officially marks the end of the American Civil War . It is recorded in the Act of March 2, 1867 by United States President Andrew Johnson .
- December 21: In the Fetterman skirmish in the Red Cloud War, warriors of the Lakota, Arapaho and Cheyenne destroy a division of the US Army under the direction of Captain William Judd Fetterman. A group of ten Indians under Crazy Horse , selected from the tribes involved, lures Fetterman over the ridge of the Lodge Trail Ridge into an ambush into the Peno Valley, where around 1500 warriors under Little Wolf and High Backbone Fetterman's men await. In revenge for the Sand Creek massacre , the soldiers who were killed were mutilated. As a result of the defeat, Colonel Henry B. Carrington , who sought peaceful coexistence with the Indians and acted against whose express orders Fetterman, was relieved of his command of Fort Phil Kearny . The inadequately armed units in Fort Kearny were also given modern Springfield breech- loading rifles .
- June 8: The Provincial Parliament of Canada meets for its first session in the building on Parliament Hill in Ottawa .
- December: The London Conference is the final round in a series of conferences leading to the establishment of the Dominion of Canada as the Canadian Confederation : delegates from the Province of Canada , Nova Scotia and New Brunswick discuss regulations for the as-is with officials of the British government British North America Act known law. A key point is the coordination with the Roman Catholic bishops on educational issues and guarantees to protect the different school systems in the individual provinces.
- After the end of the Civil War , the United States under President Andrew Johnson intervened more intensely in the spirit of the Monroe Doctrine in the conflict between the French troop- backed Empire of Mexico under Maximilian I and the republican opposition under Benito Juárez . On February 12, France , and on May 6, Austria, are ordered to withdraw the intervention troops from Mexico.
- May 31: Marshal François-Achille Bazaine begins on the instructions of Emperor Napoleon III. with the withdrawal of the French intervention troops from Mexico. The republican troops move up quickly, usually quickly defeating the remaining Austrian units.
- June 18: In the battle of Charco Redondo , the Belgian volunteer corps in imperial service claims the battlefield.
- July: Republican troops capture Guadalajara , Matamoros , Tampico and Acapulco , then Monterrey and Saltillo .
- October 3: General Porfirio Díaz decisively defeats the imperial troops in the Battle of Miahuatlán .
- December 6: Emperor Maximilian orders the dissolution of the Belgian and Austrian volunteer corps and the simultaneous creation of the Mexican National Army .
- December 24th: The Mexican Empress Charlotte of Belgium thanks the members of the Belgian Volunteer Corps personally and offers them to join the Imperial Mexican Army. In view of the hopeless situation of Emperor Maximilian, however, only a few make use of it.
Spanish-South American War
- January: Ecuador joins the previous year's alliance between Peru and Chile against Spain . Bolivia will follow at the beginning of February .
- February 7th: In the battle of Abtao north of the island of Chiloé in the Spanish-South American War , none of the warring sides scores a decisive hit.
- March: Spanish ships approach the undefended Chilean port city of Valparaíso . A number of American and British ships are also anchored there. The Spanish Admiral Mendez Núñez gives the city a a four-day ultimatum to surrender.
- March 31: Five people are killed in the six-hour bombing of Valparaíso . The bombing of the unfortified city has been sharply criticized internationally.
- May 2: The Spanish fleet bombs the Peruvian port city of Callao , but suffers heavy losses because the city is well defended with 96 cannons. The Peruvian war minister was killed in the bombing. After the shelling of Callao, active hostilities in the Spanish-South American War ended and the Spanish fleet withdrew to the Philippines.
Triple Alliance War
- The Brazilian Navy dominates with its strong artillery since the beginning of the Paraná River and the lower reaches of the Paraguay River , which Paraguay is cut off from the connection to the Atlantic. The Allied plan is to advance across the Paraguay River to Asunción , the capital of Paraguay.
- April 16: In the Triple Alliance War against Paraguay, the allied troops of Argentina , Brazil and Uruguay cross the Rio Paraná and enter Paraguayan soil under the orders of Argentine President Bartolomé Miter . The first goal is to conquer the strategically important fortress Humaitá , which was besieged for several years.
- May 2: The bloody battle of Estero Bellaco ends with an Allied victory.
- May 24: Paraguay's troops suffer a heavy defeat in the battle of Tuyutí when attempting to attack the main camp of the opposing allies . It is the bloodiest battle in South American history.
- July 16: Paraguayan troops are victorious in the Battle of Boquerón .
- September 1st to 3rd: The Allies win the battle for Fort Curuzú . The success at Curuzú paves the way for the Brazilians and their allies towards the much more developed fortress complex Humaitá -Curupaytí.
- September 22nd: With the victory in the Battle of Curupaytí , the Paraguayan troops can slow the advance of the Allies.
- In both armies there was considerable war weariness in the course of the year.
- October 10: Luís Alves de Lima e Silva, Duke of Caxias , becomes the new Commander-in-Chief of the Allied forces. He takes command on November 19th.
- February 11: Salim ibn Thuwaini murders his father Thuwaini ibn Said in Suhar , north of the capital Muscat , and becomes ruler of the Bu Saʿīd dynasty in the Sultanate of Oman . However, he does not succeed in stabilizing his rule over the long term.
- August: General Sherman paddle steamer arrives in Korea .
- After he ruled for three years, Mohammed Afzal Khan of the Baraksai dynasty ousted his younger brother, Shir Ali, as the emir of Afghanistan .
- April 11th: After heavy defeats against the Boers of the Orange Free State , the Basotho under Moshoeshoe I have to agree to the Treaty of Thaba Bosiu , with which they lose two thirds of their pastureland.
- In the north of the Cape Colony , diamonds were discovered for the first time near the Orange River and later also on a hill in what is now the center of the city of Kimberley , which will emerge in the next few years .
- June 15: The Stockholm Exhibition 1866 is opened by Crown Prince Oscar . The exhibition building in Kungsträdgården is a wooden structure with an octagonal glass dome based on the model of London's Crystal Palace . The architect is Adolf W. Edelsvärd . The first international art and industrial exhibition in Sweden becomes a financial failure.
- January 15: Keokuk and Hamilton Mississippi River Bridge Company is incorporated in Keokuk , Iowa. On July 25, US President Andrew Jackson signed a law that allowed the construction of eight bridges over the Mississippi River .
- February 1: The first reports from the newly founded Danish news agency Ritzau appear in the Copenhagen press .
- March 3: The Gödecke company is founded in Leipzig, specializing in business with essential oils and essences. Over time, this developed into an internationally known pharmaceutical company.
- March 21: The JJ Darboven coffee roastery is founded in Hamburg .
- April 28: Norddeutsche Affinerie AG is founded in Hamburg by the members of the supervisory board of Norddeutsche Bank and the Hamburg merchants Carl Friedrich Ludwig Westenholz and Ferdinand Jacobsen, as well as Georg Ferdinand Gorrissen.
- November 11: The Austrian railway company kk privileged Crown Prince Rudolf-Bahn receives a concession for the construction of the Rudolfsbahn in connection with the Empress Elisabeth-Westbahn from St. Valentin via Steyr, Hieflau, Rottenmann, St. Michael, Judenburg, Friesach, Launsdorf and St. Veit to Villach, with the wing lifts from Kleinreifling to Amstetten, from Launsdorf to Mösel and from St. Veit to Klagenfurt . The licensees are Josef Franz Hieronymus von Colloredo-Mannsfeld , Constantin Graf Lodron, Carl Graf Gleispach, Franz Freiherr von Kalchberg, Adolf von Tschabuschnigg and Georg von Aichinger . At the request of the state administration, the concessionaires are also obliged to lay further stretches from St. Valentin to the planned route Prague – Gmünd , from Villach to Trieste and to the imperial border in the direction of Udine .
- November 16: The Frankfurter Zeitung and Handelsblatt appear in Frankfurt . The publisher was forbidden to publish the newspaper for three months by the Prussian occupying power.
- Robert B. Woodward, who during the California gold rush has come to wealth, is grounded in the Mission District of San Francisco , the Woodward's Gardens , an amusement park with Menagerie, in which, among other things, sea lions , grizzly bears , mourning swans , deer and various birds in an aviary be shown . The park is thus a forerunner of today's San Francisco Zoo .
- Henri Nestlé founded in Switzerland, the company Nestlé .
- The Americans George and Charles Page found the Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk Company as a public limited company in Cham .
- The Vacuum Oil Company of Rochester, NY is founded.
- December 1 : The fourth section of the Plochingen – Immendingen , Eyach - Horb am Neckar railway is completed.
- The first sections of the Black Forest Railway in the Grand Duchy of Baden are opened.
- January 6th: The company for the monitoring and insurance of steam boilers is founded in Mannheim , a forerunner of TÜV Südwest , which in turn has meanwhile been absorbed by TÜV Süd .
- May 10: The London wholesale discount bank Overend, Gurney and Co. becomes insolvent. The next day, The Times coined the term “ Black Friday ”, which was also picked up by the foreign press and by economists like Louis Wolowski .
- May 29 to September 12: The Great Tea Race of 1866
- The animal dealer and showman Gottfried Claes Carl Hagenbeck hands over the family business to his son Carl Hagenbeck . Initially, he sends four to five expeditions a year to Africa to catch animals.
science and technology
- January: Missionary David Livingstone arrives in Zanzibar . On March 24th he starts his last research trip from Mikindani . A short time later, rumors spread that he had been slain.
- April 15: In Tanis , the Prussian Egyptologist Richard Lepsius finds the Canopus decree of an Egyptian synod of priests on a limestone stele . The stele with a calendar regulation was built in 237 BC. BC and survived the times under rubble.
- At Bruniquel in France, two fragments of a sculpture are found that are only recognized as belonging together decades later. The so-called floating reindeer made from a mammoth's tooth are around 13,000 years old.
- January 12th: The Royal Aeronautical Society is founded in London .
- November 8: Truman Henry Safford discovers the spiral galaxy IC 178 .
- Gregor Mendel publishes a work about his attempts at crossbreeding with pea plants, which is little known.
- Daniel Kirkwood discovered later named after him Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt .
- Edmé Félix Alfred Vulpian coined the term synesthesia .
List of asteroids discovered in 1866
|No. and name||
|Date of discovery||Explorer|
|(86) Semele||120.6||January 4th||Friedrich Tietjen|
|(87) Sylvia||260.9||May 16||Norman Robert Pogson|
|(88) Thisbe||232||15th June||Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters|
|(89) Julia||151.5||6th of August||Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan|
|(90) Antiope||120.1||October 1||Karl Theodor Robert Luther|
|(91) Aegina||109.8||November 4th||Édouard Jean-Marie Stephan|
- May 30th: The Sub Marine Explorer designed by Julius Kröhl , the first submarine that can resurface on its own, is presented to the public on the East River in New York .
- July 27: The first telegraph cable across the Atlantic is permanently operational after a year of laying work by the sailing steamer Great Eastern .
- December 1: The John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge over the Ohio River near Cincinnati , built by John Augustus Roebling , can be crossed on foot for the first time one month before its opening. Until the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge in 1883, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world with a span of 322 meters .
- History of photography : the Austrian doctor Norbert Pfretzschner senior developed together with the Innsbruck chemistry professor Heinrich Hlasiwetz drying plates for the production of photographic negative material .
- The Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel invented in its near Geesthacht located explosive factory Krummel the dynamite , a mixture of nitroglycerin , diatomaceous earth and sodium carbonate .
- Emil Mariot develops the printing technology of oil printing .
- The Art Institute of Chicago is founded.
- May 4th: The book edition of the novel The Adventures of Captain Hatteras by Jules Verne is published.
- The novel Guilt and Atonement by Fyodor Dostoyevsky is published.
- The novel The Workers of the Sea by Victor Hugo appears.
- The Parisian publisher Alphonse Lemerre is bringing out the first volume of the anthology Le Parnasse contemporain . The title gives its name to the literary movement of the Parnassians , who find a stage for their work here.
Music and theater
- January 5th: The premiere of the opera Braniboři v Čechách ( The Brandenburgers in Bohemia ) by Bedřich Smetana takes place at the České Prozatímní Divadlo in Prague . The text is by Karel Sabina based on a historical novel by Josef Kajetán Tyl . With this work the composer wins a competition for the first national opera. After initial great success, however, the work cannot stay on stage in the long term.
- February 5: On the Paris Théâtre des Variétés is Jacques Offenbach's operetta Barbe-Bleue ( Bluebeard premiered). The libretto comes from Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy based on the fairy tale of the same name by Charles Perrault . The work does not achieve the same popularity as Offenbach's other operettas .
- March 21: Franz von Suppès operetta Leichte Kavallerie with Karl Costa's libretto is premiered at the Carltheater in Vienna . Today she is only known for her world-famous overture .
- May 22: William Steinway , Managing Director of Steinway & Sons , has Steinway Hall built on 14th Street in Manhattan, modeled on the Parisian company-owned concert halls .
- May 30th: The comic opera The Bartered Bride by Bedřich Smetana on a libretto by Karel Sabina has its world premiere in Prague.
- July 3: After the victory of Prussian troops in the battle of Königgrätz over Austria's army, the military musician Johann Gottfried Piefke is said to be composing the Königgrätzer March on the battlefield .
- August 4: The work Cantique de Jean Racine , for which Gabriel Fauré won first prize in a composition competition last year, is premiered in a version with strings and organ for the inauguration of the organ in the Abbey of Saint-Sauveur in Montivilliers.
- September 13: The Teatro Degollado in Guadalajara , Mexico is inaugurated with a performance of the opera Lucia di Lammermoor by Gaetano Donizetti.
- October 31: At the Théâtre du Palais-Royal in Paris the operetta Parisian life of Jacques Offenbach premiered, which is one of his most successful works. This libretto is also by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halévy .
- November 17th: The opera Mignon by Ambroise Thomas is successfully premiered at the Opéra-Comique in Paris. The libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré is based on a small part from the novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe .
- The Berlin Dilettanten Orchester Verein is founded.
- January 2: The first patients are admitted to the recently completed state insane asylum in Heppenheim . As a former representative of the no-restraint concept, director Georg Ludwig refrained from using coercive measures such as restraint or corporal punishment as far as possible.
- February 13: In Liberty , Missouri, is about ten men , the first bank robbery after the American Civil War in the United States carried out. Whether Frank and Jesse James were involved in the robbery is controversial.
- February 27th: Wilhelm Adolf Lette founds the association for the promotion of employability of women in Berlin . The Lette Association is under the protectorate of Crown Princess Victoria of Prussia , who also supports the association financially.
- June 29: In the small Swiss town of Murten , a circus elephant kills its keeper and escapes. He can only be killed by a cannon shot after a long hunt by the circus troupe and the residents of the city.
- July 17: At the suggestion of Federal Councilor Jakob Dubs and the two ICRC members Gustave Moynier and Guillaume-Henri Dufour , the Auxiliary Association for Swiss Armed Forces and their families is founded in Switzerland , which later became the Swiss Red Cross .
- August 24th: Princess Salme from the Said dynasty is four months pregnant and flees to Aden with the help of the British Vice Consul from Zanzibar to avoid the impending stoning. Their son was born on December 7th, but he died before his father, the Hamburg merchant Rudolph Heinrich Ruete , arrived. The following year she was baptized, married and took the name Emily Ruete .
- September 8th: The first multiple birth of sextuplets is reported from Chicago . Two babies die after giving birth, and James and Jennie Bushnell's other four children have long lives.
- December 5th: The Worms lithographer Wilhelm Schneider sends the first well-known full-page picture postcard without an envelope with the Thurn-und-Taxis-Post from Westhofen to Offstein .
- The inaccessible Kalaupapa peninsula on the Hawaiian island of Molokaʻi is declared a quarantine station for lepers . From now on, sick people will be imprisoned and isolated in the leprosy station without any contact with the outside world.
- January 8th: Paulus Melchers is appointed Archbishop of Cologne as the successor to Johannes von Geissel, who died in 1864 . In his previous position as Bishop of Osnabrück he was succeeded on April 5th by Johannes Heinrich Beckmann , which was confirmed by Pope Pius IX on June 22nd . is confirmed.
- September 5: On the Jewish New Year celebrations , the New Synagogue in Berlin's Oranienburger Strasse, designed by Eduard Knoblauch in oriental style and completed by Friedrich August Stüler , is inaugurated in the presence of Prussia's Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck .
- The synagogue district of Andernach is founded.
- The Dar ul-Ulum Deoband Islamic University is founded in India .
- January 11: The British passenger ship London gets caught in a storm in the Bay of Biscay and sinks, killing 220 of the 239 people on board. The Board of Trade is investigating the doom. There are several factors that contributed to the accident, according to the commission of inquiry. On the one hand, the fact that Captain Martin decided to return to Plymouth and thus not left the storm behind, but returned to its center. Furthermore, the overloading of the ship with 345 tons of building material for the railway construction should have played a role.
- May 14: The Bark General Grant deviates off course off the Auckland Islands , hits the cliffs and is pushed by the high tide into a rocky cave, where she gets stuck and eventually sinks. 68 passengers and crew members die. The 15 survivors spend 18 months on the uninhabited Auckland Island before being rescued.
- July 12: The Australian passenger steamer Cawarra sinks in a severe storm in the port of Newcastle . Of the 62 people on board, only one survived. The sinking of the Cawarra is one of the worst shipping accidents in the history of New South Wales to date .
- October 3: The American liner Evening Star sinks 180 nautical miles east of Tybee Island in a severe hurricane . 262 passengers and crew members die. It is thus the largest shipwreck in American history to date.
- July 4: Only two people were killed in the Great Portland Fire , Maine, but some 10,000 were left homeless and 1,800 buildings were burned down.
- August 24: In Vienna , a widespread cholera - epidemic . The epidemic broke out earlier in the Prussian army, which advanced to Austria during the German War . The pathogen is also raging in Lower Austria, killing around 15,000 people by November.
- September 26 to October 5: The Great Nassau Hurricane of 1866 killed at least 383 people. The city of Nassau in the Bahamas is completely destroyed.
- December 9th: In the Daimiel railway accident , the individually driving pilot machine drives into a crowd standing on the platform in front of Queen Isabella II's train in the train station in Daimiel, Ciudad Real province. Seven people are killed and 27 injured.
- DECEMBER 12: In two explosions in a coal mine The Oaks Colliery in Barnsley die a total of 388 miners. It is the second worst mining disaster in UK history.
Minor accidents are listed in the sub-articles of Disaster .
nature and environment
- June 9: North of the village of Knjahynja , the Knyahinya meteorite , which weighs around 500 kg, hits the northeast of Austria-Hungary, today's Ukraine. For a long time it is considered to be the heaviest meteorite in historical time. It is first described by the Austrian geologist Wilhelm Ritter von Haidinger and assigned to the group of chondrites .
- February 7th: The Hamburg rowing club Allemannia is founded.
- The first verifiable derby in football history will take place between local rivals Nottingham Forest and Notts County FC .
- The first Elm mountain gymnastics festival is held.
- Charles-Maurice Couyba , French politician and writer († 1931) January 1:
- Louis Abbiate , French composer and cellist († 1933) January 4th:
- Avedis Aharonian , Armenian politician, revolutionary and writer († 1948) January 4:
- Ramon Casas i Carbó , Catalan painter and graphic artist († 1932) January 4th:
- Joel Hastings Metcalf , American astronomer († 1925) January 4:
- António Maria Baptista , Prime Minister of Portugal († 1920) January 5:
- William G. Conley , American politician († 1940) January 8:
- Robert Leffler , German singer, actor and director († 1940) January 9:
- Tom von Prince , German colonial officer († 1914) January 9:
- January 10: Ludwig Aschoff , German pathologist († 1942)
- January 11: Laurentia McLachlan , Scottish Benedictine nun and abbess of Stanbrook Monastery († 1953)
- January 13: Wassili Sergejewitsch Kalinnikow , Russian composer († 1901)
- January 15: Ernest Martin Skinner , American organ builder († 1960)
- January 15: Lars Olof Jonathan "Nathan" Söderblom , Swedish theologian and Nobel Peace Prize Laureate († 1931)
- January 16: Percy Sinclar Pilcher , British inventor and aviation pioneer, († 1899)
- January 19: Harry Davenport , American actor († 1949)
- January 19: Karl Heckmann , German homeland researcher († 1943)
- January 19: Wilhelm Idel , German homeland researcher and poet († 1927)
- January 19: Charlotte Wilhelmine Niels , German painter († 1943)
- January 20: Johannes Werthauer , German lawyer and criminal law reformer († 1938)
- January 22nd: Michael Berolzheimer , German entrepreneur, lawyer and art collector († 1942)
- January 25: Antonio Scotti , Italian singer (baritone) († 1936)
- January 27: Heinrich Seufferheld , German draftsman, painter and etcher († 1940)
- Hellmut von Gerlach , German politician and publicist († 1935) February 2:
- Gustav Pauli , German art historian and museum director in Bremen and Hamburg († 1938) February 2:
- Fabio Fiallo , Dominican politician, diplomat, journalist and writer († 1942) February 3:
- Rosetter Gleason Cole , American composer († 1952) February 5:
- Henri Letocart , French organist and composer († 1945) February 6:
- Anton Schott , Austrian writer († 1945) February 8:
- George Ade , American writer († 1944) February 9:
- Alexandre-François-Louis Cailler , Swiss entrepreneur and member of the National Council († 1936) February 9:
- Claire Heliot , German animal tamer and animal trainer († 1953) February 9:
- Eduard Thöny , Austrian draftsman, caricaturist and painter († 1950) February 9:
- February 10: Bror Beckman , Swedish composer († 1929)
- February 13: Hugo Röhr , German composer († 1937)
- February 14: William Townley , English football player and coach († 1950)
- February 15: Paolo Troubetzkoy , Italian-Russian sculptor († 1938)
- February 16: Max von Guilleaume , German regatta sailor and entrepreneur († 1932)
- February 16: Paul Freiherr von Schoenaich , German major general, later pacifist († 1954)
- February 17: Henry Hollis Horton , American politician, Governor of Tennessee († 1934)
- February 17: David F. Houston , American politician († 1940)
- February 19: Thomas Jefferson Jackson See , American astronomer († 1962)
- February 20: Carl Westman , Swedish architect († 1936)
- February 21: August von Wassermann , German immunologist and bacteriologist († 1925)
- February 22nd: Curt Grottewitz , German scientist, writer and Germanist († 1905)
- February 25: Benedetto Croce , Italian philosopher, historian and politician († 1952)
- February 25: Heinrich Kühn , Austrian photographer († 1944)
- February 26: Herbert Henry Dow , Canadian chemist and industrialist († 1930)
- February 26: Aurelio Galli , Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1929)
- William M. Kavanaugh , American politician († 1915) March 3:
- Franz Biener , German politician († 1940) March 4:
- Hans Christiansen , German painter and craftsman († 1945) March 6:
- Paul Ernst , German writer and playwright († 1933) March 7:
- Theodor Christian Hermann Ahlrichs , German theologian († 1937) March 9:
- March 11: Charles Philippe Théodore Andler , French German studies specialist and professor († 1933)
- March 12: Franz Rudolf Bornewasser , Bishop of Trier († 1951)
- March 12: Leopold van Itallie , Dutch pharmacologist and toxicologist († 1952)
- March 15: Keshavsut , Indian Marathi poet († 1905)
- March 17th: Alice Austen , American photographer († 1952)
- March 21: Carl Hosius , German classical philologist († 1937)
- March 21: Antonia Maury , astronomer († 1952)
- March 21: Ilse Ohnesorge , Saxon native painter († 1937)
- March 24th: Johann Nepomuk Hauser , Austrian politician and prelate († 1927)
- March 25: John Ponsonby , British general and division commander in World War I († 1952)
- March 26th: Fred Karno , actually Frederick John Westcott, British theater owner († 1941)
- March 26: Carl Christian Mez , German botanist and university professor († 1944)
- March 27: Oskar Bidder , German-Baltic pastor and Protestant confessor († 1919)
- March 27: Andon Zako Çajupi , Albanian writer and translator († 1930)
- March 28: Max Bendix , American violinist and conductor († 1945)
- March 29: Fritz Arnheim , German historian († 1922)
- Ferruccio Busoni , Italian pianist, composer, conductor and music teacher († 1924) April 1:
- Barry Hertzog , South African general and politician († 1942) April 3:
- Anne Sullivan Macy , American teacher of blind children († 1936) April 4:
- Anna Wendland , German local historian, historian, local writer and editor († 1955) April 4:
- Lincoln Steffens , American journalist († 1936) April 6:
- Hans Georg von Doering , German officer and colonial official († 1921) April 7th:
- Erik Ivar Fredholm , Swedish professor of mathematics († 1927) April 7:
- Richard Reisch , Austrian politician and lawyer († 1938) April 7:
- Fritz Mackensen , German painter († 1953) April 8:
- April 10: Theodor Lerner , German journalist and polar researcher († 1931)
- April 12: Alexander Ulyanov , brother of Lenin († 1887)
- April 13: Butch Cassidy , American outlaw († 1908)
- April 14: Felix-Raymond-Marie Rouleau , Archbishop of Québec and Cardinal († 1931)
- April 15: Robert Livingston Beeckman , American politician († 1935)
- April 16: Rufin Steimer , Swiss Capuchin preacher and historian († 1928)
- April 18: Jean-Marie Degoutte , French general († 1938)
- April 19: Henri Deterding , Dutch industrialist († 1939)
- April 20: Victor Hollaender , German composer and conductor († 1940)
- April 22nd: Otto Gleim , German governor of Cameroon († 1929)
- April 22nd: Hans von Seeckt , German Colonel General of the Reichswehr († 1936)
- April 24: Ishii Kikujirō , Japanese diplomat and politician († 1945)
- April 25: Paul O. Husting , American politician († 1917)
- April 26: Rudolf Ganßer , German colonial officer († 1904)
- April 29: Siegmund Auerbach , German neurologist († 1923)
- April 29th: Friedrich Veiel , German evangelical-pietist clergyman, missionary, inspector and head of the St. Chrischona pilgrimage mission († 1950)
- Albrecht Dieterich , German classical philologist († 1908) May 2:
- Richard von Kehler , German balloonist, airship pioneer, military († 1943) May 3:
- Jóannes Patursson , Faroese farmer, poet and nationalist politician († 1946) May 6:
- May 10: Bruno Ablaß , German politician († 1942)
- May 11: Adolf Heinrich August von Achenbach , Prussian politician († 1951)
- May 12: Gustav Adolf von Götzen , German officer and Africa explorer († 1910)
- May 13: Lucy Berthet , Belgian opera singer († 1919)
- May 13: Jenny Eakin Delony , American painter and teacher († 1949)
- May 13: Ottokar Nováček , Czech composer († 1900)
- May 14: Edgar Jaffé , German politician († 1921)
- May 15: Reinhard Süring , German meteorologist († 1950)
- May 17: John William Abercrombie , American lawyer and politician († 1940)
- May 17: Julian Balthasar Marchlewski , Polish politician and co-founder of the Spartakusbund († 1925)
- May 17: Erik Satie , French composer and pianist († 1925)
- May 18: Fritz Ahrberg , German entrepreneur († 1959)
- May 19: Adalbert Hock , German painter († 1949)
- May 23: Gustav Aschaffenburg , German psychiatrist († 1944)
- May 25: Johann Auinger , Austrian politician († 1943)
- May 28: Franz von Bayros , Austrian graphic artist († 1924)
- May 29: Carlo Liviero , Italian bishop, beatified in 2007 († 1932)
- May 30th: Fernand Charron , French cyclist and automobile racing driver († 1928)
- May 30: Rudolf Kissinger , German pastor, teacher, local researcher, club and association functionary († 1944)
- May 31: Karl Lohmann , German lawyer and politician († 1946)
- May 31: Vladimir Ivanovich Rebikov , Russian composer († 1920)
- May 31: Curt Stage , German Protestant theologian († 1931)
- Georg Steinhausen , German librarian and cultural scientist († 1933) June 2:
- Émile Kraeutler , Franco-German automobile racing driver († unknown) June 3:
- Hermann Joseph Sträter , auxiliary bishop in Cologne and Aachen († 1943) June 3:
- Wilhelm Wandschneider , German sculptor († 1942) June 6:
- Ernest William Hornung , English crime novelist († 1921) June 7th:
- Hedwig Andersen , German speech therapist († 1957) June 9:
- Karl Theodor Boehme , German naval and landscape painter († 1939) June 9:
- Felix Ortt , Dutch author, philosopher and anarchist († 1959) June 9:
- June 12: Alwin Brandes , German politician and union leader († 1949)
- June 13: Aby Warburg , German art historian and cultural scientist († 1929)
- June 15: Charles Wood , Irish composer († 1926)
- June 25: Hubert Knackfuß , German building researcher and archaeologist († 1948)
- June 26: George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon , English aristocrat, adventurer and amateur archaeologist († 1923)
- June 27: Else Lehmann , German actress († 1940)
- June 29: Erich Adickes , German philosopher († 1928)
- June 29: Ignaz Rohr , German Catholic theologian († 1944)
- Josef Albert Amann junior , German gynecologist († 1919) July 1:
- Albert Gottschalk , Danish painter († 1906) July 3:
- Marija Petrovna Lilina , Russian theater actress († 1943) July 3:
- Victor Karl Theodor Michels , German specialist in German († 1929) July 3:
- Octaviano Pereira de Albuquerque , Brazilian clergyman and Roman Catholic Bishop of Campos († 1949) July 3:
- Walter Troeltsch , national economist in Marburg († 1933) July 6:
- July 11: Richard Beer-Hofmann , Austrian playwright and poet († 1945)
- July 12: Emiliano Figueroa Larraín , Chilean politician and president († 1931)
- July 12: La Goulue , French can-can dancer and tamer († 1929)
- July 13: Anacleto de Medeiros , Brazilian composer († 1907)
- July 14: Ragnar Östberg , Swedish architect († 1945)
- July 14: Miguel Ventura Terra , Portuguese architect and politician († 1919)
- July 14: Juliette Wytsman , Belgian landscape painter († 1925)
- July 17: Gaston Thierry , German officer and colonial official († 1904)
- July 22nd: Ida Giesecke , German painter († 1931)
- July 23: Albert Albert , German film producer († after 1927)
- July 23: Francesco Cilea , Italian composer and music teacher († 1950)
- July 21: Victor Franke , Commander of the Imperial Protection Force in German South West Africa († 1936)
- July 25: Wilhelm Holle , German administrative lawyer and politician, Lord Mayor of Essen († 1945)
- July 26: Militza of Montenegro , princess from the House of Petrović-Njegoš and Russian Grand Duchess († 1951)
- July 27: António José de Almeida , Portuguese politician († 1929)
- July 28th: Beatrix Potter , English children's author and illustrator. († 1943)
- Charles Francis Adams , American politician († 1954) August 2:
- Adrien de Gerlache de Gomery , Belgian polar explorer († 1934) August 2:
- Anna Blos , German politician (SPD) and women's rights activist († 1933) August 4:
- Carl Dietrich Harries , German chemist († 1923) August 5:
- Allan Lard , American golfer († 1946) August 6:
- Ferdinando Rodolfi , Italian bishop († 1943) August 7:
- Maximilian Weber , German mineralogist and geologist († 1944) August 8:
- Kuroda Seiki , Japanese painter and politician († 1924) August 9:
- Alban Lipp , German teacher, church musician and composer († 1903) August 9:
- August 10: Paul Felix Atenstädt , German classical philologist and high school teacher († 1943)
- August 12: Jacinto Benavente , Spanish playwright and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature († 1954)
- August 12: Brynolf Wennerberg , Swedish poster artist and painter († 1950)
- August 13: Giovanni Agnelli , Italian entrepreneur († 1945)
- August 16: Rudolf Greinz , Austrian writer († 1942)
- August 17th: Asaf Jah VI. , Prince of Hyderabad († 1911)
- August 20: Eduard Philipp Arnold , German architect, lecturer and author († 1934)
- August 21: Franz Salvator of Austria-Tuscany , Austrian Archduke († 1939)
- August 22nd: Paul Aust , German landscape painter, graphic artist and writer († 1934)
- August 24: Josef Jarno , Austrian actor and theater director († 1932)
- August 26: Peäro August Pitka , Estonian writer († 1915)
- August 29: Hermann Löns , German journalist and writer († 1914)
- August 31: Elizabeth von Arnim , German writer († 1941)
- August 31: Georg Arthur Jensen , Danish artist († 1935)
- Friedrich Wilhelm Mader , German writer of future and adventure novels († 1945) September 1:
- Jordan Mai , German Franciscan († 1922) September 1:
- Hiram Johnson , American politician, Governor of California († 1945) September 2:
- Alfred Körte , German classical philologist († 1946) September 5:
- Selly Askanazy , German doctor († 1940) September 8:
- September 10: Jeppe Aakjær , Danish writer († 1930)
- September 10: Tor Aulin , Swedish composer († 1914)
- September 10: Gottlieb August Crüwell , Austrian historian, writer and librarian († 1931)
- September 12: George Walter Caldwell , American ENT doctor, painter and writer († 1946)
- September 13: Guy D. Goff , American politician († 1933)
- September 16: Georg Voigt , Lord Mayor of Frankfurt am Main († 1927)
- September 17th: Valentino Del Fabbro , Italian entrepreneur († 1915)
- September 17: Alice Guszalewicz , Hungarian opera singer († 1940)
- September 19: Ambrose Carmichael , Australian politician († 1953)
- September 20: Ferdinand Lot , French historian († 1952)
- September 21: Charles Nicolle , French doctor and microbiologist († 1936)
- September 21: HG Wells , English writer († 1946)
- September 25: Thomas Hunt Morgan , American zoologist and geneticist († 1945)
- September 26: Aurelio Silva , Chilean violinist and music teacher († 1923)
- September 27: Tryggve Andersen , Norwegian writer († 1920)
- September 27: Wacław Rolicz songs , Polish poet († 1912)
- September 29: Georg Michael Martin Hubert von Arnswaldt , German forester and conservationist († 1952)
- September 29: JE Casely Hayford , Ghanaian politician, lawyer and writer († 1930)
- September 29: Mychajlo Hruschewskyj , politician and activist in the Ukrainian national movement († 1934)
- September 30th: Margarete von Vahsel , German theater actress and opera singer († 1922)
- Isabelle Kaiser , Swiss writer († 1925) October 1:
- Friedrich Grützmacher , German cellist († 1919) October 2:
- Marie Brandis , Austrian opera singer († 1906) October 3:
- Evaristo Lucidi , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1929) October 4:
- Hans Hausrath , German forest scientist († 1945) October 5:
- Nina Bang , Danish politician and first female Danish minister († 1928) October 6:
- Heinrich Federer , Swiss writer († 1928) October 6:
- Reginald Fessenden , Canadian inventor and broadcasting pioneer († 1932) October 6:
- Wladimir Ledóchowski , Polish nobleman († 1942) October 7:
- Francisco Bertrand , President of Honduras († 1926) October 9:
- Emine Nazikeda , last Ottoman sultan's wife († 1941) October 9:
- October 10: Ferdinand Schneider , German engineer, entrepreneur and inventor († 1955)
- October 11: Carlos Arniches y Barrera, Spanish playwright and writer († 1943)
- October 11: Johannes Petrus Kuenen , Dutch physicist († 1922)
- October 11: Gustav Neuhaus , German lawyer and linguist († 1942)
- October 12: Ramsay MacDonald , British politician and Prime Minister († 1937)
- October 12: Johannes Sassenbach , German trade unionist († 1940)
- October 13: Georg Groddeck , German psychosomaticist and writer († 1934)
- October 15: Laura Lemon , Canadian composer and pianist († 1924)
- October 15: Konishiki Yasokichi , Japanese sumo wrestler and 17th yokozuna († 1914)
- October 19: Clarence Lucas , Canadian composer, conductor and music teacher († 1947)
- October 19: Jacqueline Marval , French painter († 1932)
- October 20: Josef Gruntzel , Austrian economist († 1934)
- October 25: Georg Schumann , German composer, conductor, music teacher, professor, director of the Sing-Akademie zu Berlin († 1952)
- October 25: Theodor Siebert , German strength athlete, author and life reformer, pioneer of bodybuilding and modern weightlifting († 1961)
- October 27: Franz Saran , German Germanist († 1931)
- October 28: Elsa Bernstein , German theater poet († 1949)
- October 29: Georg Engel , German writer († 1931)
- October 29: Sam Eyde , Norwegian engineer and industrialist († 1940)
- October 29: Dmitri Pawlowitsch Parski , Russian general († 1921)
- October 29: Gustav Witt , German astronomer († 1946)
- October 30: Charles William Andrews , British vertebrate paleontologist, zoologist and botanist († 1924)
- October 30: Sophie Schneider , German painter († 1942)
- October 31: Eva von Tiele-Winckler , German deaconess († 1930)
- Fritz Hofmann , German chemist († 1956) November 2:
- Carlo Cremonesi , Italian Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1943) November 4:
- George Milne, 1st Baron Milne , British Field Marshal and Chief of the Imperial General Staff († 1948) November 5:
- Karl Glässing , Lord Mayor of Wiesbaden, Chief Finance President in Darmstadt († 1952) November 6th:
- Paul Schreckenbach , German pastor and writer († 1922) November 6th:
- Paul Lincke , German composer and Kapellmeister († 1946) November 7th:
- Herbert Austin , English industrialist and politician († 1941) November 8:
- Heinrich Rippler , German writer, journalist and politician († 1934) November 8:
- Ferdinand Hanusch , Austrian social reformer († 1923) November 9:
- Florence Prag Kahn , American politician († 1948) November 9:
- November 11th: Antoine Meillet , French linguist († 1936)
- November 12: Sun Yat-sen , first Chinese President († 1925)
- November 14th: Leopold Andres , Austrian general, cartographer and geodesist († 1950)
- November 15: Gervase Elwes , English singer († 1921)
- November 16: Georg Gradnauer , German politician († 1946)
- November 21: Sigbjørn Obstfelder , Norwegian writer († 1900)
- November 22: Oskar Messter , German film pioneer († 1943)
- November 24: Swan Hennessy , Irish-American composer († 1929)
- November 25th: Franjo Bučar , Croatian writer and sports official; Father of Olympic Sports in Croatia († 1946)
- November 26th: Andreas Bauer , Catholic monk, missionary and martyr from Alsace († 1900)
- November 28: Siegfried Passarge , German geographer († 1958)
- November 29: Waldemar von Baußnern , German composer and music teacher († 1931)
- November 29: Charles Gilibert , French singer († 1910)
- Jean Francis Auburtin , French painter († 1930) December 2:
- Harry T. Burleigh , American composer († 1949) December 2:
- December 10: Karl Maria Wiligut , National Socialist esotericist († 1946)
- December 10: Emilio Zanini , Swiss teacher and writer († 1922)
- December 12: Alfred Werner , Swiss chemist († 1919)
- December 13: Georg Droste , poet and writer from Bremen († 1935)
- December 14: Roger Fry , English painter and art critic († 1934)
- December 16: Wassily Kandinsky , Russian painter and graphic artist († 1944)
- December 17: Mario García Menocal , Cuban President († 1941)
- December 17: Giovanni Mercati , Italian Roman Catholic Cardinal († 1957)
- December 21: Maud Gonne , Irish revolutionary († 1953)
- December 21: Rudolf von Tavel , Swiss journalist and book author († 1934)
- December 22nd: Mieczysław Surzyński , Polish organist and composer († 1924)
- December 23: Boris Schatz , Jewish sculptor, painter and teacher († 1932)
- December 25: Friedrich Ackermann , German politician († 1931)
- December 25: John Marshall Slaton , American politician († 1955)
- December 25: Max Wien , German physicist († 1938)
- December 26: John Devey , English football player († 1940)
- December 28: Szymon Askenazy , Polish historian, diplomat and politician († 1935)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Domingo Brescia , Italian composer († 1939)
- Giuseppe Carboni , Canadian singing teacher, conductor and composer († 1934)
- Marie Dalldorf , German theater and silent film actress († 1938)
- Fortunato Pereira Gamba , Colombian engineer and professor († 1936)
- Arthur Cyprian Harper , American politician, Mayor of Los Angeles († 1948)
- Ricardo Richon Brunet , Chilean painter and art critic († 1946)
- Friedrich August Schmidt , German porcelain and portrait painter and lithographer (* 1796) January 5:
- Paul Emil Jacobs , Gotha painter (* 1802) January 6:
- Louis Antoine Ponchard , French opera singer (* 1787) January 6th:
- Carl von Heyden , German politician and entomologist (* 1793) January 7th:
- Pinklao , Uparat (viceroy) of Siam (* 1808) January 7th:
- Krikor Bedros VIII. The Asdvadzadourian , Armenian Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia January 9:
- January 15: Rudolf von Auerswald , Prussian civil servant, minister and prime minister (* 1795)
- January 15: Massimo d'Azeglio , Italian writer, painter and politician (* 1798)
- January 16: Marianne von Rohden , German painter (* 1785)
- January 20: Georg Kaspar Nagler , German art historian and art writer (* 1801)
- January 23: Peter Joseph Lenné , German gardener and landscape architect (* 1789)
- January 23: Thomas Love Peacock , British novelist, poet and playwright (* 1785)
- January 23: Wilhelm Wachsmuth , German historical researcher (* 1784)
- January 25: Minna Wagner , German actress and first wife of Richard Wagner (* 1809)
- January 26: Elise Czabon , Hungarian-Austrian opera singer (* 1801)
- January 26th: Robert Foulis , Scottish inventor (* 1796)
- January 26: André Bienvenu Roman , American politician (* 1795)
- January 27: John Gibson , English sculptor (* 1790)
- January 27: Hermann Christian Tobias Krogmann , Hamburg businessman and politician (* 1797)
- January 31: Friedrich Rückert , German poet, translator and orientalist (* 1788)
- Léopold Aimon , French composer (* 1779) February 2:
- Joseph Kupelwieser , Austrian theater poet (* 1791) February 2:
- Eduard Blösch , Swiss conservative politician (* 1807) February 7th:
- Georg von Thurn and Valsassina , Imperial Austrian Feldzeugmeister (* 1788) February 9:
- February 15: Gesine Wencke , German shipbuilding entrepreneur (* 1807)
- February 17th: Adolf Wichmann , German painter (* 1820)
- February 18: Ferdinand Wolf , Austrian Romanist (* 1796)
- February 21: Manuel Felipe de Tovar , President of Venezuela (* 1803)
- February 24: Bernhard Rudolf Abeken , German philologist and schoolboy (* 1780)
- February 27: Rodolphe Soutter , Swiss politician (* 1789)
- February 28: Henryk Rzewuski , Polish writer (* 1791)
- Félix Danjou , French organist, composer and musicologist (* 1812) March 4:
- Ignaz Paul Vital Troxler , Swiss doctor, politician and philosopher (* 1780) March 6th:
- March 14: Jared Sparks , American historian (* 1789)
- March 19: Louis Clapisson , French composer (* 1808)
- March 19: Leopold Mayr , Austrian court builder, architect and local politician (* 1808)
- March 20: Rikard Nordraak , Norwegian composer (* 1842)
- March 21: Giovanni Gentiluomo , Austrian academic painter, opera singer and singing teacher (* 1809)
- March 23: Ferdinand von Arnim , German architect and construction officer (* 1814)
- March 24: Ferdinand Heinrich Friedrich , General and last Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg (* 1783)
- March 24th: Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily , Queen of the French (* 1782)
- March 28: Solomon Foot , American politician (* 1802)
- March 30th: John McDougal , American politician (* 1818)
- Chester Harding , American portrait painter (* 1792) April 1:
- Elizabeth Jesser Reid , English social reformer, abolitionist and suffragette, founder of Bedford College (* 1789) April 1:
- Johann von Uslar , Colonel, Commander of the Bolívars Guard Grenadiers, Military Governor and Commanding General of the Republic of Venezuela (* 1779) April 1:
- Nadeschda Andrejewna Durowa , Russian cavalryman and author (* 1783) April 2:
- August Fischer , Prussian sculptor and medalist (* 1805) April 2:
- Simon Leborne , French composer and music teacher (* 1797) April 2:
- Therese Dessoir , German actress (* 1810) April 7th:
- Matthew Harvey , American politician (* 1781) April 7:
- April 11: Christian Gottlieb Cantian , German stonemason and master builder (* 1794)
- April 11: Julie Rettich , German-Austrian actress (* 1809)
- April 12: Daniel S. Dickinson , American politician (* 1800)
- April 12: Jules Holzapffel , French painter (* 1826)
- April 13: Johann Philipp August Bunge , German architect (* 1774)
- April 13: August Canzi , Austrian painter, lithographer and photographer (* 1808)
- April 14th: Wilhelmine Kofler , Bozen benefactress (* 1802)
- April 17: Karl Georg Enslen , German painter (* 1792)
- April 20: Stanisław Hernisz , Jewish-Polish freedom fighter and writer (* around 1805)
- April 21: Jane Welsh Carlyle , British salonnière, letter author and wife of Thomas Carlyle (* 1801)
- April 21: Franz Hessenland , German print shop owner, publisher and politician (* 1798)
- April 21: Friedrich Wilhelm Otto , German classical philologist (* 1805)
- April 21: Josef Rattensperger , Salzburg painter (* 1807)
- April 22: Henry Watkins Allen , Governor of the US state Louisiana and Brigadier General of the Confederate Army in the Civil War (* 1820)
- April 23: Charles Grant, 1st Baron Glenelg , Scottish politician (* 1778)
- April 24th: Anastasius Hartmann , Swiss Capuchin, missionary in India, titular bishop and apostolic vicar of Patna and Bombay (* 1803)
- April 24: Giuseppe Tominz , Italian painter (* 1790)
- April 26: Friedrich Meurer , German pharmacologist and physician (* 1792)
- April 27: Anton Depauly , Bohemian-Austrian portrait painter (* 1801)
- Bernhard Peters , German painter, draftsman and drawing teacher (* 1817) May 2:
- Ferdinand Cohen-Blind , Prussian student, carried out an assassination attempt on Otto von Bismarck (* 1844) May 8:
- May 10: Ivan Wahylevytsch , Ukrainian poet, writer, historian of Ukrainian literature, philologist and clergyman (* 1811)
- May 11: George Edmund Badger , American politician (* 1795)
- May 16: Jean Baptiste Charbonneau , he accompanied the Lewis and Clark Expedition as a toddler (* 1805)
- May 17: Adolf Bernhard Marx , German composer and musicologist (* 1795)
- May 21: Auguste Emma d'Este , English nobleman, Baroness Truro of Bowes (* 1801)
- May 21: Paul III. Anton Esterházy de Galantha , Hungarian nobleman and diplomat (* 1786)
- May 22nd: Thomas Bradley Harris , American businessman and co-founder of the American colony "Ellena" on the island of Borneo (* 1826)
- May 24th: Louis Philippe Marie Léopold d'Orléans, prince de Condé , French nobleman (* 1845)
- May 29: Winfield Scott , American military officer and Commander in Chief (* 1786)
- May 30th: Johann Baptist Pflug , German painter (* 1785)
- Luisa Caceres Díaz de Arismendi , Venezuelan national heroine (* 1799) June 2:
- John McDouall Stuart , Scottish geometer and explorer in Australia (* 1815) June 5th:
- Seattle , chief of the Suquamish and Duwamish, two tribes of the coastal Salish (* around 1786) June 7th:
- Wilhelm Schirmer , German painter (* 1802) June 8:
- Rudolf Emanuel Stierlin , Swiss Protestant clergyman and local researcher (* 1779) June 8:
- June 11: Theodor Kotschy , Austrian botanist (* 1813)
- June 17: Lewis Cass , American politician (* 1782)
- June 20: Ludwig Adolf Friedrich zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn , Russian nobleman and field marshal (* 1799)
- June 21: Louis Étienne Watelet , French painter (* 1780)
- June 24th: Wilhelm Ferdinand Ermeler , German industrialist and Privy Councilor of Commerce (* 1784)
- 29./30. June: Frank Howard , English painter, lithographer and art writer (* 1805)
- June 30: Johann Konrad Dorner , German painter (* 1809)
- Francisco Armero y Peñaranda , Spanish lieutenant general and politician, Prime Minister of Spain (* 1804) July 2nd:
- Antônio de Sousa Neto , Brazilian military, revolutionary and politician (* 1803) July 2:
- Adolph Diesterweg , German educator and founder of the publishing house (* 1790) July 7th:
- July 10: Carl Christian Leberecht Schmidtgen , German singer, conductor and composer (* 1796)
- July 20: Alfredo Cappellini , Italian naval officer (* 1828)
- July 20: Emilio Faà di Bruno , Italian naval officer (* 1820)
- July 20: Bernhard Riemann , German mathematician (* 1826)
- July 24: Karl Konstanz Viktor Fellner , Mayor of the Free City of Frankfurt (* 1807)
- July 25: Floride Calhoun , American "Second Lady" (* 1792)
- July 25: Claude Paris , French composer (* 1808)
- July 26: Ernst Helbig , German painter and Wernigerode court painter (* 1802)
- July 28: Frédéric-Auguste Quesnel , Canadian politician (* 1785)
- July 29th: Moriz Heider , Austrian dentist (* 1816)
- July 30th: Gábor Egressy , Hungarian actor (* 1808)
- Luigi Carlo Farini , Italian politician, Prime Minister of Italy (* 1812) August 1:
- Guwisguwi , Supreme Chief of the Cherokee People (* 1790) August 1:
- Peter Friedrich Arndt , German mathematician (* 1817) August 2:
- Eduard Genast , German opera singer, actor, composer, theater director and director (* 1797) August 3:
- Friedrich Karl Hermann Kruse , German historian (* 1790) August 3:
- William Burton , American politician (* 1789) August 5:
- August 12: Henry Connelly , American politician (* 1800)
- August 15: Karl Gustav Amelung , German mountain official (* 1818)
- August 15: Carlos Coolidge , American politician (* 1792)
- August 20: Karl Ludwig Seeger , German painter (* 1808)
- August 21: Antonio Gazzoletti , Italian lawyer and poet (* 1813)
- August 25: Anna Lühring , Prussian soldier (* 1796)
- August 26: Joseph Weydemeyer , military in Prussia and the USA, journalist, newspaper editor, politician and Marxist revolutionary (* 1818)
- August 27: John Pierpont , American poet, teacher, lawyer, merchant and clergyman of the Unitarians (* 1785)
- August 27: Marie Stein , Russian-German actress (* before 1846)
- August 29: Tokugawa Iemochi , daimyo of Wakayama-han and Shogun of Japan (* 1846)
- August 30th: Louis Le Breton , French medic and painter (* 1818)
- August 31: Valentín Ferraz , Spanish lieutenant general, politician and Prime Minister of Spain (* 1794)
- Eugène Walckiers , French flautist and composer (* 1793) September 1:
- Therese Pulszky , Austro-Hungarian writer (* 1819) September 2:
- Anton Philipp Berg , German singer and actor (* 1795) September 3:
- Dmitri Wladimirowitsch Karakosow , Russian nobleman and assassin (* 1840) September 3:
- Joseph Pröbstl , German organ builder (* 1798) September 3:
- Matthias William Baldwin , American industrialist (* 1795) September 7th:
- Friedrich Beckmann , German comedian (* 1803) September 7th:
- Clement Comer Clay , American politician (* 1789) September 7th:
- Gregor Czuczor , Hungarian writer and Benedictine (* 1800) September 9:
- September 10: Hermann Mayer Salomon Goldschmidt , German-French astronomer and painter (* 1802)
- September 10: Mikhail Nikolajewitsch Murawjow-Wilenski , Russian military and statesman, chairman of the investigation commission against Dmitri Karakosow (* 1796)
- September 10th: Louise von Sturmfeder , Austrian lady-in-waiting, educator of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria, his brother Emperor Maximilian of Mexico and their siblings (* 1789)
- September 11th: Ernst Wilhelm Straßberger , German painter, draftsman and lithographer (* 1796)
- September 13: Justus du Vignau , Prussian civil servant, district president of the administrative district of Erfurt (* 1793)
- September 14: Léon Gozlan , French writer (* 1803)
- September 14th: Johann Adolph Steinberger , Lord Mayor of the City of Cologne (* 1777)
- September 15: Konstantin Dmitrijewitsch Flawizki , Russian painter (* 1830)
- September 15: Augustus Addison Gould , American conchologist and malacologist (* 1805)
- September 17th: Arnold Schlönbach , German writer (* 1817)
- September 20: Fritz L'Allemand , Austrian painter (* 1812)
- September 21: Ulric Guttinguer , French writer (* 1785)
- September 21: Karl Ludwig Hencke , German amateur astronomer (* 1793)
- September 22nd: Heinrich Philipp August Damerow , German medic (* 1798)
- September 25: Florentino Castellanos , Uruguayan lawyer and politician (* 1809)
- September 25: Hans Wilhelm von Schack , Prussian general, governor general of the Saxon states under Prussian administration and heir to Stechau (* 1791)
- September 26: Carl Jonas Love Almqvist , Swedish writer and composer (* 1793)
- Henry Cornelius Burnett , American politician (* 1825) October 1:
- Johann Anton Ramboux , German painter and lithographer (* 1790) October 2:
- Carl Gollmick , German music critic and composer (* 1796) October 3:
- Andreas Leonhardt , Bohemian-Austrian musician, composer and Kapellmeister (* 1800) October 3:
- Peter Nothjung , German tailor and activist of the early labor movement (* 1821) October 4:
- Wilhelm Langschmidt , German-South African painter and city founder (* 1805) October 5:
- Jakob Götzenberger , German painter (* 1802) October 6:
- Isaak Hess , German bookseller and antiquarian (* 1789) October 6:
- Louise Seidler , German painter and confidante of Goethe (* 1786) October 7th:
- Robert Field Stockton , American politician (* 1795) October 7th:
- October 10: Rudolf Anger , German theologian and philosopher (* 1806)
- October 10: Adam Darr , German guitarist, composer and zither player (* 1811)
- October 12: Karlmann Tangl , Austrian classical philologist and historian (* 1799)
- October 13: Celadon Daboll , American inventor (* 1818)
- October 13: Friedrich Wilhelm Dankberg , German sculptor and plasterer (* 1819)
- October 18: Manuel Bulnes Prieto , Chilean politician and general (* 1799)
- October 18: George Augustus Robinson , English missionary in Tasmania, Chief Protector of Aborigines (* 1791)
- October 18: Philipp Franz von Siebold , German doctor, Japanese and natural scientist (* 1796)
- October 24: Johann Wilhelm von Müller , German zoologist, explorer and author (* 1824)
- October 29: James P. Beckwourth , American slave, trapper, Indian chief, soldier, entrepreneur and scout (* 1798 or 1800)
- October 30: Nikolai Nikolajewitsch Murawjow , Russian general (* 1794)
- William Wright , American politician (* 1794) November 1:
- Johann Jakob Aenishänslin , Swiss politician (* 1796) November 3:
- Nikolai Borissowitsch Golitsyn , Russian nobleman, music lover and patron (* 1794) November 3:
- Joshua George Beard , Canadian politician, Mayor of Toronto (* 1797) November 9:
- Karl August Brodrück , Hessian officer and military historian (* 1815) November 9:
- November 14: Michael I , King of Portugal (* 1802)
- November 16: Johann Nepomuk Vogl , Austrian writer, poet and publicist (* 1802)
- November 19: Johann Baptist Kirner , German painter (* 1806)
- November 21: Johann Georg Schaedler , German painter, etcher and lithographer (* 1777)
- November 23: Paul Gavarni , French draftsman, graphic artist and caricaturist (* 1804)
- November 23: Cave Johnson , American politician (* 1793)
- November 26th: Karl Johann Braun von Braunthal , Austrian writer (* 1802)
- November 26: Adrien-François Servais , Belgian cellist and composer (* 1807)
- November 29th: Sophie Löwe , German opera singer (* 1815)
- November 30th: John Mercer , English chemist (* 1791)
- William Cotton , English inventor, businessman, philanthropist and director of the Bank of England (* 1786) December 1:
- Jules Demersseman , French flautist and composer (* 1833) December 1st:
- George Everest , British engineer (* 1790) December 1:
- Friedrich Kaufmann , Saxon watchmaker and musical instrument maker (* 1785) December 1st:
- Joseph Strauss , Austrian violin virtuoso, composer and conductor (* 1793) December 2:
- Edward Hincks , Irish Assyriologist and one of the first decipherers of the cuneiform script (* 1792) December 3:
- Johann Wenzel Kalliwoda , Bohemian composer, conductor and violinist (* 1801) December 3:
- Ernst von Pfuel , Prussian General, Commander of the City of Cologne and the Prussian Sector of Paris, Governor of the Principality of Neuchâtel, Governor of Berlin and Prussian Prime Minister and Minister of War (* 1779) December 3:
- Han Mahmud , Kurdish prince in Müküs December 4th:
- Karl Pfaff , German educator, historian and singer father (* 1795) December 6th:
- Gaspar Betancourt Cisneros , Cuban entrepreneur and author (* 1803) December 7th:
- Gottlieb Pfeilsticker , German architect (* 1811) December 9:
- December 16: Leonhard Zeugheer , Swiss architect (* 1812)
- December 18: Theodor Zschokke , Swiss doctor and naturalist (* 1806)
- December 20: James Semple , American politician (* 1798)
- December 21: Mercedes Marín Del Solar , Chilean writer (* 1804)
- December 21: Johann Georg Kranzler , Austrian confectioner in Berlin (* 1794)
- December 22nd: Johann Carl Groß , Saxon politician and mayor of Leipzig (* 1778)
- December 28: Lion Philips , Dutch manufacturer (* 1794)
- December 30th: Victor Adam , French painter and lithographer (* 1801)
- Joseph Ferdinand Boissard de Boisdenier , French romantic painter (* 1813) December:
Exact date of death unknown
- Israel Aksenfeld , Russian writer (* 1787)
- François Dacosta , French clarinetist and composer (* 1778)
- Helene Lohmann , entrepreneur from Witten and women's rights activist (* 1784)
- Micheil Sharvaschidze , Prince of Abkhazia