|coat of arms
( Details )
( Details )
Motto : Spem reduxit
"He has restored hope"
|English and French
|72,908 km² (11.)
|10.2 inhabitants / km²
|GDP in CAD (2006)
|Total: 25.221 billion (8th)
Per capita: 33,664 (12th)
|July 1, 1867
|Blaine Higgs (Conservative)
|Sit in the lower house
|Seat in the Senate
New Brunswick ([ / n (j) uː ˈbɹʌnzwɪk / ]; German New Brunswick , French Nouveau-Brunswick [ /nu.vo.bʁɔn.ˈzwɪk/ ]) is one of the three maritime provinces of Canada and the only officially bilingual province . The almost 73,000 km² province has more than 750,000 inhabitants. The capital is Fredericton .
The land area is around 70,000 km². About 80% of the area is forest, the remaining 20% arable land and urban area. New Brunswick is at the northern end of the Appalachian Mountains . The landscape types are mountains (highest mountain is Mount Carleton at 820 m), hills and river valleys.
New Brunswick is bordered to the north by Québec ( Gaspé Peninsula ) as well as Chaleur Bay and Prince Edward Island . In the east, the province is bounded by the Gulf of St. Lawrence with Chaleur Bay, the Northumberland Strait and the offshore province of Prince Edward Island . To the southeast is the only navigable connection between the province of Nova Scotia and the American mainland. The border in the southwest divides the province with the state of Maine in the United States .
There are 32 provincial parks in the province to protect the landscape, flora and fauna .
About 13,000 years ago, towards the end of the last glacial period , the province was still under an ice sheet. The oldest human traces in the eastern provinces were found at Debert in Nova Scotia. They reach up to around 9000 BC. BC back. These hunters, who encountered mastodons and woolly mammoths, moved in a tundra landscape between the remains of glaciers. As the ice melted, the sea level gradually rose by more than 100 m, so that even the valley of Saint John was temporarily under water.
The Mi'kmaq lived long before the arrival of the first Europeans in the area between the Gaspé Peninsula and Nova Scotia, and thus also in the New Brunswick area. The Maliseet lived on Saint John and the Passamaquoddy settled from Passamaquoddy Bay over the catchment area of Saint Croix to Lake Schoodic . The conditions were so favorable that there was no word for 'lack' in the Mi'kmaq language.
Around 1500 BC Long-distance trade can be traced far to the west; conversely, the Adena culture expanded around 400 BC. Their influence from the Ohio to the east coast. Under their influence, the approx. 2500 year old Augustine Mound arose on North West Miramichi . It is named after Joseph Augustine, a former Mi'kmap chief who, based on oral tradition, suspected artifacts there , which has been confirmed by excavations. At the Oxbow site in the Red Bank reserve on the Little South West Miramichi River , only 700 m away , settlements of great continuity were found, the oldest of which dates back to around 800 BC. Go back BC. Around 200 BC Pottery was made for the first time in BC, a technique that had probably come to New Brunswick from the Great Lakes or the south of New England .
In the middle of the 16th century, the Abenaki (Wabanaki) Confederation was established in Maine and the Canadian Maritime Provinces as a result of a peace agreement with the Iroquois Mohawk . In addition to the Mohawk, they included the Ottawa , as well as Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, Passamaquoddy, Penobscot and, at times, the western Abenaki of New England and Québec. It wasn't until 1862, when the Penobscot withdrew from the confederation, that the merger ended. In the course of the 1870s, the special relationship between the other tribes and the Mohawk also ended. Numerous place names such as Mactaquac, Nashwaak, Quispamsis , Kouchibouguac , Restigouche , Abegweit (for Prince Edward Island ), Pictou , Kejimkujik refer to their presence.
French colonization, acadians
In 1524 Giovanni da Verrazzano reached the "Acadie", which he named after Arcadia in Greece. In 1535 Jacques Cartier sailed into the Chaleur Bay . In 1604, the first European settlement in what is now Canada was built on St Croix in Passamaquoddy Bay (Peskutumaquadik). In 1606 Marc Lescarbot (around 1570–1642), who is considered the first historian in North America, reached the region.
When Isaac de Razilly died in 1635, who had led the revitalized settlement of Port-Royal , the Huguenot Charles de Saint-Étienne de la Tour , who was governor of Acadia between 1631 and 1642 and from 1653 to 1657 , quarreled from 1640 to 1645 , and the Catholic Charles de Menou d'Aulnay . While La Tour had been in the fur trade since 1610, lived among the Mi'kmaq , married an Abenaki woman and was supported by the traders, d'Aulnay had good contacts in Paris . This conflict, in which the Protestant English played an important role, left the destroyed land free to use - despite the principle of “ nulle terre sans seigneur ” (no land without a feudal lord). After d'Aulnay's death in 1650, La Tour regained control of the Saint John and established trading posts in Miscou Harbor and Nepisiguit ( Bathurst ).
From the valley of Saint John, the French repeatedly opened attacks on New England , from which permanent hostilities developed. In 1694 a first fort called Fort Saint-Joseph was built in what is now Fredericton .
British colonial times
In 1713, after the War of the Spanish Succession , Nova Scotia came to Great Britain through the Treaty of Utrecht . The later New Brunswick / Nouveau Brunswick, called New Brunswick in German, had become the remainder of the former Acadia, which was surrounded on two sides by British colonies, Nova Scotia in the east and New England in the south. In the Seven Years' War (1756–1763) the British conquered the area of New Brunswick. The Treaty of Paris made New France part of the British colonial empire; the New Brunswick area was joined together with part of Maine to the British colony of Nova Scotia.
When the British occupied Acadia in 1713 and subjugated around 10,000 French, their contact with the French feudal system was lost. The Acadians displaced since 1755 - apart from those who stayed on Prince Edward Island and Upper Saint John - returned from 1765 and were given land on the basis of the British feudal system. Many of them moved to the Memramcook area, some became squatters on Saint John, and many worked for the Robin Brothers of the Channel Island of Jersey . They had started in 1764 to set up fishing stations between Gaspé and Cape Breton Island .
In 1713 the regional tribes signed their own treaty with Great Britain, in which they recognized the settlement rights of the British, but in 1714 they protested that the settlers had exceeded the allowed borders. In 1721 the Indians of the region protested against the surrender to Great Britain on the grounds that the King of France could give his land to whoever he wanted, but they would not do so. When Indians were killing cattle in a pasture in Massachusetts , Governor William Dummer murdered sleeping Kennebec , whereupon the tribe declared war on them. Dummer reacted by declaring war on all tribes in the north, including those in New Brunswick. This war was named " Dummer's War ". It was not until 1725 that Dummer's peace and friendship treaty was signed in Boston , in which the British allowed the Wabanaki free hunting, fishing and cultivation.
Loyalists, British immigration, extractive industries
After the independence of the USA around 14,000 loyalists, families who had remained loyal to the colonial power Great Britain, came to the Bay of Fundy , founded the city of Saint John and settled the valley of the river of the same name and that of the St Croix River. Suddenly they made up an overwhelming majority of the population for the Indians. In 1784 they were given their own colonial status to distinguish them from Halifax . The colony was named after the Guelph dynasty of Braunschweig , to whom King George III. came from. The capital Fredericton takes its name from Prince Friedrich August .
Scots came to New Brunswick who had fled their land before the division of their land among English cattle landowners , then refugees from hunger from Ireland . Around 1850, 277,000 people lived in Nova Scotia, 194,000 in New Brunswick and 72,000 on Prince Edward Island . The population had increased fivefold since about 1800. The proportion of Irish was temporarily two thirds of the population.
In 1807, London tried to use the so-called quit rent system to finance the colony , but the farmers were unable to pay this levy. The provincial government established the Bank of New Brunswick in 1820 . Although there were successes in 1832, the timber industry, which had been of great importance for meeting British timber requirements since Napoleon's continental barrier from 1807, had no interest in small-scale land awards. In 1835 London urged the colony to buy quit rents for £ 1,000 . From 1848 onwards, Great Britain only covered defense costs, similar to Nova Scotia. The now British New Brunswick financed itself from then on through settlement taxes and customs duties.
However, the extremely strong dependence on timber exports, which had already started in 1774, and on shipbuilding made any drop in prices a serious economic crisis. Above all, the unregulated access to wood contributed to this, so that the numerous timber companies simply plundered the forests. Proposals to protect the economy through tariffs came up for a number of years, but free trade also prevailed for New Brunswick from 1853. The fall in prices was initially offset by the Crimean War of 1852–1856, then the US Civil War of 1861–1865. When the reserves of large primeval forests were exhausted and the sailing ships were increasingly being replaced by steamships , the timber market collapsed. Thousands of settlers left the colony.
Other raw materials provided only limited substitutes, such as coal. The first railway line was a coal railway at Pictou , which was built in 1838. In the 1850s connections were added from Halifax to Truro and Windsor , from St. John's to Shediac , on to Truro and from St. Andrews to Woodstock . When negotiations to join Canada began in 1864, it was hoped that a connection to a continental rail network would be achieved.
New Brunswick Province, rail connection, industrialization attempts
In 1864, at the Charlottetown Conference, the colonies of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island were to be merged into a "Maritime Union". To protect against attacks from the United States after the Civil War ended , the state should cover a larger area. However, many of the residents of New Brunswick did not want to be part of this larger state, fearing that the needs of the maritime provinces would be second to those of Lower and Upper Canada.
After the state was established, New Brunswick and the rest of the maritime provinces suffered a significant economic decline. The new national policy of Canada disrupted the good relations of the maritime provinces with New England . In 1877 a major fire destroyed Saint John and the sailing industry fell sharply. Unemployment drove many people to western Canada or the United States.
Neither Nova Scotia nor New Brunswick nor British Columbia would have joined the Union had it not been for the promise of a rail link. This was planned from Moncton to Winnipeg to the west coast. In fact, the Intercolonial Railway , which tied the province to the Eastern Canadian trading system, was built by 1876 , followed by the Canadian Pacific Railway to Saint John in 1889 . The iron, textile and sugar industries flourished briefly, but these were bought up by financially strong companies from the central provinces.
Poverty, national politics, the welfare state, the end of the railroad
After the First World War, traditional industries continued to decline, so the standard of living remained permanently below that of the rest of Canada. The share of health and education expenditures was about 50% below the national average, illiteracy and child mortality were considerably higher in the impoverished province.
At the same time, the Maritime Rights Movement on the east coast demanded the rights that had been rejected in 1926. In 1934 the Nova Scotia Royal Commission of Economic Inquiry requested the same aid for the east coast as it had for the prairie provinces. At the same time, the province was divided into an urban English-speaking south and a rural French north. Two influential families, the Irvings and the McCains, modernized the economy through vertical integration .
Between 1948 and 1952, at the end of the railroad era in Canada, the Trans-Canada Highway from Halifax and Saint John's to Victoria was built, and Trans-Canada Air Lines , a state-owned company, began operating from coast to coast in 1939. Trans Canada and Canadian Pacific merged, local carriers supplied the Atlantic provinces. In 1954 the Atlantic Provinces Economic Council was formed as a planning group. This emergence of the provincial group culminated in the formation of the Department of Regional Economic Expansion in 1969 and the Atlantic Provinces Royal Commission on Maritime Union the following year .
Since 1960: equality of academics, break in fishing, two official languages
The French-speaking Acadians lived mostly on the north and east coasts, while the rest of the sparsely populated province was English-speaking. Government services were often not available in French and the infrastructure in Francophone areas was poorly developed. This changed in 1960 with the election of Louis Robichauds as prime minister. He developed the equal opportunities plan. The province has been given responsibility for training, maintaining rural roads and providing health care. In 1969 a law was passed making French and English equal official languages.
In the 1960s, the government invested in electrification, in industries and raw materials extraction, forestry and fisheries, and road construction, and promoted transfers between the provinces in order to bring living standards up to the national average. In 1963 the government followed the recommendations of the Byrne Commission and the province assumed responsibility for education, health care, and other government services. The municipalities should only take care of the water supply, fire brigades and local police services. Accordingly, the tax revenue should be divided between the federal government, provinces and cities.
Atlantic coast fisheries benefited from expanding the three- mile zone to 200 miles. The fish caught there was also better marketed and mostly went to the USA. Fish factories and new trawlers increased sales. However, the fish stocks collapsed so that numerous fishermen migrated.
The provincial political system is based on the Westminster system with a unicameral parliament (from 1784 to 1891 the province had a bicameral parliament). The legislative assembly consists of 55 members who are elected by majority voting in as many constituencies . The lieutenant governor can, in consultation with the Prime Minister, dissolve Parliament early and call new elections within a certain timeframe , in line with British parliamentary tradition. New elections must take place after five years at the latest. The Prime Minister is always the leader of the party which has won the most seats. Blaine Higgs has held this office since 2018 and Jocelyne Roy-Vienneau is Vice-Governor .
In provincial politics, two parties dominate, the New Brunswick Liberal Association and the Association libérale du Nouveau-Brunswick and the Progressive Conservative Party of New Brunswick and the Parti progressiste-conservateur du Nouveau-Brunswick . The social democratic New Brunswick New Democratic Party or the Nouveau Parti démocratique du Nouveau-Brunswick regularly achieves over ten percent of the votes, but is rarely represented in the provincial parliament. This includes the Green Party of New Brunswick (since 2014) and the right-wing People's Alliance of New Brunswick (since 2018).
Politics in New Brunswick is different from that in other Canadian provinces. The lack of a dominant urban center means that the government must take into account the needs of as many regions as possible. The large French-speaking minority also contributes to a more consensus-oriented policy. In the Canadian House of New Brunswick will be represented by ten deputies. According to the Canadian Constitution , the province also has ten seats in the Senate of Canada .
New Brunswick is divided into 15 wards:
The economy is dominated by the finance and service sectors, but is better known for mining , timber and agriculture ( potatoes ), and fishing ( American lobster , mussels ). The primary employers in the province are the Irving Group companies , the provincial government, and the McCain (food) companies. There are also tourism , especially in Kouchibouguac- and Fundy National Park and in Mount Carleton Provincial Park , the National Park Jacquet River Gorge and on the Acadian Peninsula .
New Brunswick had 751,171 residents in 2011 according to that year's census. The original inhabitants ( First Nations or Premières Nations) form the Micmac , Maliseet and Passamaquoddy , which are now a minority. About 65% of the population speak English and 35% French . The latter population group is called Akadier , after the name of the region ( Acadia ) from the colonial days of France . The Acadians are the descendants of the French settlers displaced during the Wars of Independence . They refused to take the oath of allegiance to the British Crown and were "replaced" by loyalists. The dialect of the Acadians is very similar to the Angevin language spoken in Loudun , France at the time of the emigration .
Saint John is a port city with a wood and paper industry and an oil refinery , which, like much of the province's economy and press , is controlled by the Irving family, the descendants of KC Irving . Saint John is not abbreviated to St. John to better distinguish it from St. John's , the capital of Newfoundland . Outside the Atlantic provinces , the two cities are often confused with one another.
Largest cities (as of 2011)
- Saint John - 70,063
- Moncton - 69,074
- Fredericton - 56,224
- Riverview - 19,128
- Dieppe - 18,565
- Miramichi - 18,129
- Quispamsis - 17,866
- Edmundston - 16,023
- Bathurst - 12,275
- Rothesay - 11,947
Education and Research
The University of New Brunswick , which was founded as King's College in Fredericton in 1785, is now a large public English-speaking university with around 12,000 students. Its headquarters are in Fredericton , with additional campuses in Saint John , Bathurst and Moncton . It is the oldest public institute for higher education in North America .
The Mount Allison University in Sackville is a small private university, which is awarded on a regular basis due to the quality of teaching within Canada. It was the first college in the British Empire to give a woman a degree.
The Université de Moncton is a French-speaking university with its headquarters in Moncton . Also located in Moncton, the Atlantic Baptist University ( Atlantic Baptist University ), originally a Bible school, which today offers a comprehensive program.
New Brunswick has a network of 18,000 km of highways, feeder roads, and other highways that run through the province and connect major cities, towns, and multiple provinces. The access roads Route 1, 2, 7 and 15 connect several larger cities and neighboring communities with the all- important Trans-Canada Highway , which runs through several provinces and to Nova Scotia , Prince Edward Island and in the far north on Cape Breton Island (Cape Breton Island) ends.
The province has good connections within Canada and the rest of North America. There are other flight connections to Europe and other destinations. In addition to a large number of smaller regional airports, the province has several larger airports with scheduled international flight connections. These include the Fredericton International Airport in Fredericton and the Greater Moncton International Airport in Moncton.
Rail transport is operated by VIA Rail Canada . Several cities and municipalities are connected to the rail network. This means that you can reach every city in Canada from New Brunswick by changing at major train stations.
The Department of Transportation operates year-round, daily ferry routes between Deer Island and Letete. Furthermore between St. John and Kennebecasis . Other ferry operators such as Coastal Transport , Bay Ferries and East Coast Ferries offer additional daily ferry connections.
There are scheduled intercity bus routes in the province that connect several cities and towns with the rest of the country and the United States. The largest operator is Acadian Lines , which offer multiple connections.
Personalities from New Brunswick / Nouveau-Brunswick
- Francis Peabody Sharp (1823-1903), fruit grower and tree nursery owner
- Andrew Bonar Law (1858–1923), British Prime Minister
- Archibald Lampman (1861–1899), poet
- Richard Bedford Bennett (1870–1947), Prime Minister of Canada
- Walter Pidgeon (1897–1984), actor
- Jack Cummings (1900-1989), film producer
- Jack Cole (1911–1974), dancer and choreographer
- Brett Somers (1924-2007), actress
- Rusty Wellington (1925–1986), country and rockabilly musician
- Donald Sutherland (born 1935), actor
- Barbara Hanawalt (* 1941), historian
- Paul LeBlanc (1946–2019), hairstylist and makeup artist
- Jocelyne Saucier (* 1948), French-language author
- Jocelyne Roy-Vienneau (1956–2019), engineer and Lieutenant Governor of the Province of New Brunswick
- Gordie Dwyer (* 1978), ice hockey coach and former NHL player
- Découvrons le Nouveau-Brunswick: bibliographie sélective sur l'histoire du Nouveau Brunswick. Discover New Brunswick: Selective Bibliography on New Brunswick's History. La Bibliothèque régionale du haut-Jean, Edmundston [approx. 1984]
- Government of the Province (English, French)
- New Brunswick ( English, French ) In: The Canadian Encyclopedia .
- Extracts from Maliseet and Mi'kmaq: First Nations of the Maritimes , Aboriginal Affairs Secretariat / Secrétariat des affaires autochtones
- Timeline, New Brunswick. Our Stories, Our People
- Hans-Jürgen Hübner: New Brunswick , history of New Brunswick
- Christopher Ellis: Understanding “Clovis” Fluted Point Variability in the Northeast: A Perspective from the Debert Site, Nova Scotia , in: Canadian Journal of Archeology / Journal Canadien d'Archéologie 28 (2004) 205-253.
- The Augustine Mound National Historic Site of Canada has been on the National Historic Site List since 1975.
- See John P. Tenass . In: Dictionary of Canadian Biography . 24 volumes, 1966–2018. University of Toronto Press, Toronto ( English , French ).
- Place Names in the Maritimes .
- The text of the letter can be found here .
- Statistics Canada