|coat of arms||flag|
( Details )
( Details )
|Motto : Je me souviens ("I remember")|
|surface||1,542,056 km² (2.)|
|Population density||5.5 inhabitants / km²|
|GDP in CAD (2006)||Total: 285.158 billion (2nd)
Per capita: 37,278 (10th)
|Time zone||Eastern Standard Time UTC − 5|
|Joined Confederation||July 1, 1867|
|Deputy Governor||J. Michel Doyon|
|prime minister||François Legault ( CAQ )|
|Sit in the lower house||78|
|Seat in the Senate||24|
Québec , also written Quebec without an accent (French Québec [ keˈbɛk ], English Quebec [ kwɨˈbɛk ] or [ kəˈbɛk ], originally Algonquian Kebec for "where the river gets narrower"), is the largest province of Canada in terms of area (the larger area of Nunavut is none Province, but a territory) and those with the largest francophone population. With its language, its culture and its institutions, it represents an independent national community within Canada.
The population includes about 8.08 million people, the Quebecers (French Québécois ). Québec is the only region in mainland North America with a French-speaking majority. Although both English and French are official languages in Canada , the only official language of the Province of Québec is French. The capital of the province is also called Québec ; the largest city is Montreal . In 2006 the Quebecers were officially recognized as a "Nation in a United Canada". A nation can rely on international law , which is often referred to as "international law", while an ethnic group can only rely on minority protection . The natives of Canada are also referred to as Nations (First Nations / Premières Nations) in official parlance.
Politics in Québec is characterized by a permanent debate about the role of Francophonie in Anglophone-speaking Canada, which has resulted in many efforts to achieve greater sovereignty for Québec, ranging from expanded competencies and an association with Canada to complete secession . In 1980 and 1995, the province held referendums on independence, each of which narrowly failed.
The indigenous population of Québec includes 39 recognized First Nations ( Indians ) who linguistically belong to the groups of the Iroquois (such as Mohawk , Wyandot ) and Algonquin ( Cree , Mi'kmaq ), as well as the Inuit with the language Inuktitut .
Québec is located in eastern Canada and borders in the west with the province of Ontario and Hudson Bay , in the east with the provinces Newfoundland and Labrador and New Brunswick , in the south with the United States (states Maine , New Hampshire , Vermont , New York ) and in the North at Nunavut . The province is very extensive - about three times the size of France - and very sparsely populated. The highest point is Mont D'Iberville (1,652 m or 5420 feet ), known to English-speaking Canadians as Mount Caubvick , which is located in the Torngat Mountains on the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador. On the Quebec side, however, there is only the approximately 30 cm lower secondary peak with a height of 5419 feet, while the 5420 foot high actual summit of Mount Caubvick is approximately 10 meters northeast of the provincial border of Quebec and is therefore completely in the area of Labrador.
The St. Lawrence River , which characterizes the province to a large extent, is one of the most powerful rivers in the world as an outflow from the Great Lakes . In the 17th and 18th centuries, it gave French explorers and settlers easy access from the Atlantic Ocean to the interior. Since 1959 it has been part of the St. Lawrence Seaway . North-east of the provincial capital Québec , the river expands into the world's largest estuary and finally flows into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence . The largest island in this gulf and largest island in the province is Anticosti north of the Gaspésie peninsula.
By far the most densely populated region is the Saint Lawrence Lowland, which stretches from the southwest along the river to the northeast via Montreal and Trois-Rivières to the metropolitan area of the city of Québec. The landscape is flat and deep, with the exception of a few rocky hills of igneous rock near Montréal, known as the Montérégie hills . The most recent sediment deposits formed about 14,000 years ago, when at the end of Würm the shallow Champlain Sea was filled. The combination of fertile soil and the mildest climate in the province make the valley the most agriculturally used region.
More than four fifths of the area of Québec is on the Labrador Peninsula , which is part of the Canadian Shield . The landscape is predominantly inhospitable and very sparsely populated, but has rich deposits of mineral resources and large hydropower resources. The northernmost part, the Nunavik region on the Ungava Peninsula , consists of arctic tundra . Further south is a strip several hundred kilometers wide with boreal coniferous forest . The limit of the shield is formed by the Laurentine Mountains , one of the oldest mountain ranges in the world. The Appalachian Mountains , which are covered by mixed forests , extend on the southeastern border of the province .
Québec has three main climatic regions. The south and west with the largest metropolitan areas is characterized by a humid continental climate ( effective climate classification Dfb ) with warm, humid summers and long, cold winters. The most significant climatic influences come from western and northern Canada and the southern and central United States. Rainfall is abundant year-round as a result of the influence of storm systems from the heart of North America and the Atlantic. In most of the areas there is more than 1000 mm of precipitation per year, of which 300 mm is snow . In summer, extreme weather situations such as tornadoes and thunderstorms are far less common than in southern Ontario , but also occur here occasionally.
Much of the central provincial area has a sub-polar climate (class Dfc ). The winters here are long and among the coldest in Canada, while the summers are warm but short due to the high latitude and the influence of arctic air masses. Except for the higher elevations, the amount of precipitation is somewhat lower than in the south.
The northern regions of the province have a polar climate (class ET ) with very cold winters and short, much cooler summers. The most important climatic influences are caused by currents of the Arctic Ocean (such as the Labrador Current ) and continental air masses from the Arctic.
Québec is divided into 17 administrative regions (French régions administratives ). These in turn are made up of regional county municipalities ( municipalités régionales de comté , MRC ), which take on certain supraregional administrative tasks. This includes the creation of a land use plan, water supply and waste management. 14 independent cities carry out the tasks of the MRC themselves. In the metropolitan areas of Québec and Montréal, there is an additional level of the metropolitan association ( communauté métropolitaine , CM ). This division has replaced the previous division into counties ( comtés ) since the 1980s .
Finally, the lowest level of local self-government are the municipalities. The forms of commune in Québec are the city ( ville ), the commune ( municipalité ), the village ( village ), the Sprengel ( paroisse ), the cantonal community ( canton ) and the Nordic, Cree and Naskapi villages ( villages nordique, cri et naskapi ).
Prehistory and European Exploration
Québec was originally the settlement area of indigenous peoples such as Inuit , Mohawks , Cree , Algonkin , Innu , Atikamekw , Mi'kmaq , Wyandot , Abenaki , Maliseet and Naskapi . While most of the peoples in the Canadian Shield and the Appalachians lived nomadic lives as hunters, gatherers and fishermen, the Saint Lawrence Iroquois were sedentary and farming.
Basque whalers and fishermen came regularly to the eastern Canadian coast from around 1525 and advanced as far as the estuary of the Saint Lawrence River. The first European explorer to reach Québec's interior was the French Jacques Cartier . It reached Gaspé in 1534 and ran the river the following year. In 1600, Pierre Chauvin founded his first trading post in Tadoussac at the mouth of the Saguenay River .
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded the city of Québec , which became the capital of the colony of New France . Trade relations and finally military alliances were formed with the Algonquians and the Wyandot . Furs were exported to France , in return the Indians received metal goods, firearms and alcohol. From the city of Québec, rangers ( coureurs des bois ) and Catholic missionaries explored the interior of the North American continent. Further settlements were founded along the St. Lawrence River (Fleuve St. Laurent) in the 17th century (Montréal 1648).
The name "Québec", which means "where the river narrows" in the Algonquian language, originally referred to the area around the city of Québec, where the St. Lawrence River squeezes through a narrow section bordered by steep rocks. Early variations on the spelling of the name are Québecq (1601) and Kébec (1609).
In 1627 King Ludwig XIII. the Compagnie de la Nouvelle-France monopoly on the fur trade , introduced a semi-feudal land allocation system ( régime seigneurial ) and banned the settlement of non-Catholics. Sulpizians and Jesuits founded missions to convert the Algonquin and Wyandot. Since colonization progressed very slowly under the management of the company, New France became a royal colony under Louis XIV in 1663 . As part of the King William's War , Québec was first attacked from New England. The city fortifications were then reinforced. Over the next hundred years, the number of French settlers who called themselves Canadiens increased twenty-fold to about 60,000. Because of the refusal of the crown to allow the Huguenots to settle, the population remained far below that of the Thirteen colonies .
In 1753, France began building forts in the Ohio area to drive back British influence . In the following year, the French and Indian War began with a skirmish at Fort Duquesne near what is now Pittsburgh , which was a partial conflict of the Seven Years' War . The Wyandot fought on the French side , while the British allied with the Iroquois . In 1759 the French were defeated in the Battle of the Plains of Abraham . With the Peace of Paris in 1763 , New France fell to Great Britain. With the Royal Proclamation , the colony was renamed the Province of Québec that same year .
Since the assimilation of the predominantly French-speaking population had failed, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act in 1774 . This law recognized the French legal system, freedom of religion, and the French language and culture. This was to prevent the Quebecers from joining the rebellious Thirteen Colonies.
However, the law also angered the Thirteen Colonies as it moved the borders of Québec into the Ohio and Illinois Country . It was one of those intolerable acts that led to the outbreak of the American War of Independence . In 1775, the invasion of Québec could be repulsed. Tens of thousands of loyalists fled to what is now Canada. With the Peace of Paris , the areas south of the Great Lakes were ceded to the United States .
To accommodate the escaped loyalists, the British Parliament passed the constitutional law of 1791 , which divided the province of Québec into the French-speaking Lower Canada and the English-speaking Upper Canada and granted both colonies an elected parliament. Tensions between the United States and Great Britain erupted in the British-American War , which lasted from 1812 to 1814, but ultimately ended with no results.
As in neighboring Upper Canada, Louis-Joseph Papineau and Robert Nelson formed a rebel movement in 1837 whose goal was to end British colonial rule (→ rebellions of 1837 ). The British army was initially completely unprepared, but was able to put down the uprising. Based on a report by Lord Lambton who had investigated the causes of the uprising, Lower and Upper Canada were united to the Province of Canada in 1840 . In 1848 this received the right to self-government and the first democratically elected government.
In the 1860s, delegates from various colonies began negotiating a union in British North America . Finally, came into being on 1 July 1867 with the enactment of the British North America Act , the Dominion Canada, and the former Province of Canada was in the provinces of Ontario divided (the former Lower Canada) (formerly Upper Canada) and Quebec City. Canada as a whole was mostly English-speaking, but in Québec the Francophones were the majority.
In 1870, the Canadian federal government acquired Rupert's land from the Hudson's Bay Company and created the Northwest Territories . Over the next few decades, the federal government ceded large parts of these territories to existing provinces or created new provinces. In two steps, Québec was able to more than triple its area (see also Territorial Development of Canada ). On June 13, 1898, the first expansion to the coast of James Bay took place . A second law struck on May 15, 1912, the Ungava district in the north of the Labrador Peninsula of the province. On March 11, 1927, the judicial committee of the British Privy Council decided in a border conflict in favor of the then independent Dominion Newfoundland , whereupon Québec had to cede a strip of territory.
While industrialization was initially limited to the city of Montreal , it began in the rest of the province from the late 19th century onwards. This was accompanied by rapid urbanization of the province, combined with a high birth rate. The Roman Catholic Church exerted a great influence on society, especially in the rural areas, and dominated the educational system, while in the cities a small English-speaking elite controlled economic activity. In the first decades of the 20th century, industrialization based on the processing of natural resources also began in rural regions.
Two ideological currents were predominant: On the one hand, there were the liberals , who called for the modernization of economic and social structures and saw economic growth and the expansion of the educational system as the only way to lead the province into the future. Opposed to them were conservative nationalists who followed an isolationist course based on the values of Catholicism and rural traditionalism .
Until the end of the 1950s, the Union nationale, headed by Maurice Duplessis , consistently opposed reforms. But when in 1960 the Quebec Liberal Party of Jean Lesage came to power, they set a course of reform in motion, the society and the political system of Québec from the ground up and modernized the Quiet Revolution ( révolution tranquille was) known. The government pushed back the influence of the Roman Catholic Church under the slogan Maître chez nous (“master of one's own house”). In addition, she nationalized Hydro-Québec , an energy company whose development of local energy reserves laid the "basis for radical industrialization".
However, the silent revolution also produced a new kind of nationalism that was no longer based on traditional values. Several separatist movements, some of them militant, emerged. The Front de liberation du Québec (FLQ) carried out more than 200 bomb attacks and bank robberies between 1963 and 1970 with the aim of turning the province into a Marxist state. The wave of terrorism culminated in the October crisis and the brief imposition of a state of emergency by the federal government. As a result, the FLQ was broken up.
In contrast, the Parti Québécois of René Lévesque tried to lead Québec to independence by peaceful means. From 1976 she formed the provincial government for the first time. French had been declared the only official language two years earlier, but with the Charter of the French Language issued in 1977 , the influence of English in everyday life was finally pushed back. In the 1980 Québec referendum on May 20, 1980, 59.6% of the electorate voted against separating from the Canadian Union, not least for economic reasons. On the other hand, the province has still not ratified the 1982 constitution initiated by Pierre Trudeau .
Efforts by the federal government to recognize Québec with the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord as a “differing society” failed in 1989 and 1992, respectively. The Parti Québécois came back to power in 1994 and set a second independence referendum. The Québec referendum in 1995 failed extremely narrowly with 50.58% no against 49.42% yes. It later became public that the federalists had spent nine times more money on the voting campaign than the separatists, including state funds. The federal government had also influenced the elections by increasing the number of naturalizations before the vote. In 1998 the Canadian Supreme Court ruled in its Renvoi relatif à la sécession du Québec ruling that a province could not unilaterally declare itself independent.
At the initiative of the Conservative Prime Minister Stephen Harper , the Canadian House of Commons recognized the Quebecers on November 27, 2006 as a “nation within a united Canada”. Harper said this does not call into question Canada's unity.
In 1605 Québec had 44,000 inhabitants. In 1754, two years before the outbreak of the Seven Years' War , there were only 55,009 inhabitants. In 1806, however, the number of 250,000 had already been reached.
The pooled fertility rate is one of the lowest in Canada today. At 1.52 it is far below the reproduction rate of 2.1. This is in contrast to the rate before 1960, when it was among the highest in any industrial society . Despite the decline in fertility, the 2003 fertility rate of 9.8 ‰ was still higher than the death rate of 7.4 ‰. The life expectancy in 2002 was 76.3 years for men and 81.9 years for women.
In the 2001 census, 68.7% of the population identified themselves as "Canadians". 29.6% were of French , 4.1% Irish , 3.5% Italian , 3.1% English and 2.2% Scottish descent (multiple answers possible). The proportion of the statistically recorded indigenous people is low (1.8% First Nations , 0.3% Métis , 0.1% Inuit ). However, numerous tribes refuse to take part in censuses for political reasons as long as their legal status has not been finally clarified.
Québec is the only Canadian province whose official language is French . In the 2001 census, 79.0% said they were French as their mother tongue . The proportion of English speakers was 7.7%. However, 40.8% said they were fluent in both French and English. In the greater Montréal area, the proportion of French native speakers is noticeably lower at 65% than in the rest of the province. The so-called " allophones ", whose mother tongue is neither French nor English, make up 11.9% of the population. Italian has the largest foreign language share at 1.8%, followed by Arabic (1.6%) and Spanish (1.5%).
43,665 people (0.6%) said in 2011 that they speak a language of the indigenous people. In 2008, 47% of the 71,000 First Nations total spoke a native language as their first language. These are in particular Cree and other Algonquin languages as well as Inuktitut .
The spoken French in Québec varies diatopically , diastratically and diaphasically , that is, with the geographical location, with the social class and the speaking situation. The spectrum is fluid between international French (for example in the media) with some lexical Québecisms on the one hand and dialects ("Joual") that are almost incomprehensible to foreigners and strongly influenced by other languages (especially English) on the other. The colloquial language is in between, as a French with a strong color in pronunciation and vocabulary.
Québec is unique in Canada with its high proportion of Catholic Christians . This is due to the fact that in the beginning only Catholics were settled in the colony of New France, later also because of the immigration of Irish . As patron of Québec applies John the Baptist .
90.2% of the population identified themselves as Christians in the 2001 census (83.4% Catholics , 4.7% Protestants , 1.4% Orthodox and 0.8% other Christians). The proportion of Muslims was 1.5%, that of Jews 1.3%. 0.6% claimed responsibility for Buddhism and 0.3% for Hinduism . 5.8% gave no information.
Largest cities by population
Source: Statistics Canada
The political system of Québec is based on the Westminster system , with a unicameral parliament , the National Assembly of Québec ( Assemblée nationale du Québec ). This consists of 125 members who are elected in as many constituencies using the majority voting system. The Lieutenant Governor may in consultation with the prime minister to dissolve parliament prematurely and start fresh elections, according to the British Parliament tradition within a certain time frame (no later than five years). The prime minister is always the chairman of the party that has won the most seats. Until 1968 there was an upper house with appointed members, the Legislative Council .
François Legault of the Avenir Québec Coalition has been Prime Minister since October 18, 2018 ; his party forms a majority government with 74 seats. The separatist Parti Québécois , the Parti libéral du Québec and the left-wing alternative Québec solidaire are also represented in the National Assembly . Acting Vice-Governor is J. Michel Doyon .
Québec currently has 75 seats in the House of Commons and 24 seats in the Senate of Canada under the Canadian Constitution . As usual in Canada, this province is also represented at the federal level by parties that are not involved in provincial politics. Since the general election on May 2, 2011 , the New Democratic Party has 59 seats and the separatist Bloc Québécois only four seats. In addition, Québec has seven representatives from the Liberal Party and five representatives from the ruling Conservative Party .
The government of Québec has missions abroad in some states . In Germany it is located in Munich (Bavaria also has a representative office in Montréal) with an office in Berlin , directly north of the Brandenburg Gate , not far from the French embassy .
Economy and Infrastructure
Québec's economy has changed several times over the past few years.
Energy and raw materials
Since 1971 the provincial government has been promoting the construction of hydropower plants in the catchment area of James Bay , especially on the La Grande River, with a length of 893 km. The Baie James hydropower project is operated by Hydro-Québec , which is provincial owned. Today the power plants in this region already produce over 83 terawatt hours (TWh) of energy per year.
The area of Québec turns out to be particularly rich in natural resources with its lakes, rivers, huge forests. As a result, the paper and wood industries as well as the generation of electrical energy from hydropower are among the most important industries in the province.
There are also numerous other industrial companies in the big cities. The largest industries include aerospace, information technology, software, and multimedia.
Tourism is an important branch of the economy in the province with around 28 million visitors in 2011. 400,000 jobs are directly dependent on it and around 48,000 indirectly. Aside from domestic Canadian tourism , most of the tourists (in that order) come from the USA , France , Great Britain , Germany , Mexico, and Japan .
The Canadian Ministry of the Environment Environment Canada manages two national parks in the province through Parcs Canada , which together cover an area of 781 km²; there is also a so-called Réserve de parc national with 150 km², as well as an Aire marine nationale de conservation , the Parc marin du Saguenay – Saint-Laurent with 1246 km². This sanctuary is administered in conjunction with the Québec Ministry . Finally, the Grosse-Île-et-le-Mémorial-des-Irlandais is considered a protected area, although it is of more historical importance. The Canadien de la faune service manages 8 separate animal protection areas ( Réserves nationales de faune ) with 58 km² and 27 protected areas for migratory birds with a total area of 518 km². Finally, 71 come Réserves écologiques added, with a total of 950 km². Access to 67 of them is strictly prohibited. 21 Parcs nationaux are added, the misleading name of which leads to confusion with the Canadian national parks, but their status corresponds more to that of a provincial park . To distinguish them, they are called Parcs nationaux du Québec as opposed to the real national parks called Parcs nationaux du Canada . Québec's protected areas are overwhelmingly small and their importance for the conservation of animal species such as the caribou is rather minor. With the Parc national Kuururjuaq established in 2009 in the north of Labrador, a large park of over 4000 km² was created for the first time.
The Parc de la Gatineau and the Parc du Lac-Leamy , which cover an area of 364 km² , are subordinate to a separate Commission de la capitale nationale , which is subordinate to the Ministry of Transport, Infrastructure and Societies .
Education and Research
Québec has 18 colleges and universities that are well positioned internationally. Some universities teach in French and others in English. The largest universities in the province include the University of Montreal with around 55,000 students in fifteen departments, Concordia University with 43,000 students in six departments, and the Université du Québec à Montréal , which has over 41,000 students in seven departments. The English-speaking Montreal University of McGill is also of greater international importance . There are also several medium-sized state universities and smaller private institutions that also offer programs in English. As a rule, all universities offer state-recognized degrees at bachelor, master and doctoral level.
- Bremen Institute for Canada and Québec Studies
- Musée de l'Amérique francophone , historical museum in the city of Québec
- Alain Gagnon, Ingo Kolboom , Boris Vormann (eds.): Québec. State and society . Synchron, Heidelberg 2011 ISBN 978-3-939381-35-8
- Daniel Chartier: Littérature, immigration et imaginaire au Québec et en Amérique du Nord . L'Harmattan, Paris 2006 ISBN 2-296-00264-1
- Christian Dufour: Le défi français - regards croisés sur la France et le Québec , Éditions du Septentrion, Sillery, QC 2006 ISBN 2-89448-459-3
- Christian Lammert: National Movements in Québec and Corsica 1960-2000 . Campus, Frankfurt 2004 ISBN 3-593-37466-8
- Yves Bourdon, Jean Lamarre: Histoire du Québec . Laval, Québec 1998 ISBN 2-7616-0753-8
- Victor Armony: Le Québec expliqué aux immigrants. VLB Éditeur, Montréal 2007 ISBN 978-2-89005-985-6
- in German: Living in Québec. Socio-cultural considerations of an immigrant. Translated by Regine Scheffer. Synchron, Heidelberg 2010 ISBN 978-3-939381-34-1
- Helga Bories-Sawala: Découvrir le Québec. Une America qui parle français. Series: Simple French, text editions for school practice. Schöningh , Braunschweig 2010 ISBN 3-14-046270-0 (in French, with German vocabulary)
- Hans-Jürgen Lüsebrink: "Le livre aimé du peuple". Les almanachs québécois de 1777 à nos jours. Series: Cultures québécoises, Dept. Histoire. Presses de l ' Université Laval , 2014 ISBN 978-2-7637-1680-0 ebook from the publisher
- Benoît Dupont, Émile Pérez: Les polices au Québec. Row: Que sais-je? PUF, Paris 2011
- Henri-Bernard Jean, Claire Jean, Real Bosa: Histoire des communautés religieuses au Québec. Bibliography. Bibliothèque nationale du Québec, Montréal 1984
- Manuel Meune: 1664-2008: de l'oubli du fait allemand à l'émergence d'une mémoire germano-québécoise, Journal for Canadian Studies ZKS, vol. 28 no.2, 2008, pp. 9-27 (in French , Abstract in Engl, Dt.) German speakers in Quebec , full text
- Québec ( English, French ) In: The Canadian Encyclopedia .
- Québec Government website
Quebec Government Representations Abroad
- German-speaking countries, representation for FRG, Austria and Switzerland, in German
Quebec: cultural news for events in Europe, alternatively English / French
- Sample page : constantly updated cultural news for events in Western Europe, with a focus on the UK and Denmark, here 57th edition, December 2019 - March 2020 (only in English and French)
- The maritime strategy. Québec, a partner in North America. Over Quebec as a port of continental importance, including the assumed ice-free Northwest Passage . In German
- Geographic information
- Statistical Institute of the Province of Quebec
- Martin Pabst: Québec - self-confident francophone nation in Canada between federal partnership and sovereignty , in: Österreichische Militärische Zeitschrift , issue 1/2007
- Die in French, Der Spiegel, 1983
- Association Québécoise en Allemagne , German-Quebecer Vereinigung, website of Quebecers in Germany and German interested parties, with annual activities for the maple syrup hut festival in February, for the Quebec national holiday in June, also known as the festival of John the Baptist, and for the harvest festival , originally specifically for the Maize harvest obtained in September.
- L'identité québécoise expliquée aux Allemand.es: le discours suscité dans les manuels de culture étrangère , in Trajectoires. Travaux des jeunes chercheurs du CIERA. Center interdisciplinaire d'études et de recherches sur l'Allemagne, 2016, Hors série n ° 1, by Sophie Dubois
- Québec and the Fragility of Canada , by Wilfried von Bredow , Alfred Pletsch. "Maple leaves. Marburg contributions to Canada research", 11 Marburg 1998. Writings of the University Library Marburg , 84 (with a historical outline of the British-French rivalry in North America)
- La disparition de l'écrivain catholique au Québec 1945-2015 , by Denis Saint-Jacques, Contextes 23, 2019
- Population in the 4th quarter of 2019
- Quebec, Québec , duden.de
- Canada - Cultivated Wilderness , wienerzeitung.at, April 30, 2001
- Cour suprême du Canada: Renvoi sur l'opposition du Québec à une résolution pour modifier la Constitution,  2 R. C. P. 793 ( Memento of May 5, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) - “We must recognize that the two peoples who Canada, are fundamentally the same and that Québec forms an independent society within the Canadian federation through language, culture and institutions and has all the attributes of an independent national community ", Original:" On devra reconnaître que les deux peuples qui ont fondé le Canada sont foncièrement égaux et que le Québec forme à l'intérieur de l'ensemble fédéral canadien une société distincte par la langue, la culture, les institutions et qui possède tous les attributs d'une communauté national distincte ».
- Mont D'Iberville, Québec / Newfoundland , Peakbagger.com
- Mont D'Iberville, Québec / Newfoundland , peakbagger.com
- Mount Caubvick, Newfoundland , peakbagger.com
- Patricia Afable, Madison Beeler: "Place Names", in Handbook of North American Indians . Vol. 17, p. 191. William C. Sturtevant, Washington DC 1996.
- The birth of Quebec - Canadian Broadcast Corporation, 2001
- Pabst, Martin: Québec - self-confident francophone nation in Canada between federal partnership and sovereignty , in: Austrian Military Journal, issue 1/2007
- Cf. Martin Pabst: Québec - self-confident francophone nation in Canada between federal partnership and sovereignty.
- Québec Referendum (1980) ( English, French ) In: The Canadian Encyclopedia ., Accessed on March 14, 2015
- Cf. Martin Pabst: Québec - self-confident francophone nation in Canada between federal partnership and sovereignty.
- House of Commons passes Quebec nation motion , CTV , Nov. 27, 2006
- Christian Lammert, Boris Vormann: New Chances for Accommodation: Has Québécois Separatism Run its Course? Journal for Canada Studies, 2015 Online , pp. 45-62, nine years later notice a very clear relaxation in the relationship between the two language groups due to general social changes. No serious person questions the unity of Canada today.
- Population development of Ontario ( Memento of November 13, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) - Statistics Canada
- 2001 Census: Ethnic Composition of the Population ( Memento of February 19, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) - Statistics Canada
- 2001 Census: Population by Mother tongue - Statistics Canada
- 2006 Community Profiles - Statistics Canada
- Detailed breakdown of native languages - Statistics Canada
- Religion according to 2001 Census - Statistics Canada
- Population by municipality - Statistics Canada
- Official tourism website of the Québec Government, 2012 Statistics , accessed April 20, 2013
- Official tourism website of the government of Québec, Statistics 2011 (PDF; 3.2 MB), accessed on April 20, 2013