Kingdom of Great Britain
|Kingdom of Great Britain|
|Kingdom of Great Britain|
|Motto : French Dieu et mon droit 'God and my law'|
|Official language||English (de facto)|
|Seat of government||Westminster (de facto)|
|State and form of government||Unified state , constitutional monarchy , parliamentary system of government ( Westminster system )|
|Head of state||British monarchy|
|Head of government||Prime Minister (from 1721)|
|surface||230,977 km² (1801) km²|
|National anthem||God Save the King (unofficial)|
|Time zone||UTC ± 0 GMT|
The Kingdom of Great Britain was created on May 1, 1707 through the amalgamation of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland (→ Act of Union 1707 ). A joint parliament and government in the City of Westminster administered the land. Scotland and England had been linked in personal union since 1603 . Before that, Wales had already become part of England (→ Laws for the Incorporation of Wales 1535–1542 ).
In 1707 a " British monarchy " replaced the English and Scottish monarchies, which had previously been ruled by the same person through the personal union. The Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England were dissolved. The new Parliament of Great Britain was created in their place. Both countries received seats in the House of Commons and in the House of Lords . With 45 MPs in the House of Commons and 16 Representative Peers in the House of Lords, Scotland was able to send fewer representatives than its share of the population. From 1714 there was a personal union with Kurhannover , also called Great Britain – Hanover .
As early as 1707, the Kingdom of Great Britain included numerous colonies in North America (the thirteen colonies from which the United States of America emerged ) and the Caribbean ( Barbados , Jamaica ). There were numerous trading companies for the purpose of settlement and economic development of claimed areas. The kingdom expanded its colonial space and sphere of influence to include areas in North America ( Canada ), Australia , West Africa and the Indian subcontinent ( Calcutta , Ceylon ), and thus converted the British Empire , which was to reach its peak in the 19th century its second phase. It had to cope with the detachment of the USA through the lost American War of Independence , but was able to lay the foundation stone to replace the Spanish colonial empire as the first world power of the modern age and assert itself against other emerging sea powers in Europe such as the Kingdom of France or the Netherlands .
There was no agreement at the legislative level on the official name of the state. In the Act of Union 1707, a United Kingdom of Great Britain is mentioned in some places . On the other hand, in the Union with Scotland (Amendment) Act 1707 (which regulates the formalities of the union) and in the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Act 1707 (which establishes the unchanged status of the Church of Scotland ), the Kingdom of Great Britain ("Kingdom of Great Britain" ) the speech.
The Kingdom of Great Britain was replaced on January 1, 1801 by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland .
- to 1707: Kingdom of England , History of England , List of the rulers of England
- 1707 to 1800: History of the Kingdom of Great Britain
- 1801 to 1927: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and History of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
- since 1927: United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
- on the historical development of English law: Common Law or Anglo-American legal system
- Alexander Murdoch: England, Scotland, and the Acts of Union (1707). In: The Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved on June 19, 2021 : “On 1 May 1707 England and Scotland (since 1603 a union of crowns) became the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain'. The new united kingdom was to be represented by a 'union' flag and governed by a British parliament at Westminster and a shared head of state (with the contentious issue of monarchical succession now settled in favor of the protestant house of Hanover). "
- A new Scottish Parliament was set up on July 1, 1999 after the people of Scotland approved the decentralization law in a vote on September 12, 1997.
- Act on Union with Scotland. Verassungen.eu, 2005, accessed on June 23, 2021 .
- Union with Scotland (Amendment) Act 1707. legislation.gov.uk, 2021, accessed June 23, 2021 .
- Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Act 1707. legislation.gov.uk, 2021, accessed June 23, 2021 .