Kingdom of Scotland

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Kingdom of Scotland
Kingdom of Scotland
Flag of Scotland Coat of Arms of Scotland 12th Century – 1603
flag coat of arms
navigation Flag of Great Britain (1707–1800) .svg
Motto : "In My Defens God Me Defend" ( Scots )
("In my defense God defends me")
languages Scots , Scottish Gaelic , French , Scottish English , Norn
Capital Scone (843 – approx. 1070)
Dunfermline (approx. 1070 – approx. 1440)
Edinburgh (approx. 1452–1707)
Form of government kingdom
Government system monarchy
Head of state king
surface 78,772 km²
population 1.1 million (around 1700)
Population density 14 inhabitants per km² (around 1700)
currency Scottish Pound (Pound Scots)
Existence period 843-1707
Map of the Kingdom of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland ( Scottish Gaelic Rìoghachd na h-Alba , Scots Kinrick o Scotland ) existed in what is now Scotland from 843 to 1707. It occupied the northern third of the island of Great Britain and bordered on the south with the Kingdom of England , with which it was united in the Act of Union of 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain .


The Roman name for peoples in Scotland was Picts . Their language and culture disappeared when the kingdoms of the Picts and the Celtic Scots were united under Kenneth Mac Alpin in 843 AD .

Throughout history, Edinburgh replaced the old Scottish capitals of Scone , Dunfermline and Stirling . The population of the kingdom is assumed to be 1.1 million in 1700.

In the Scottish Wars of Independence , which lasted from 1296 to 1357, several English kings from the House of Plantagenet tried to subjugate the Kingdom of Scotland and incorporate it into their sovereignty . A famous ruler of this period is Robert I the Bruce , who was crowned king in 1306 and under whom a decisive victory over the English was achieved at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 .

Since England took control of the coastal town of Berwick in 1482 , the Kingdom of Scotland has been as large as present-day Scotland. It was bounded east by the North Sea , west and north by the Atlantic Ocean, and southwest by the North Channel and the Irish Sea . In addition to the mainland, the kingdom comprised over 790 islands.

A Scottish ruler who remained famous in her tragedy was Maria Stuart . After their deposition, their son Jacob VI. Crowned king in 1567. As heir to the Tudor, he also ascended the English throne as James I in 1603, thus establishing the Anglo-Scottish personal union .

By the Act of Union on May 1, 1707, the personal union between Scotland and England, which had existed for a century, was dissolved and replaced by a real union . The Kingdom of Great Britain , to which Scotland, England and Wales belong, arose on the island , with the government in London.

See also


  • Alan Anderson: Early Sources of Scottish History, AD 500 to 1286. 2 Vols. Edinburgh 1908 and 1922, Stanford 1991 (numerous translations of sources into English).
  • Andrew DM Barrell: Medieval Scotland. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2000, ISBN 0-521-58443-4 .
  • Geoffrey Wallis Steuart Barrow: The Kingdom of the Scots. Government, Church and Society from the Eleventh to the Fourteenth Century. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2003, ISBN 0-7486-1803-1 .
  • Geoffrey Wallis Steuart Barrow: Kingship and Unity. Scotland 1000-1306. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2003, ISBN 0-7486-1800-7 .
  • Ruth Margaret Blakely: The Brus Family in England and Scotland, 1100-1295. Boydell Press, Woodbridge 2005, ISBN 1-84383-152-X .
  • Michael Brown: The Wars of Scotland, 1214-1371. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2004, ISBN 0-7486-1238-6 .
  • Keith M. Brown, Roland J. Tanner (Eds.): Parliament and Politics in Scotland, 1235-1560. Volume 1. Edinburgh University Press 2004, ISBN 0-7486-1485-0 .
  • Dauvit Broun: Scottish Independence and the Idea of ​​Britain. From the Picts to Alexander III. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2007, ISBN 978-0-7486-2360-0 .
  • Elizabeth Gemmill, Nicholas Mayhew: Changing Values ​​in Medieval Scotland. A Study of Prices, Money, And Weights And Measures. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2006, ISBN 0-521-02709-8 .
  • Cynthia J. Neville: Land, Law and People in Medieval Scotland. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2010, ISBN 978-0-7486-3958-8 .
  • Maria-Claudia Tomany: Destination Viking and Orkneyinga saga. Historiography and Regional Identity Problems in Orkney . Herbert Utz, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-8316-0417-3 .
  • Bruce Webster: Medieval Scotland. The Making of an Identity. Macmillan, Oxford 1997, ISBN 0333567617 .
  • Alex Woolf: From Pictland to Alba 789-1070. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2007, ISBN 978-0-7486-1234-5 .

Web links

Commons : Kingdom of Scotland  - Album with pictures, videos and audio files