Real union is the connection of independent states under international law through a common head of state (as in personal union , in state practice always a monarch), but also through other common institutions, i.e. state organs or administrative bodies. The connection is therefore more intensive and more legalized than with the mere personal union. In contrast to the federal state , however, no legal entity superordinate to the associated states is created.
- 1460–1867 Realunion between Schleswig and Holstein (" up forever ungedeelt ")
- 1509–1814 Realunion Denmark-Norway
- 1569 Lublin Union : Conversion of the personal union between Poland and Lithuania to the I. Rzeczpospolita , also called Poland-Lithuania (until 1791)
- 1707 Joining of the Kingdoms of England and Scotland by Act of Union
- 1802–1810 Realunion of the Principality of Salm-Salm and Salm-Kyrburg to form the Principality of Salm
- 1809–1917 The relationship between the Grand Duchy of Finland and the Russian Empire was described by some authors as a real union . The classification was controversial, however, others denied Finland its own national character.
- 1814–1905 Realunion between Sweden and Norway
- 1852–1920 Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as (partially) real union of Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha (previously from 1826 mere personal union)
- 1867–1918 Real Union Austria-Hungary (as a result of the Austro-Hungarian settlement )
- 1918–1944 Realunion between Denmark and Iceland
- 1936–1941 / 44 Realunion between Italy and Abyssinia ( Italian East Africa )
To a certain extent, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz were a counterpart to the Real Union, with a joint state parliament (and thus united here as Austria-Hungary), but different grand dukes, therefore without a union.
- Burkhard Schöbener, Matthias Knauff: Allgemeine Staatslehre. 2nd edition, CH Beck, Munich 2013, § 6, Rn. 47 (p. 270)
- Karl-Michael Reineck: Allgemeine Staatslehre und Deutsches Staatsrecht. 15th edition, 2007, para. 62 (p. 58)
- Bernhard Getz: The constitutional relationship between Finland and Russia. 1900, p. 24.
- Wolf Freiherr von der Osten-Sacken: The constitutional position of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire. 1909, p. 8.
- Jürgen Erdmann: Coburg, Bavaria and the Reich 1918–1923. Rossteutscher, Coburg 1969.
- Georg Jellinek disputed the widespread classification of Saxony-Coburg and Gothas according to the constitution of 1852 as a real union and instead classified it as a unitary state. (G. Jellinek: The Doctrine of Relationships between States. Alfred Hölder, Vienna 1882, pp. 208–209)
- Helge bei der Wieden: Brief outline of the Mecklenburg constitutional history: six hundred years of Mecklenburg constitutions. Thomas Helms Verlag, Schwerin, 2001.