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Real union is the connection of independent states under international law through a common head of state (as in personal union , in state practice always a monarch), but also through other common institutions, i.e. state organs or administrative bodies. The connection is therefore more intensive and more legalized than with the mere personal union. In contrast to the federal state , however, no legal entity superordinate to the associated states is created.

Examples are:

To a certain extent, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz were a counterpart to the Real Union, with a joint state parliament (and thus united here as Austria-Hungary), but different grand dukes, therefore without a union.

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e Burkhard Schöbener, Matthias Knauff: Allgemeine Staatslehre. 2nd edition, CH Beck, Munich 2013, § 6, Rn. 47 (p. 270)
  2. a b c d e Karl-Michael Reineck: Allgemeine Staatslehre und Deutsches Staatsrecht. 15th edition, 2007, para. 62 (p. 58)
  3. ^ Bernhard Getz: The constitutional relationship between Finland and Russia. 1900, p. 24.
  4. Wolf Freiherr von der Osten-Sacken: The constitutional position of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire. 1909, p. 8.
  5. Jürgen Erdmann: Coburg, Bavaria and the Reich 1918–1923. Rossteutscher, Coburg 1969.
  6. Georg Jellinek disputed the widespread classification of Saxony-Coburg and Gothas according to the constitution of 1852 as a real union and instead classified it as a unitary state. (G. Jellinek: The Doctrine of Relationships between States. Alfred Hölder, Vienna 1882, pp. 208–209)
  7. Helge bei der Wieden: Brief outline of the Mecklenburg constitutional history: six hundred years of Mecklenburg constitutions. Thomas Helms Verlag, Schwerin, 2001.