History of Scotland
The history of Scotland begins with the colonization of the country by Stone Age hunters and gatherers towards the end of the last Ice Age , i.e. at the beginning of the Mesolithic around 10,000 BC. Due to the rising sea level after the Ice Age, around 6500 BC. The English Channel flooded and Great Britain with England and Scotland again became an island. From animal husbandry and tillage, d. H. through the production and stocking of food, marked Neolithic Age (around 4500 BC) testify numerous large stone graves and stone circles in Scotland . Around 2500 BC In the 2nd century BC copper and later bronze processing became known, and bell-beaker people came into the country. The processing of iron was known from around 400 BC. At an as yet unexplained point in time, the Picts (who either spoke a Celtic language, probably from the British group , or possibly no Indo-European language , but a pre-Indo-European substratum ) came to Scotland.
No later than 600 BC. BC groups called Celts came to Scotland today . From around 200 BC Irish immigrants built tower structures in the form of brochs in Dalriada . From 43 AD the Romans began to conquer Britain , 80 AD they advanced to Scotland for the first time, but the conquest failed. Emperor Hadrian had Hadrian's Wall named after him built from 122 , his successor Antoninus Pius had the south of Scotland occupied and secured by the Antoninus Wall further north . In 209 to 212 a final attempt at conquest failed. From the last third of the 4th century onwards, the Picts, those inhabitants of Scotland who the Romans called Caledonians , advanced into Roman Britain. Christianization began towards the end of the century .
After the withdrawal of the Romans, there were initially around 400 Germanic tribes and around 500 with the Scots from Ireland again Celts settled in the south of Scotland. These Skots gave Scotland its name. In the next few centuries there were four small empires in Scotland: the Pictish Empire in the north and east, the Gaelic Empire Dál Riata in the west, the Anglic Northumbrians in the southeast and Strathclyde, borne by the Romanized British, in the southwest. Under pressure from the Vikings , who plundered the coasts and occupied the Orkneys from the late 8th century , the kingdoms of the Scots and Picts unified in the 840s, while the islands off the north and west coasts were settled by Normans and Norway were mastered. By 1000, Gaelic replaced the Pictish language in the common kingdom of Alba, and the Vikings conquered the western islands of Scotland. In the second half of the 11th century the influence of the Roman over the Celtic church prevailed and numerous monasteries emerged. The Norman-English influence increased, in the south a feudal feudal order was established, but this was not enforceable in the highlands , where the clan structures were preserved. At the same time, the importance of cities and commerce grew rapidly, and immigrants came from England, Flanders, and northern France with their skills.
From 1174 to 1189 Scotland was recognized as an English vassal after interfering in the English controversy for the throne, and in 1237 the current border between the kingdoms was recognized. In 1266 the western islands came to the Scots from the Normans. The English king intervened in the Scottish throne dispute and appointed a king in 1292, in 1296 Scotland had to recognize the English king as overlord. Up until 1357 there were repeated uprisings, which ultimately led to independence. Scotland benefited from a permanent alliance with France, the Auld Alliance .
From 1371 the Scottish kings came from the Stewart family . In 1385 a French army was in the country for the first time. King James I , ie James I, imprisoned in England from 1406 to 1424, advocated a policy that was directed against the great independence of local rulers, especially in the Highlands and on the western islands. While the Wars of the Roses raged in England , the Kingdom of Scotland was at the height of its power. In 1493, the king took control of the western islands.
But in 1513 the Scottish army was defeated by the troops of Henry VIII of England. For Spain and France, Scotland became an important ally against England and a tool of counter-Reformation efforts. In 1537 this was sealed by a Franco-Scottish marriage alliance, but in 1542 Scottish troops were again defeated. Mary Queen of Scots tried to win the throne from France, but failed and was executed at Fotheringhay Castle in 1587 . Your son James VI. became King of England in 1603. He ruled in England and Scotland in personal union , but the countries retained their own parliament. Administrative and legal systems as well as the national church - Scotland had been Calvinist since 1560 - also remained in their own sovereignty.
The king and court moved from Edinburgh to London. Meanwhile, there was religiously motivated unrest in Scotland, which was directed against English influence, whereupon the king convened parliament in 1640 to secure the funding of the fight against the Scottish Church. There was a coup in England. King Charles I was captured by Scotland, but he refused to introduce the Presbyterian Church in England. Therefore the Scots handed their king over to the Puritans ; he was executed in 1649. As a result, a king was crowned for the last time in Scotland, namely Charles II. As a result, Oliver Cromwell occupied Scotland. In 1660 the returned king promised freedom of religion to everyone, whereupon he became king of both kingdoms again in London. Against the reintroduction of the dioceses, however, there were riots in Scotland. The persecution of the Presbyterians peaked between 1681 and 1689, when King James II attempted to re-Catholicize England. He was deposed in the Glorious Revolution in 1688 .
The Scottish Parliament now recognized the Protestant William of Orange, who had been appointed king. He made the highland clan leaders swear an oath of allegiance. The Jacobites remained supporters of Stuart who named themselves in England, Ireland and especially in Scotland after their former king Jacob. In 1689 there was an uprising of the Catholic royalists, in 1692 there was a massacre of one of the Scottish clans. With a failed colonial settlement enterprise in Central America and the resulting threat of national bankruptcy, the opportunity to unite the kingdoms was within reach, as Scotland was looking for economic reasons to be close to London. In 1701 the English parliament forbade Catholics to hold state office, and it demanded a Protestant heir to the throne from the House of Hanover. In 1707 England, which assumed the debt, was united with Scotland; Jacobite revolts broke out in Scotland in 1715, 1719 and 1745. English garrisons were placed in fortresses at strategically important points. Those involved in the uprising fled abroad or were executed.
With the opening of access to the British world market, there was a phase of economic prosperity and the Scottish Enlightenment. One of the foundations was the ruthless evacuation of many Scottish areas, especially in the Highlands and the islands, in order to raise sheep there, while those who had become homeless had to emigrate or poured into the cities of the south. From this a proletariat developed, which formed the basis of the industrial revolution , which turned the south into an industrial region. Glasgow grew with industrialization, while Edinburgh developed into a cultural center. The decline of fishing and heavy industry began in the post-war years, and the oil extracted off the coast created new dependencies and inequalities. In 1997, four-fifths of the electorate voted for the country's autonomous status in a referendum, and in 2014 there was a vote on independence , in which 55.3% of voters rejected the independence of Scotland.
Hunters and gatherers (from around 10,000 BC)
No human traces from the time before the last glacial period were found in Scotland, but were found before the younger Dryas period , i.e. before about 10,730 BC. Chr., Such traces appeared in the English Creswell Crags , which, if one follows genetic investigations, go back to immigration from the eastern Balkan area in the mouth area of the Danube, via Friesland on the still existing land route. Around 16,000 BC The glaciation of Britain , which at that time was still a peninsula and could be reached via today's North Sea, reached its climax. At that time, Scotland was probably still inaccessible to humans.
The only Paleolithic site in Scotland is Howburn, which is near Biggar in South Lanarkshire . The warehouse for stone tools with over 800 artefacts was probably discovered in 2005 while plowing. An exact age determination is not possible, but the stone tools allow an approximate date to the time around 12,000 to 10,000 BC. Chr. To. The tools have similarities to those of the late Hamburg culture , but also to Scandinavian finds, which would confirm the assumption expressed from a genetic perspective about a north-west European immigration. In the coastal regions of the west and north, however, there was an immigration from the Pyrenees region of Spain, from where hunters and gatherers followed the tundra landscape and its range of prey, which was retreating with the ice masses.
Around 9500 BC The last ice masses melted in the 3rd century BC, and this process lasted less than a century. The almost vegetation-free landscape that the ice initially left behind was reclaimed in a long process by mosses and lichens , grasses , bushes and trees. The first trees were birch trees , which grew around 7800 BC. Returned from the south. Around 3000 to 2000 BC Even St. Kilda, which is located in the Atlantic and still belongs to Scotland, was probably overgrown by trees. In many areas the forests were so dense that people could only live on their edges. They are likely to have moved across rivers and lakes, along the coast or above the tree line, which was around 600 to 700 m.
In the Mesolithic , the Mesolithic, which is defined by post-glacial hunter and gatherer cultures, the second oldest traces of human activity were found. Roots and berries were just as important for daily survival as hunted prey, but also hazelnuts , of which 30,000 to 40,000 were stored on Colonsay , one of the Inner Hebrides . The earliest inhabitants lived in caves and wooden huts, fur-covered frames offered protection from wind and rain on long hunting expeditions. The early residents made stone axes, scrapers, blades and knives and combined them with wood or antlers to make composite tools. More than twenty species of fish and over thirty species of birds can be found as part of the Mesolithic menu. There were also marine mammals, deer and wild boar .
Glenbattrick on Jura could be traced back to around 8030 BC. BC and was therefore the oldest site until 2008. Cramond, discovered in 2001 near Edinburgh, was valid until 2009, around 8500 BC. A temporary camp as the oldest site. In 2009, Howburn, the first Paleolithic site was discovered.
The oldest detectable settlement was near Kinloch on Rùm . It existed around 7700 to 7500 BC. Between the sixth and fourth millennia BC. BC fishermen, hunters and gatherers still lived in Scotland, especially on islands such as Rùm, Oronsay or in the coastal regions, on rivers or at the foot of protective mountain slopes. A settlement near Inverness was established around 6200 BC. Destroyed by a tsunami when a continental slope slid in Storegga, Norway .
In Scotland there was no accessible deposit of the vitreous, volcanic rock obsidian , which was of the utmost importance for tool production, or of " flint ". Therefore, they turned to the equally suitable Pechstein , which, however, was only accessible on the island of Arran . There are three distribution centers on the mainland in which there is an extreme accumulation of finds over an area of perhaps 10 km by 10 km. These centers were around Biggar in South Lanarkshire , around Glen Luce in Dumfries and around Ballygalley in Antrim, Northern Ireland . A single, very large deposit was found in the Scottish Argyll and Bute . Its inhabitants and the people of Arran themselves were probably the only ones who had free access to the rare but valuable material, which from here found its way into an extensive network of trade and exchange.
Neolithic (from 4500 BC)
The Neolithic (New Stone Age) brought about 4500 BC. The transition from hunting and gathering to cultivation and livestock farming, i.e. the transition to the production of food. In Balbridie in Kincardineshire and Claish farm in Stirlingshire the remains were found of wooden longhouses of the Early Neolithic. The people lived in wooden houses covered with clay, kept cattle, goats, pigs, sheep and dogs. In summer they went fishing on the coast, on watercourses or lakes. Fishplaces from around 4000 BC Were found on the Argyll coast.
People made pottery that they used for cooking and storing food. In the Outer Hebrides and Orkney , the earliest Neolithic is associated with the Unstan Ware . Buildings made of stone ( barnhouse ) were also built here, as in the Middle Neolithic, which is associated with the so-called Grooved Ware . Dreghorn, County Ayrshire, may have evolved due to Grooved Ware dating from around 3500 BC. B.C. as the oldest continuously inhabited place in Great Britain.
The residents buried their dead in barrows , stone chambers or underground graves made of stone. In Isbister Cairn on South Ronaldsay , one of the islands of the Orkney group, about 340 dead were found between 3200 and 2800 BC. Were buried. The average height of adult men was 1.70 m, that of women 1.63 m. Often the foreheads of the women were deformed by carrying straps because they had apparently carried heavy loads. Many of the residents had suffered injuries so that only a few lived to be over 50 years old, not a single woman. On Papa Westray , a small island in the Orkney group, the remains of two houses have been found that were there between 3600 and 3100 BC. Were inhabited and built of stone, presumably because there were almost no trees on the island. A hierarchical structure of society cannot be seen here.
The Skara Brae settlement was established between 3100 and 2450 BC. Dated. Similar to Rinyo on Rousey , the Orkney Islands , the place had remains of a drainage system made of birch bark. Storage boxes for fish were discovered in cellars. Apparently peat was used for heating; there were bed boxes, shelves and simple cupboards. The roofs were probably supported by driftwood or animal bones, the houses were sunk into the ground. Remnants of swamp irises point to the first medicinal products, as well as belly mushrooms . The former could have been helpful for digestive problems, the latter were used for bleeding wounds until the 19th century.
The stone circles or henges made of megaliths , such as the Ring of Brodgar with a diameter of 104 m or the Stones of Stenness (both on Orkney, where together with Skara Brae as The Heart of Neolithic Orkney, have been a World Heritage Site since 1999, are still puzzling count) or the stone formations of Callanish on the Isle of Lewis . There are 13 erected large stones around a middle stone that is almost 5 m high. Rows of stones up to 80 m long form a huge cross. There is a grave in the inner circle. These sites, between 3000 and about 2500 BC. They are often interpreted as a calendar . On the Ring of Callanish, for example, the lunar orbit phase results in a possible astronomical constellation every 18.6 years. Seen from the processional street there, the moon over the surrounding hills gives the impression of going down in the stone circle.
From around 3000 BC The megalithic graves, called Cairns , were created, presumably collective burial places for the ruling class of an entire settlement or settlement chamber . The burial chambers were covered with mounds of earth or stones. Examples of these graves are Maes Howe Cairn on Orkney, the " Gray Cairns of Camster " southwest of Wick in the Caithness region and the Clava Cairns at Culloden near Inverness .
The largest ceremonial Neolithic site in the British Isles is the Ness of Brodgar on the main island of the Orkneys, on Mainland . The since 3200 BC Established site was built around 2600 BC. It was greatly expanded and a temple-like building was created. This structure, known as Structure 10 , is 25 m long and 20 m wide and was part of a considerably larger, walled complex. Only Neolithic ceramics were found, but none from the Bronze Age. During great celebrations - the remains of around 600 cattle were found, which had apparently served to entertain thousands of visitors, as well as a single stag - the facility was opened around 2300 BC. Abandoned BC.
Bronze and Iron Ages
Connected with the bell beaker pottery, which is widespread throughout Western Europe, came from 2500 BC. New techniques, especially copper and bronze working , agricultural methods and social structures, to Scotland. Barley and emmer were still the staple food, the fields surrounded by stone walls were tilled with ards , simple wooden plows pulled by oxen.
During the Bronze Age , the Recumbent Stone Circles (e.g. Loanhead of Daviot , in Aberdeenshire ) and, towards the end of the Bronze Age, the Hillforts were created in the Border and Grampian region, which differs somewhat from the Highlands . Regular long-distance trade across the rivers can be evidenced by boats built for the trade of bulky goods, such as the one built around 1000 BC. Chr. Incurred Carpow dugout or v 1400. A dugout canoe that was discovered in the Trent . The villages became from about 600 BC. Attached. These signs of insecurity and threat may be due to the influx of Celts , according to historical sources between 700 and 500 BC. Chr. Immigrated. Perhaps from around 2000 BC The Celtic language group, which emerged as a commercial language, comprised a large number of peoples throughout Europe and the Middle East.
Metalworking skills played an important role in the Bronze Age and the Iron Age that followed (around 400 BC – 200 AD). They changed the shapes of jewelry, household items and weapons. The latter were no longer only used for hunting, but also in combat. Above all, however, the iron tools made it easier to log and gain soil for growing grain. The Celts, on the other hand, made little use of the possibilities of writing, so that their knowledge could only be passed on to the following generations via oral tradition. At the end of the 2nd century the Celts issued coins in the south of England, but barter remained in Scotland.
Remains of more than 500 tower structures in the form of Brochs show a strong Irish influence in north-west and north-east Scotland. Around 200 BC The towers, later called Broch, were built until 150 AD. In the border region ( Dunnideer ), installations at an exposed altitude, so-called Hillforts , demonstrated the willingness of the population to keep their old cult sites even after the often only regional Christianization. It emerged Piktensteine , but also increasingly cross slabs called cross stones that something other than Celtic Cross look and show beside the cross pre-Christian motifs in the animal and node style. In place names these brochs, which have the old Gaelic designation Dun or Carn in the name, are still present today alongside the remains. The best example is the name Edinburgh , which is said to have developed from the old Celtic name 'Dun Eidyn'.
In 1996 one of the few references to iron smelting furnaces was discovered near Inverness. The remains of coal could be traced back to 180 BC. To be dated to AD 70. The production of bronze swords and the processing of copper alloys could be documented in the neighborhood. If one follows Cassius Dio (150–235), the Celts in the north and in the center of Scotland did not eat any fish despite the abundant offer, but preferred meat.
Trade contacts between Irish and Scottish Celts existed no later than 250 BC. BC, such as a drinking horn, decorated in the Irish style, documented. Around 150 BC After Celtic groups had probably only infiltrated for a long time BC, Belgian Celts came to the south-east of England and spread to the Humber . Tacitus thought the Caledonii were descendants of Teutons , so they had blue eyes and red hair. They colored themselves blue for the fight with woad , as Caesar reported in the Gallic War (V, 14), in order to spread terror with their appearance. Women also intervened in the struggles as they were generally much better off than the non-Celtic women. They exercised professions, could become queen, had equal access to the joint marital property, were entitled to inheritance, were not allowed to be married against their will and probably chose their husbands themselves. Cassius Dio reports that the brothers or fathers and sons of the Scottish Caledonii and Maeatae would share their wives and that they would raise the children together. In addition to the landowners and warriors , the leadership group included druids who learned their art for twenty years, seers who acquired their skills over twelve years, and bards. It is not known whether there were also female druids, but there were certainly women among the seers and kings. Overall, society was more stratified. The reputation of the peasants depended on the size of their herds, and there were also craftsmen who were often also in high esteem. Less important artisans or small farmers, even if they were free, were not asked in political matters, much less the slaves. The latter were mostly prisoners of war, debtors or had been brought in by slave traders.
The first who knew today's Scotland from his own experience and reported about it in writing was Pytheas of Massalia (today: Marseille ), who around 325 BC. BC Northern Europe traveled. Except for Strabo and Pliny, the journey has been handed down to Diodorus , where the name Orkas or Orca appears for the main island of the Orkneys. The ancient authors, however, only provide quotations from the lost work of Pytheas.
The Romans in the south of Scotland, attempts at conquest (1st to 4th centuries)
Julius Caesar undertook during his conquest of Gaul in August 55 BC. BC was the first Roman general to undertake an expedition to the British Isles , as he suspected that the Gauls, who called themselves Celtae , as he stated, were supported by British Celtae . He returned in July of the following year, but this time the Celts allied themselves under Cassivellaunus . However, this had killed the father of Mandubracius , who drew some tribes to the Roman side. The subsequent victory of Caesar came at just the right time, for he had to hurry back to Gaul in September. Although it ultimately failed, the Romanization of the British began in the 1st century. At the end of the century, the chiefs in the south were already minting their coins based on the Roman model.
In AD 43, the Romans under Emperor Claudius conquered the southern part of Britain; the Roman province of Britannia arose . As so often, they wanted to support one of the local rulers, in this case the displaced Verica , who had come to Rome. Four legions, including three from the Rhine, plus auxiliary troops, a total of 40,000 men and 15,000 animals, crossed the canal in early summer. The commander Aulus Plautius moved to the most important city Camulodunum . The emperor himself was asked for help, as agreed, and the city was conquered in the 16 days of his presence. He and his two-year-old son Tiberius (41-55) received the title Britannicus . Possibly this campaign triggered a wave of refugees that surely reached as far as Wales , perhaps also to the Orkney Islands. It is possible that those who fled there asked for Roman protection from their neighbors. This assumption is confirmed by an archaeological find, because a single Roman amphora that was discovered on the islands and which was made in this way only before 60 AD is the only specimen of this type north of Esses . Cartimandua led a tribal coalition that temporarily formed a kind of buffer zone between Roman and Celtic Britain. The history of Britain is marked by a continuous expansion of Roman influence. It expanded from the south to Wales, but also to Scotland, which the Romans called Caledonia . They saw later England and Scotland almost as two islands connected by a land bridge. Also on the Hereford map from the 13th century are shown as separate islands still England and Scotland.
From 80 onwards, the Roman governor Britannias Gnaeus Iulius Agricola made an advance into what is now eastern and northern Scotland, using Celtic troops against the Caledonians . Along its route of conquest, Agricola built a number of camps and bases, of which a number of floor plans testify. In 84, Agricola defeated the first united tribes of the Caledonians in the battle of Mons Graupius , a place that cannot be precisely located. According to the description of Claudius Ptolemy , the battlefield is on the northeast coast of Scotland. The Caledonians went into battle with chariots ; In 2003 one of them was found in East Yorkshire, an area inhabited by the Parisians . The car was built between 500 and 400 BC. Dated BC and had wheels one meter in diameter. Since this type of fighting technique had long been abandoned and forgotten on the continent, it caused confusion when it first encountered Caesar's troops ( Bellum Gallicum , IV, 33). The Picts also beheaded their enemies, as evidenced by a find of skeletons in the Sculptor's Cave on the Moray Firth , a site that was in use until around 600. The decapitated could be dated between 231 and 395. Agricola had forts built during his campaigns, especially in the land of the Selgovae , and roads to secure the conquered area. However, no military security took place in the area of the Novantae , Damnonii and Votadini , with whom Rome was apparently not at war. But after Agricola was recalled by the emperor in 84, construction work on the Pinnata Castra ( Inchtuthil ) camp was abandoned, as was the fortifications along the Gask Ridge in Perthshire , the border line with the Highlands . Formal submission was evidently sufficient for Rome.
Emperor Hadrian wanted to have a bulwark built after his visit to the island. From 122 onwards he had Hadrian's Wall, reinforced with watchtowers, forts and forts, built on the Tyne - Solway line (close to today's Anglo-Scottish border). 138, only a few months after Hadrian's death, his adopted son and successor Antoninus Pius sent his new governor Quintus Lollius Urbicus to reoccupy southern Scotland and 160 km further north a new border wall at the narrowest point of the province, the isthmus between Firth of Forth and Firth of Clyde , to build. An earth wall with watchtowers and forts and the northernmost defensive structure of the empire was built. Numerous traces of this Antonine Wall can still be seen, for example in Falkirk . Many of the forts and roads previously built by the Romans and razed when they left have been restored. Around 142 the south of what is now Scotland was Roman again. The new fortification wall fulfilled its task until 183, but then had to be abandoned. Around 197 he was taken over again. But since 142 there were repeated attacks on Roman territory despite the protective walls. The attackers were by no means members of a single tribe, but were given the collective term Picts by the Romans .
For a few decades, the Roman legionaries withdrew behind Hadrian's Wall, but in 209 under Emperor Septimius Severus they made a third advance further north. In 209 the emperor claimed to have been provoked by the Maeatae and sent numerous legionnaires and auxiliaries northwards. Only massive losses, Cassius Dio speaks of 50,000 men, forced the Romans to abandon the project. During the preparations for a second campaign, Emperor Septimius Severus died in Eboracum (York) in 211 , his son Caracalla abandoned the plans for conquest in 212. The contempt with which the Romans viewed the people on the other side of Hadrian's Wall, whom they had engulfed in several brutal wars, is shown by the Vindolanda tablets in which the Picts were referred to as "Brittunculi". On these wooden panels from the 1st and 2nd centuries from the North British fort Vindolanda , we learn for the first time about processes and attitudes as well as about the culture of the border area.
Between 367 and 370 the first massive attacks by Picts took place over Hadrian's Wall on the Roman garrisons. General Fullofaudes fell into captivity, while Franks or Saxons attacked the Roman provinces further south. Simultaneously with the fall of the Roman Empire, the province of Britannia, divided in 212, began to dissolve in 383. The troop strength in Britannia was soon drastically reduced, which was used for raids by the Picts from Scotland, the Scots from Ireland and Celtic tribes from western Britain. When Magnus Maximus , made emperor by his soldiers in 383, translated to Gaul, the province was further weakened; when he returned in 384 without success, he had to fend off Picts and Scots. Around 400 the legions withdrew from Britain to secure the Rhine border. At this time, with St. Ninian started Christian proselytizing. He is said to have resided as bishop in Whithorn around 397 .
Christianization (from around 400)
Almost simultaneously with the dissolution of Roman power, the Christianization of Scotland began, while south of Hadrian's Wall it certainly began much earlier. This religion had already been brought into the province by Christian Romans and therefore seeped into the daily life of the British, Gaelen and southern Picts. Irish monks first converted the Celts on the southern coast of today's Scotland.
According to legend, Whithorn on the Solway Firth became the center of the mission in Scotland in 397 under St. Ninian - this name is probably derived from Uinniau through transcription errors. But another missionary gave the decisive impetus. Patrick , kidnapped to Ireland from the region of what is now Glasgow at the beginning of the 5th century , managed to escape. He came to Christianity in France, was made bishop and in 432 he was sent to Ireland by Pope Celestine I because of his knowledge of the language. There he did missionary work and laid the basis for a Christian culture, which is often referred to as the Celtic Church . This Irish Scottish mission can also be attributed to St. Columban , who sent his missionaries from Iona . In 563 the monk, who came from an Irish royal family, landed with a small group of monks on the Hebridean island of Iona. He came to his Gaelic Christian compatriots in Dalriada , and from there he probably Christianized parts of western Scotland as well. In order to be able to establish contact with the Picts, however, he needed an interpreter, as Adomnan von Iona writes in his biography of St. Columban. The influence of Iona also expanded south and across the borders. In Patrick's day, only parishes in Galloway, Clydesdale, Lothian, and Fife are recorded.
Aidan of Lindisfarne became one of Columban's successors. Coming from Iona, with the help of the Northumbrian King Oswald, he founded the Lindisfarne monastery on an island off the east coast of England ( Holy Island near Newcastle ). Lindisfarne became the primal cell of several later monasteries such as Hartlepool and Whitby in northeast England, where Hilda of Whitby was abbess. Lindisfarne and Hartlepool also influenced Boniface .
Four kingdoms, four ethnic groups: Pict Empire, Dál Riata, Strathclyde, Bernicia
At the time the Picts first appeared under this name in 297, they inhabited the land north of what is now Stirling and Aberfoyle . Some of the tribal names have been passed down by Claudius Ptolemy , the Alexandrian geographer and Agricola's son-in-law , including Caledonii, Maeatae and Verturiones. However, for the sake of simplicity, the Roman legions gave - for the sake of simplicity - all their northern enemies with the same name, namely that of the most powerful Celtic tribe in the 1st century AD - the Caledonians - not very informative for posterity . Their area was around the mountain Schiehallion in the center of today's Scotland and around their base Dunkeld . Eumenius equated Caledonii and Picti in 297, as did Ammianus Marcellinus . In the middle of the 6th century a distinction was made between two groups, the northern between the Grampian Mountains and the Shetland Islands, the southern between Loch Fyne and Aberdeenshire .
After 500, so the no longer undisputed assumption, Celts (Scoti) came from the Irish Ulster . These Gaelic-speaking Irish settled in what is now Argyll in the west, which they conquered without giving up their areas of origin. They founded the Kingdom of Dalriada (Dál Riata) there in the 6th century . Under King Aidan Mac Gabhráin (around 574 to 608) there were raids to Man and the Orkneys (around 580), but he was defeated by the Anglo-Saxons at Daegsastan in 603, whose location is not known. He defeated the Picts first around 590 at Leithri, but was defeated in 598 at Circin. In the west of Scotland, ships of the Birlinn or Birling type, also called West Highland Galley , played an important role, a longship that was both rowed and sailed.
In the early Middle Ages in Scotland there were four small kingdoms: the Pictish kingdom in the north and east, the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata in the West, Anglian Northumbrians of Bernicia in the southeast (according to legend is the Angel King Edwin the namesake of Edinburgh ) and of Romanized Britons Born Strathclyde in the southwest. The ruling groups of these empires were soon linked by dynastic and political connections.
The first Pictish king in the sources is Maelchon ; He was succeeded by his son Brude. Columban had a relatively good relationship with him. Brother's heartland was around Inverness , and he claimed suzerainty over the Orkney Islands. Between 653 and 657 Talorcen ruled. Among the important kings of the following years were Brude, son of Bile (671-692), who in 685 defeated the Northumbrian Angles under King Ecgfrith , son of Oswiu , in a battle near Nechtanesmere . Óengus I., son of Fergus (729–761) subjugated the Scots of Argyll in the 730s.
Domnall Brecc (629-642) made enemies of the Irish clan of Columban and defeated them in 637. He was also defeated in three battles in Scotland - against the Picts in 635 at Caladrois and 638 at Glen Morriston, against Strathclyde in 642 at the Battle of Strathcarron ; in her he was killed. Domangart II (660-673) managed to gain a foothold in the southern part of the Pictish Empire, where he suppressed an uprising in 673. It was followed only briefly by ruling kings, under Selbach (700–723) a relatively long period of peace followed. Áed Find , Áed the White, ruled for over four decades, namely from 736 to 778. He was considered the great-grandfather of Cináed mac Ailpín, the first king of the Scots, but this could also be a legitimizing legend. In 768 there was a "Bellum i Fortrinn iter Aedh & Cinaedh", as it is called in the Ulster annals, by which the Pict king Ciniod I is meant. The cultural unity between western Scotland and Northern Ireland that created the empire of Dalriada can be traced back to the early modern period.
With the subjugation of the Scots of Argyll in the 730s, almost all of Scotland was briefly under Pict control, but the Picts, for their part, were heavily influenced culturally by the Scots and British. Around 800 two brothers ruled in succession among the Picts, namely Constantine and Óengus II (until 834). In 839 the Picts defeated their Scottish neighbors from Dalriada and killed their king Eoganan . But then Scandinavian raids hit all parties in England and Scotland almost simultaneously, from Lindisfarne to Iona . The Pict King Uen was also killed in fighting against them.
This led to 843 to the new Kingdom of Alba , an association Dál Riatas with the Piktenreich . The first common king of the Picts and Scots was Cinead mac Alpin or Kenneth I (until 858). Cinead, King Alpin's son, had seized the opportunity and conquered the Pictish Empire, which had been leaderless since 839 due to the king's death. He justified his claim to the throne with the maternal line of succession, which was recognized by the Picts, so his mother must have been a Pictin. He founded Haus Alpin (until 1058); The place of coronation and residence was Scone . Legend has it that he murdered his Pictish rivals. The dynasty called itself up to 900 kings of the Picts (reges pictorum) , between 800 and 1000 Gaelic superseded the Pictish language, of which only a few words have survived. The succession was decided by the tradition of the tanistry , that is, a member of the royal family was previously appointed to this office of the new king. Under the successors of Kenneth MacAlpin, the Picts and the Scots merged. The Picts last appeared in a source around 875. It is unclear whether this marks a cultural displacement of the Pictish or rather the transition from Latin to the vernacular. In any case, people no longer wrote of the "Rex Pictorum", but of the "Rí Alban", King of Alba.
The British of Strathclyde , whose British name was Ystrad Clud ("Valley of the Clyde"), remained an important factor in power. The leadership group was probably Christianized as early as the 5th century, because one of its kings received a letter from St. Patrick. Mungo or Kentigern, the first bishop of Glasgow, is said to have worked successfully as a missionary to the British on the Clyde around 540, if one follows a vita of the 12th century. Rhydderch Hael is mentioned in Adomnán's Vita of St. Columban. At the beginning of the 7th century, the Dalriada kingdom under Áedán mac Gabráin was at the height of its power. However, its supremacy ended in a loss to the Northumbrians in 603. The annals of Ulster report that the British, led by Eugein I, defeated an army of Dalriada at Strathcarron in 642 and killed his king Domnall Brecc. Apparently the neighbors did not give up in their efforts, because the annals report two further battles under the year 711 at Lorg Ecclet and 717 at the rock called Minuic. The Picts also penetrated the Clyde several times, so that Strathclyde soon no longer played a major role. In 870 Vikings conquered the capital Dumbarton . Their tombstones, the Hogbacks , indicate that the Normans will soon begin to settle in. Between 1018 and after 1054 the Kingdom of Strathclyde was finally conquered by the Scots. Although incited Edward the Confessor , the English king, 1054 the British under Máel Coluim II. Again against the Scots on Mac Bethad mac Findlàich, known as Macbeth subjected to, but they were later than 1070 again Scotland.
The first recorded Anglic king of Bernicia , which stretched between Tyne and the Firth of Forth , was Ida , who ruled from about 547 to 559. His dynasty ruled until 716. The Angles expanded westward when they conquered the Cumbrian territories of Rheged and Gododdin and parts of the Kingdom of Strathclyde. The royal seat was in Bamburgh . Glappa and Adda followed Ida. His successor King Æthelfrith (568 or 569 to 572 or 573) united his empire with the more southern Deira in 604 and thus founded Northumbria . 633 Northumbria was again divided into Bernicia and Deira, Bernicia was ruled for a short time by a son of Æthelfriths named Eanfrith . From 634 to 642 the kings of Bernicia also became masters of Northumbria, again from 651. Under King Oswiu (642 to 670) 655 to 658 succeeded in temporarily expanding to Mercia . He had spent some years in exile with King Eochaid Bude (608–629) of Dalriada and was one of the winners of 634. Around 657 he founded the Whitby Monastery , was in correspondence with Pope Vitalian , and in 664 he called the Synod of Whitby one who opted for the Catholic rite. Many followers of the Irish Scottish tradition then moved to Scotland. In 685 there was a war with the Picts under Brude mac Bili ; they defeated the Angles at what is now Dunnichen on May 20, 685 in the Battle of Dunnichen Mere . This ended the Northumbrian rule in the north.
The Pictish Empire was in the eastern highlands. The Scots or Gaelen ("Scoti" after an expression by Beda Venerabilis from the 8th century) who immigrated from Northern Ireland lived in Dalriada , in the western highlands and on the Hebrides . Anglers lived in the southeast.
Another ethnic group was added in the late 8th century. Vikings invaded the country and set up bases on the coasts of the mainland and in the Shetland Islands , on Orkney and the Hebrides down to the Isle of Man . From there they plundered monasteries and the surrounding land in Ireland, England, and the northwest and northeast highlands. Thus the Normans , quasi as the fifth ethnic-language group next to the Scots, Picts, Angles and the British, became an important political factor in Scotland. In 839 they defeated the kings of Dál Riata and Fortriu. A Gaelic-Norman mixed population, Gall-Gaidel , soon ruled the country that is now called Galloway after them. The Kingdom of the Isles came into being in the 9th century when the Normans and Irish conquered the Hebrides. This external pressure set the Scots and Picts in motion and ultimately gave birth to the House of Alpin , which became leaders in Scotland for two centuries from around 840. In 867 the Vikings occupied Northumbria and founded the Kingdom of Jórvík around what would later become York. They soon conquered large parts of England. In the Irish Sea and especially in the Hebrides and the Orkneys, regional rulers remained dominant until well into the 13th century, even if the Norwegian kings repeatedly took over the sovereignty.
Scottish unity and independence
Kingdom of Alba (843-1034)
It was not until the Kingdom of Alba that a source appeared for the first time, which originated in Scotland itself, the oldest chronicles of which originated in the country from the middle of the 12th century. But even the Chronicle of the Kings of Alba has only survived as a 14th-century copy of a summary of the time around 1200. It ranges from around 850 to the end of the 10th century. It is based on a list of kings from around 950 with additions, which was probably made in Dunkeld . As Iona’s leadership role, which was of great importance to the Irish, ended, Irish sources played a lesser role after the 10th century than they had in the previous centuries. Hence it is not possible to write a history of northern Scotland, the Western Isles or Ayrshire , Dumfries and Galloway for the 11th century , since the English sources refer to the south-east south of the Forth, the only Scottish primarily to the area around Perthshire . There are no administrative documents from the 10th century, and land grants only appear in very small numbers in the 11th century, but then only in copies from the 12th century.
The first king who had some authority in areas south of the River Forth and who is considered central to further development was Constantine II (900–943). However, after numerous victories in 937, he was defeated in a battle against the hinges and retired to a monastery, where he died after nine years at an age over 75. In the third year of his reign, numerous Viking raiders roamed the country. But in 904 he was able to achieve a major victory in Strathearn , with the men of Fortrin, the Picts, playing a special role. In 906 he celebrated a ceremony for the first time in which he and Bishop Cellach swore oaths in Scone , the later coronation site of the Scottish kings. The next event we learn of is the Battle of Corbridge (918).
His successor Malcolm I (Máel Coluim), from 943 to 954 king, maintained good relations with King Edmund I of Wessex . This devastated the kingdom of Strathclyde in 945, but ceded it to Malcolm I (if "let" really meant "left" in Old English) in order to win him as an ally. However, there were still kings there, so it is not clear whether Strathclyde was part of Alba for a short time or whether it came to some kind of supremacy. It is also not clear whether the Angles and the King of Alba jointly took action against the influence of the Vikings, who were on the rise again in Northumbria around this time. Malcolm's move to Northumbria (around 950) could be related to this. Apparently there were also clashes between the northern and southern Pict-Scots, so that the king launched an attack there too. The king was murdered by his own people, but it is not clear whether this was intended to counter royal influence or whether it was a question of dynastic disputes. He was followed by his son Ildulb (954–962), a Gaelic replica of the name Hildulf, which could indicate Norman ancestors on the mother's side, but it could also be a Frankish name. If one follows the old Scottish chronicle, then the northumbrian Edinburgh came through him to Alba. Ildulb was probably killed fighting the Normans. 962 to 966 there were intra-dynastic battles between Cuilén, a son of the king, and a rival named Dub; from these Cuilén († 971) emerged as the winner. Dub's son, Cinead, succeeded the throne (971–995). He defeated another son of Ildulbs named Amlaíb in 977. Amlaíb is also a Norman name, namely Óláfr. However, it is unclear whether it was a sign of settling and mixing between the Scottish and Norwegian populations, or cultural takeovers. In any case, at that time Alba was surrounded on three sides by Norman territory.
Cinead probably moved to Strathclyde ("Britannia") for a punitive action, then he moved against "Saxonia". In 973 he sailed around Wales for the coronation celebrations in Chester to see King Edgar. As overlord of six kings, who are not named, he sat at the bow and rowed across the Dee . With the end of the old Scottish Chronicle, "the lights go out in Scotland", as Alex Woolf put it, for a whole generation. Little news, such as that of the king's death in 995, is found in Irish sources such as the Ulster Annals. He was followed by Cuilén's son Constantin (995–997), which continued the strict alternation between the two lineages. Back then the kings viewed themselves as Gaelic rulers, no longer as Pictish ones. We know almost nothing about Constantin, as well as about his successor Cinead, the son of Dub (997-1005).
Under Malcolm II , the Kingdom of Alba was annexed to the Kingdom of Alba in 1018, after the Battle of Carham am Tweed , part of Anglo-Saxon Northumbria south of what is now Edinburgh as far as the Tweed. This corresponds roughly to the area of today's Borders . The same thing happened in the west after Malcolm's death in 1034. His grandson Duncan I became King of the Kingdom of Strathclyde . He united both kingdoms in his person. In 1034, the entire country, with the exception of the Norman Islands but including the highlands north of Edinburgh and Glasgow, was under one rule for the first time. At the same time, the Anglo-Scandinavian Empire ruled Canute the Great , who became King of England in 1016 and King of Denmark in 1019, in 1028 he also conquered Norway, and the North Sea region until his death in 1035. An attempt to conquer Scotland also seems to have failed.
The new kingdom was structured in completely different societies. The Lowlands were also organized according to the Anglo-Norman feudal system. In the Highlands, on the other hand, the clan structures of Celtic origin were retained . Because of the continuing raids by the Vikings and the clashes with the highland clans, the Scottish rulers were only able to maintain their independence from their English neighbors with difficulty. Malcolm was faced with opposition from the Moray-based and powerful family of Clann Ruaidri. Two of their relatives have even been referred to as the Kings of Scotland. Perhaps it was this opposition that led Malcolm to no longer respect the customary right to change rulership between the dominant clans. In addition, the emerging Northern European empire under Canute the Great forced to settle the internal differences that had cost the lives of many members of the ruling families. Significantly, Malcolm was succeeded by the son of the abbot of Dunkeld and a daughter of the king, Donnchad, in 1034 south of the Mounth in the king's office. This was a recourse to the feminine lineage that had been out of use for centuries. His legitimacy was therefore questionable, and his attack on Durham was a disaster. He finally lost to Macbethead at Pitgaveny in Morayshire, who restored imperial unity. William Shakespeare made the two rivals famous as "Duncan" and "Macbeth".
Donnchad and Macbethead, Normannization, Cities (from 1040)
Duncan I (also Donnchad), grandson and successor of the founder of the empire Malcolm II , was defeated by his cousin Macbeth in a battle in 1040 . This Macbethead (born around 1005) had a claim to the throne that was just as legitimate as Donnchad due to his origins. Macbethead ruled Scotland from 1040 to 1057 and strengthened his position through his marriage to Gruoch, the granddaughter of Kenneth III. Her son Lulach from her first marriage took over the Scottish throne in 1057, albeit for only one year. In 1054 Macbethead had been defeated by Donnchad's son Malcolm not far from Scone . In another battle at Lumphanan (near Aberdeen ) he was killed in 1057. After his death and the salmon, Macbethead's opponent, Máel Coluim, climbed as Malcolm III. Canmore (1058-1093) the Scottish throne.
Twelve years later, he and his wife Margareta founded one of the most important dynasties in the country's medieval history. Margareta was a sister of the legitimate Saxon heir to the throne of England, Edgar Ætheling , a grandson of Edmund Ironside . On the run from the Norman conqueror William , who conquered England in 1066, she landed in Scotland with her brother in 1068. With their eight children, this family ushered in a fundamental turning point in Scottish cultural history.
Margareta's influence led to a strong Normannization of Scotland. Trade, handicrafts and the arts received significant impulses, and there were also decisive changes in the church sector. The Celtic Church of St. Columban (Culdees) no longer set the tone, but the Roman Church, Iona lost its role as royal burial place, instead the kings were now buried in Dunfermline Abbey. In 1075, under the influence of the queen, the foundations for the Benedictine monastery were laid, and in 1128 it was raised to an abbey by David I (Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim) under the direction of Geoffrey of Canterbury . Archbishop Lanfranc of Canterbury assisted the Queen in calling the Benedictines to Dunfermline . Nine bishoprics were established or confirmed on the mainland under David. These were St. Andrews first , then Glasgow , Dunkeld , Aberdeen , Moray , Brechin , Dunblane , Ross and Caithness .
Malcolm and his eldest son were killed in the Battle of Alnwick against the English in 1093 . After some turmoil and the intervention of the English king, the throne of Scotland was followed by Margareta's sons Edmund, Edgar , Alexander I and David I. In 1092, the areas south of the Solway Firth were lost to England. The battles for the succession to the throne were connected with the fact that the Scots followed a different dynastic line of succession than the English. Conservative families tried to revert to the primacy of kinship that had been common in Scotland, so that the brothers were more likely to follow the late king than the sons. This forced the three sons of Malcolm, to followers of the Norman kings Wilhelm. Rufus II and Henry I to be. England increasingly saw itself as superior and superior to the empire beyond its borders. In addition, it gained more and more influence over the country in the north of the island through cleverly arranged marriages with the Scottish royal family. For example, Alexander I married an illegitimate daughter of Henry I of England, and David married Mathilda, the daughter of the Count of Northumbria . When Heinrich died in 1135, however, David I was able to shake off English supremacy. He regained the southern parts of Cumbria that Wilhelm Rufus had annexed.
Scotland experienced under David I (1124-1153), the youngest son of Malcolm III. and Margaretas, a relatively peaceful period. Many of the cities that emerged at that time were chartered or even made free cities . There was no capital, although twelve to fifteen burghs became the pillars of the royal exercise of power, and cities like Edinburgh, Roxburg , Aberdeen , Perth, and Stirling were the most important of them.
David continued the reform work of his pious mother Margaret, who was later canonized mainly for the establishment of the Roman Church in Scotland. He divided the country into dioceses and parishes, with the secular and spiritual structure being identical. David was one of the most ardent monastery founders in Scottish history. The monasteries were the only educational institutions. Administrative experts and innovators in agriculture emerged from them. At the same time he introduced the Norman feudal order in the south of the country, while the older earldoms and thanages continued in the north - the latter manorial lords of Norman followers - just as his successors did not transfer this order to the Highlands. Between 1130 and 1230, 26 sheriff domes or counties , a type of counties, were established. This standardized the collection of the taxes to be paid to the king and created direct access to the local authorities. The provinces that emerged in the 12th century, into which large parts of Scotland were divided, were each subordinate to a Mormair , who appears in the Latin sources as Comes . He was responsible for military leadership and jurisdiction and mostly came from his area of responsibility, i.e. one of the local, influential families. Whether the office was hereditary is unknown, just as it is unclear whether the Mormair title, which appeared in the 10th and 11th centuries, already corresponded to the office. It is possible that seven of these provinces existed, and that Angus , Atholl , Marr , Buchan , Moray , Fife and Strathearn , and possibly Gowrie , Mearns and Ross as well, existed for the mid-12th century . Around 1200, Menteith and Lennox were also subordinate to a Mormair.
Much of the immigration to the growing cities came from England, Flanders and northern France. The prerequisite for this urban prosperity was the change in agriculture from pasture farming and fishing to more intensive farming. The monasteries played a decisive role in this. They introduced better flour mills, more efficient plows, drainage, but also new products such as different types of grain, peas and beans. The landlords followed their example, especially in the south. Sheep breeding increased the export of wool, especially to Flanders. Open-cast coal mining and salt production also developed. The establishment of burghs, privileged cities, concentrated this economic activity and directed it increasingly in rural areas. The newcomers from the south brought new techniques of dyeing, cloth manufacture, leather processing and tannery, but also metalworking and beer production. David I was therefore able to set up the first mint in Scotland. Their sterlings were equivalent to English coins until the middle of the 14th century.
Dominance in Britain, English suzerainty (1135–1189)
Because of his kinship with the English royal family, David I was one of the largest landowners in England, especially in Northumbria, Cumbria and Westmorland, so that for that very reason he interfered in English politics. He gained influence in Yorkshire and Lancaster . David was the brother-in-law of King Henry I. In the English controversy for the succession to the throne (1135-1154) he took sides for his niece in 1138, but was defeated in the standard battle near York. Nevertheless, David, who reformed his country according to the southern model, is considered one of the most important Scottish kings. He also brought the Bruce, Comyn and Stewart families to Scotland, where they gained considerable influence. Under him the important monasteries of Dunfermline , Kelso , Melrose and Holyrood emerged , as he was the first Benedictines to bring to the British Isles in 1113, before his accession to the throne, namely the monks from the French Abbey of Tiron to the Scottish Selkirk. Together with his son Henry , who was Earl of Northumberland from 1139 and died in 1152, he made Scotland the dominant power in the British Isles from 1136 onwards.
In 1157, however, David's grandson, Malcolm IV. 'The Maiden' (1153–1165), had to cede Northumbria to the English King Henry II . Malcolm also met with rejection from the lords and chiefs in the highlands, but he was supported by the Norman nobles of the Lowlands. In 1160 there was an uprising by the Mormaer of Strathearn , and Galloway and Moray also opposed the increasing royal power.
Malcolm's brother William I , known as 'the Lion' (1165–1214) - the nickname was probably added to his name after 1300 - initially maintained friendly relations with England and even accompanied the English king in 1166 on a campaign in France. However, he received an offer from one of the contending parties in England to get Northumbria as far as the Tyne, if Wilhelm supported him. David , the king's brother, would also receive Huntingdon and Cambridge. So William invaded England in 1174 to recapture the territories lost in 1157. The enterprise failed, however, Wilhelm was captured along with his bodyguard and first brought to Northampton before the English king, then to Normandy to Falaise . There he was forced in December 1174 to sign the Treaty of Falaise , which placed Scotland under English feudal rule and confirmed Northumbria as English possession. The castles of Edinburgh, Berwick, Jedburgh, Roxburgh and Sterling received English garrisons. His brother David and 21 great men were held hostage, and the king had to expect to be called to court at any time. If he wanted to take action against a rebellion in Scotland, he had to ask permission in England. In 1175 all the greats and the clergy as well as the royal family were sworn in to these agreements. The Archbishopric of York and Canterbury could not agree on who should receive the supremacy over Scotland, so that they Pope Clement III. Subordinated directly to Rome in 1188. At the same time, Wilhelm fought against a papal candidate for the episcopate of St Andrews until he was led by Alexander III. 1181 was excommunicated. Only after the death of the Pope did it come a little later with Lucius III. to a reconciliation. The king was forced to marry a granddaughter of Henry I in 1186. She brought Edinburgh Castle as a dowry.
This policy only changed under the successor of Heinrich II. In 1189 Richard the Lionheart ended the vassal relationship against a payment of 10,000 silver marks in order to finance his crusade . This began a relatively long, peaceful phase between Scotland and England. The Scottish Church should remain independent.
Recognition of the border, royal concentration of power (until 1289)
It was not until Wilhelm's son Alexander II (1214–1249) succeeded in restoring royal authority in domestic and foreign policy. In 1237 he recognized in the Treaty of York to his brother-in-law, the English King Henry III. , the line between Tweed and Solway as the Scottish southern border. In doing so, he renounced the claims to the northern English counties that the Scottish kings had had since the 12th century. But it was also Alexander who first tried to reintegrate the western islands , which had been under the Kingdom of Norway for centuries, in 1249. He died during this campaign on the island of Kerrera off Oban . Domestically, he also asserted himself violently. He used brute force against the families who defended themselves against normannization, i.e. above all the introduction of manorial power and economic structures. This applied to the clans from Ross, Moray and Galloway. The climax of the attacks was the murder of an infant, the last heiress of the MacWilliams of Canmore, who was crushed at the Forfar Cross .
The king's son Alexander III. (1249–1286) began a new war against Norway in 1263 . The campaign of the Norwegian King Haakon IV , who appeared in 1263 with a mighty fleet off the West Scottish islands, failed. In the Peace of Perth , the Western Isles came to Scotland in 1266. From his first marriage, Alexander III. two sons and a daughter. But when all three died within a few years, he married a second time. So the prophecy of the fortune teller Thomas the Rhymer came true : Alexander fell from the cliffs near Kinghorn in Fife in 1286 and left no heirs apart from his granddaughter Margarete , the daughter of the Norwegian king Eric.
Looking back on the politically torn time after 1286, Scotland saw a 'golden age' under the kings Malcolm IV, William I and under Alexander II and III. The royal power had been consolidated internally, it had been possible to prevail against England, the influence of the Scandinavians had almost disappeared. Now began a phase which, from the Scottish perspective, was seen as a deep fall, especially in the context of nationalistic interpretations. England played off internal forces against one another and the kingdom's very existence was threatened.
Margaret, the granddaughter of Alexander III, later known as The Maid of Norway , was born as a little girl and the last survivor of the direct line of Malcolm III after the death of her grandfather. Canmore recognized as the Scottish heir to the throne. The reign of the little girl was assumed by four barons and the bishops of St Andrews and Glasgow. They have been called The Guardians ( the guards called). Robert de Brus, Lord of Annandale , who as the great-great-grandson of David I, as the closest male relative of the late King Alexander III , rose against this regulation . Claimed the throne. His revolt failed, however, and de Brus also recognized Margaret's claim to the throne. In 1289 one of the Guardians, Duncan of Fife , was murdered; he had apparently tried to use his position to enrich and expand his power. Office and property were shared by his rivals, including the other Guardians. Other, older rivalries between the families broke out in 1289, so that the rule increasingly resulted in a battle between two or three factions.
Margaret's father, the King of Norway, did not want to send his daughter into these uncertain circumstances, but wanted to marry her off to the heir of the English kingdom, to Edward , the son of Edward I. In the Birgham Treaty , the Scottish Parliament and Edward I agreed that the Queen should be ruler of her own country, and even if an inheritance were to result from marriage, Scotland should remain a separate kingdom. On the way to her coronation, however, the seven-year-old Margaret died in the autumn of 1290 on the crossing from Norway to Scotland in the Orkneys.
First and second interregnum, English supremacy, alliance with France (1290–1296)
Scotland no longer had a monarch, and so began the period of the First Interregnum . Several applicants fought for the Scottish throne, secular and ecclesiastical princes could not reach an agreement. The brother-in-law of Alexander III, the English King Edward I , made himself an arbiter in the controversy for the succession when he revealed his plan to become overlord of Scotland in May 1291. Bishop Wishart refused, but Eduard, who was in the country with his army and fleet, threatened the use of force and set a short deadline for a decision. At the same time he promoted other pretenders, knowing that the further fragmentation of power would benefit him. Between June 5 and 11, 1291 all candidates submitted to the English king. A commission set up took its time until August 1292 to examine the claims, time that Eduard used to secure his regiment. The two decisive contenders for the throne were Robert de Brus , grandfather of the later Robert I , and John Balliol . On November 17, 1292, Eduard voted for John Balliol, who was crowned King of the Scots two weeks later. With him Edward hoped to have a trustee of English interests and put him on for his mainland interests.
When England waged war against France four years later and Edward I demanded military help from the Scots, Balliol refused to support him. Eduard then marched into Scotland in 1296, had most of the population of Berwick-upon-Tweed massacred and was victorious in the ensuing Battle of Dunbar on April 27th. He forced King John Balliol to surrender in July. Nobility and high clergy had to Eduard as Overlord (overlord) acknowledge of Scotland. English law and administration were introduced, covered by garrisons in many castles. Balliol was imprisoned in the Tower of London and later exiled to France. This marked the beginning of the Second Interregnum, in which a Scottish national identity developed. This was evident in a chain of resistance, so that in 1297 especially the middle ranks of the Scottish local rulers were ready for an armed uprising. They faced English gentlemen who endangered their social and economic position. One of their leaders became William Wallace , who killed the sheriff of Lanark. James Stewart supported the uprising, the Bruces, soon also Bishop Wishart and many former opponents of Balliol. Some Scots deserted from Edwards' camp in France and became leaders of the insurgents. Scotland signed a treaty with France to provide mutual assistance against their common enemy, England, the Auld Alliance .
The Western Isles (550-1266)
Due to the Iona monastery and its tradition, the sources for the western islands are between around 550 and 849, when the relics of St. Columban were brought to safety from the Vikings, comparatively cheaply. For the next three centuries the main sources came from Ireland, England or Norway. One of the most important Scandinavian sources is the Orkneyinga saga , an oral tradition that was not written down until the beginning of the 13th century.
The Hebrides did not form part of the Scottish Kingdom, specifically since 1098. After a few generations of intermingling, their population spoke the language of the conquerors; the inhabitants were called Gallgáedil. Before that, the islands belonged to Dalriada. How the conquest went is not known, but the first Viking attacks from 793 on England are known. Iona was sacked in 802 and 806. Several Norwegian leaders appear in the Irish annals, such as a Soxulfr under the year 837. There is also talk of a Viking Scotland, whose heir Thórir sailed to Ireland in 848. When Harald I forced large parts of Norway under his control in 872 , some of his opponents fled to the western islands. He then occupied the northern islands in 875, and the western islands about a decade later. Ketill Bjǫrnsson suppressed an uprising on behalf of King , but he soon became independent as King of the Islands .
In 870, leaders from the House of Ímar, who had established maritime domination between Ireland and Scotland, attacked Dumbarton Castle , above Dumbarton in the western Lowlands, suggesting an early consolidation of an island kingdom. They conquered Man around 877, but this is not certain until around 900. The Norwegians suffered a setback in Ireland in 902, but in 914 they were victorious again in a sea battle off Man. The time between 900 and 940 has so few sources that it is difficult to make any statements about it. Olaf Cuaran's power base, who appeared between 941 and 952, was more in England and Ireland, but Norwegian rule ended in Dublin in 980. He was referred to as Rex plurimarum insularum , which probably meant the Hebrides. His nephews looted Iona in 986 and 987. In the sea battle of Man, which took place in 987, the fleet of the Norwegian King Olav I. Tryggvason may have already intervened. Olaf Cuaran has been referred to as the King of Innse Gall, but it is unclear whether the islands were not ruled by assemblies of free men.
After 990 Sigurður Hlöðvisson , Jarl of the Orkneys, took over the rule of the Hebrides and installed a Jarl there named Gilli or Gilla. But around 1004 at least some of the islands under Ragnall mac Gofraid made themselves independent again. Only after his death could Sigurður regain the rule in 1014. He was followed by Håkon Eiriksson as King of Norway and vassal Canute of Denmark. The Imar dynasty continued Olaf Sigtryggsson († 1034); his territory probably repeatedly overlapped with that of the Norwegians. In the Norwegian area followed Thorfinn Sigurdsson the Mighty in 1035 , after whose death around 1065 the Norwegian king apparently exercised direct rule. In parallel to these processes, the Imar Echmarcach mac Ragnaill continued to rule, and here too the spatial delimitation to the Norwegians is unclear. Only with Godred Crovan does the situation become clearer. After 1066 he came to Man and was able to gain control of the island by 1079 at the latest. First King Magnus III. restored direct Norwegian rule in 1098. That year he signed a border treaty with the Kingdom of Scotland. The Scots formally gave up their claims to the Hebrides. Although Lagman emerged victorious from the ensuing family struggles, he died on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. In 1111 Domnall mac Taidc Ua Briain became overlord of the islands, but the islanders drove him out two years later. An otherwise unknown Ingemund was supposed to restore supremacy for Norway, but his men raped and looted Lewis in such a way that the islanders allied themselves and killed him and his people and burned him. It was only Olaf Godredsson who managed to keep relative peace on the islands for four decades. He was followed by his son Godred Olafsson (King 1154 to 1187).
But the son Gillebrides Somerled led the islanders against Norwegian rule. He initially supported Olaf Godredson in the reconquest of the northern Hebrides from the Earls of Orkney, but by 1158 he made himself the undisputed lord of the islands. He revived Dalriada to a certain extent and saw himself as a member of the Clann Somhairle in the lineage of the Uí Ímair. But he was defeated in 1164 against the royal army under the leadership of Walter Fitzalan and the Bishop of Glasgow at Renfrew . However, after his death in 1164, the kingdom was divided among his four sons, initiating the rise of Clan MacDougall and Clan Macruari. You were known as the Lord of the Isles . De iure, the islands were still subject to the King of Norway, the mainland to the Kingdom of Alba, Man and the northern islands were thus Norwegian vassals. The Scottish King Alexander II embarked on a campaign to conquer the islands in 1249 . But he died on the campaign. His successor Alexander III. continued his father's politics after coming of age. In the war against Norway he was able to bring the islands under his control from 1263, although the Norwegian King Håkon IV led a fleet to western Scotland. The battle of Largs in early October 1263 brought no decision, but in late 1263 the Norwegian king died on Orkney. With the Treaty of Perth , the Norwegian islands were finally assigned to Scotland in 1266, when Håkon's successor as King of Norway ceded sovereignty for an annual payment. This expansion of power put considerable pressure on England.
Wars of Independence (1296-1371)
One of the first to fight back against the English presence was William Wallace , who came from a knightly family. He became the leader of the Scottish rebels in southern Scotland, while in northern Scotland the noble Andrew Moray became the leader of the rebellion. The rebellion turned into a nationwide uprising, and Wallace and Moray eventually united their supporters. Together they were able to achieve spectacular success in September 1297 when they defeated a superior English army in the Battle of Stirling Bridge . However, Moray suffered severe wounds from which he died a few months later. Because of his success, Wallace became the sole political and military leader of the Scottish uprising as the Guardian of Scotland . After the defeat of Stirling Bridge, the English king himself led a strong army to Scotland in 1298. The Scottish army led by Wallace faced the English in open battle. The Scottish army suffered a heavy defeat at the Battle of Falkirk . Wallace was able to escape, but due to the defeat, he resigned as Guardian. He went abroad at times, but then returned to Scotland and continued to fight the English. After the defeat at Falkirk, several Scottish nobles took over the leadership of the resistance against the English as guardians. Henceforth they refrained from facing the English troops in open battle. Several English campaigns therefore brought no decision, but there were also disputes between the Guardians. Some of the Scottish nobles had been fighting on the English side since 1296, and in 1302 the former Guardian Robert Bruce changed sides and submitted to the English king. The Scots' hopes now rested on the French king, allied with them, and on the Pope, both of whom campaigned for the reinstatement of John Balliol as king. In 1303, however, the French king made a peace with England , from which the Scots were excluded. Edward I was now able to concentrate his forces on the war in Scotland and led a new campaign north. In a militarily hopeless situation and without diplomatic support, most of the Scottish nobles who had resisted surrendered in early 1304. Only William Wallace and few others could not expect mercy from the English king. Wallace was captured in 1305 and, following a public trial, was cruelly executed in London on August 23, 1305. In the consciousness of the Scots, however, he became a Scottish national hero.
In 1304 the English king took over the administration of Scotland again. In 1305 the government and administration of Scotland were reorganized. Many of the confiscated properties were returned, 18 of the 22 sheriffs were now Scots. However, the real power remained with the government installed by the English king. Robert Bruce , however, was probably planning to continue the rebellion as early as 1304. He wanted to make himself king of the Scots. It was probably about this that he quarreled with the former Guardian John Comyn . Bruce murdered Comyn during a meeting at a church in Dumfries . Shortly afterwards he called himself out to the king in Scone and was crowned at the end of March. He was supported by several bishops and nobles and numerous knights, while other nobles wanted to keep their oath of allegiance to the English king or rejected Bruce because of the murder of Comyn. In June 1306 the English governor Aymer de Valence defeated Bruce's contingent in the battle of Methven . Bruce had to flee with a few faithful and probably hid for several months on the West Scottish islands or in Ireland. His wife, most of his relatives and many of his followers were captured by the English and severely punished on the orders of the English king. In February 1307, Bruce, supported by nobles from the West Scottish Isles, returned to South West Scotland. He started a guerrilla war against the English. Edward I died in July. His son and heir Edward II left the fight against Bruce to his commanders due to domestic political problems. Bruce received increasing support in Scotland and was able to defeat his Scottish opponents, including John Comyn, 7th Earl of Buchan , by 1308 . Against the English he waged a guerrilla war. Little by little they were able to conquer the castles held by English troops under his leadership. In 1309 Bruce held a first parliament , in which he was confirmed as king by numerous nobles. On June 23 and 24, 1314 Robert Bruce celebrated his greatest military success: In the dispute over Stirling Castle , the last castle in Scotland to be held by the English, the English army was completely wiped out at the Battle of Bannockburn . Around 8,000 Scots under the leadership of Robert the Bruce defeated a numerically superior English army.
The unexpected victory over Edward guaranteed the full recognition of Robert I as king by the Scottish nobility. After the trauma of the Wars of Independence, however, the free and powerful of the empire made it clear to their king in 1320 that he could not act arbitrarily. In the Declaration of Arbroath , they declared that they would only support him as long as he was willing to uphold the rights of the nation. Back then, people were still clearly under the impression of the English occupation and the ban that the Church had imposed on the King and greatest hero of Scotland - Robert the Bruce . So most of the leading personalities had met in the Abbey of Arbroath, had written a declaration in the best and most polished Latin and sent it to Pope John XXII. cleverly. In this manifesto, the country’s rulers - rulers and princes, high citizens and all ecclesiastical authorities - stressed their determination to defend Scotland's independence. At the same time they wanted to continue to support Robert - unless he bowed to the enemies of the country (first and foremost the English king). The first of its kind in medieval Europe, this declaration of will is an oppressed nation's response to the policies of much stronger powers threatening its freedom, as well as an expression of Scottish self-awareness. Scotland stands out among the other European nations, in whose self-understanding the divine right of the crown was fundamental. This "Declaration of Arbroath" never achieved the fame of the famous Magna Carta , which was wrested from the local King John in 1215 by the English authorities.
Although the war between England and Scotland was still going on, the country's independence was achieved in 1328 by the English King Edward III. recognized in the so-called Agreement of Edinburgh and Northampton . Robert the Bruce died in 1329. His son David II , only five years old, was proclaimed King of Scotland.
The English continued to intervene in Scottish politics and encouraged Edward Balliol , son of the hapless John Balliol , to reach for the Scottish crown as an anti-king. The young David II had to be brought to safety in allied France. Edward Balliol was driven out by loyal nobles. Edward III. took the opportunity to march back to Scotland in 1333. He won much of the south of Scotland after his victory at Halidon Hill . The returned David invaded England with French troops in 1346, but was captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross . When the plague raged in England in 1348, some Scots saw it as an opportunity to conquer the weakened country, as Henry Knighton reports in his chronicle (p. 61 f.). The epidemic, assuming that it claimed the same number of victims as in England, killed in several waves around half of the approximately one million inhabitants of Scotland.
In 1357 the King was able to return from English captivity as a result of the Berwick Interim Treaty. For the release, Scotland had to pay a ransom of 100,000 marks in ten annual installments.
Robert Stewart - a grandson of Robert I through his mother Marjorie Bruce - was the nephew of David II. His father had taken over the office of his forefathers - Lord High Steward of Scotland - in his name (the Lord High Steward is still one today of the highest representatives of the crown). During the time that David was imprisoned in England, Robert took over government on his behalf. By paying the extremely high ransom to England, he enabled him to return to the throne.
As a result, Scotland suffered an enormous tax burden after 1357, followed by a second wave of plagues in 1361. When David II died childless in 1371, he left his successor Robert II a country weakened by hunger and, since 1349, by the plague. Robert, son of Walter the Steward and Marjorie, daughter of Robert I, succeeded the heireless king as the owner of the steward title. The Stewart dynasty ruled Scotland until 1702.
Stewart Dynasty, Conflict with England, Reformation and Counter Reformation
With Robert II. From 1371 a member of the House of Stewart sat on the throne for the first time . This dynasty provided the kings of Scots for over 350 years, and later also those of England. On the French side, Scotland entered the fighting between France and England known as the Hundred Years War . France used Scotland as a deployment area. Olivier de Clisson was to advance from the Thames estuary to London, and Admiral Jean de Vienne was to attack from the north. But Clisson never came to England, and the French operations of 1385 in County Durham were unsuccessful. On the contrary, the English felt compelled to advance into Scotland and loot Edinburgh. In 1386 and 1387, France planned new invasions, but they never came to fruition. In 1388 the Scots succeeded in defeating the English at the Battle of Otterburn , a war that could be ended in 1390, but were defeated on September 14, 1402 at Humbleton Hill (also Homildon Hill) with heavy losses after Henry IV in 1400 in Scotland had invaded.
Robert III, too . (John Stewart), who came to the throne in 1390, did not achieve great political success. As he was partially paralyzed by an accident, the affairs of state were taken care of by his brother Robert , the first Duke of Albany. He probably killed his own nephew in the struggle for power - Robert's eldest son and heir to the throne, David .
Robert's son James I , known in German historiography as Jakob I, did become King of Scotland in 1406, but was unable to take the throne because at that time he was in captivity at the court of King Henry IV of England . His uncle Robert Stewart, after the death of Robert III. Appointed governor, was in no hurry to raise the ransom demanded; the sum of £ 40,000 was not paid until 1420. In May 1424 he was crowned on his return. During his reign, James managed to keep the rival highland clans and the influential Lords of the Isles in check, as well as renewing the Auld Alliance with France in 1428 . He championed a strong kingship. In February 1437, however, he was murdered by Scottish nobles under the leadership of Walter Stewart and Robert Graham. The latter had been held prisoner from 1425 to 1428. After a military defeat, Robert Graham tried to arrest the king but was himself imprisoned and exiled.
As James II (Jacob II), his son came to the throne in 1437 at the age of seven. The Wars of the Roses , which were raging in England at this time as wars of succession between the royal houses of York and Lancaster , weakened the southern neighbor. This promoted peace in the Scottish Empire and allowed trade to expand. During his reign, the second university was founded in Glasgow in 1451 - after the University of St Andrews , which had already been established in 1410/1413 . In 1495 the University of Aberdeen was founded. Edinburgh should have grown to around 10,000 residents by this time. James II died in 1460 at the height of his power.
His son James III. married Margaret of Denmark in 1468 and was able to incorporate the Orkneys and Shetlands into the kingdom - initially as a pledge. In 1472, after long attempts, he succeeded in elevating St Andrews to an archbishopric. Pope Celestine III fended off claims by English archbishoprics by subordinating the Scottish Church, the Ecclesia Scoticana , which had already been withdrawn from English influence in 1176, to the Pope. Their close relationship with Rome had already shown in the fact that they had remained connected to the Avignon popes until the end (1418); Moreover, in 1296, Scottish clerics had gone so far as to claim that it was as honorable to fight the English as the Saracens. The Church of Scotland played an extremely important role in the resistance to English ambitions, especially since the English universities were closed to Scottish students from 1378 and they had to go to France instead, where they were no longer admitted from 1408. The creation of St Andrews University was a direct consequence of this dilemma. Jacob's reign was characterized by domestic political struggles with the Scottish nobility, with the secular powers increasingly taking control of ecclesiastical resources. At the same time, the king refused to implement reforms. After the battle of Sauchieburn against a group of insurgents, perhaps supported by his son, he was murdered on June 11, 1488, according to legend, by a perpetrator disguised as a priest.
The son of the slain came to the throne as James IV at the age of 16 . In 1493 he gained the Lordship of the Isles , rule over the western islands. Around 1500 there were almost 1000 parish churches in the country. Foreign policy he was less successful. For political reasons he married Margaret Tudor , the sister of Henry VIII , in 1503. Due to the old alliance with France (Auld Alliance) , however, he turned against the English king and was defeated and killed in the battle of Flodden Field . His son was born in Linlithgow in 1512 and was only 17 months old when he succeeded his father as Jacob V in 1513.
Since the beginning of the Reformation there has been an ecclesiastical element in international relations alongside the political one. Large parts of today's Germany and Scandinavia had renounced the Roman Catholic Church by the mid-1530s . Because the Pope did not accept the divorce of the English king from his wife Catherine of Aragon , he broke away from Rome in 1534.
Rome aimed to make the country in northern Britain an important base for the Counter Reformation under the leadership of Spain or France. On the other hand, England endeavored to form a Protestant Great Britain together with Scotland as a counterweight to the Roman Catholic powers of the continent. Henry VIII therefore offered the young Jacob V his daughter Mary (later Mary "the Catholic" or "Bloody Mary") as a wife. But he refused. James also rejected the other English proposals and instead decided to bring Scotland to the French-papal camp. In addition to his search for a rich dowry, this was one of the reasons for his marriages to two French women. In January 1537 he married Madeleine , daughter of the French King Francis I , who died in July of the same year. Shortly thereafter, James married Marie de Guise as his second wife. On November 24, 1542, the battle of Solway Moss against his uncle Henry VIII took place in the south-west of the country , in which the Scottish armed forces were crushed. James V died just three weeks after the battle, and his only surviving legitimate child, Maria , who was just six days old , succeeded him.
Maria Stuart, Franco-English antagonism, denominational wars (1543–1587)
Shortly after her birth, Mary Queen of Scots was promised to the young English prince Edward by her regent Arran . The promise was voided by the Scottish Parliament , resulting in a new war with England and the catastrophic defeat of the Scottish Army on September 10, 1547 at the Battle of Pinkie, east of Edinburgh, in which 6,000-15,000 Scots fell.
Meanwhile, Marie de Guise initially hid her child, and on August 7, 1548, she was brought to France to live with her family, who was influential at the French court . The contract concluded about this provided that she should marry the eldest son of the French king Henri II and his wife Catherine de Medici . On April 24, 1558, Maria married the Crown Prince François as agreed . She signed a secret agreement in which she promised to cede her kingdom and her claim to the English throne to France if she died childless. In 1559 the French king died in an accident, and Mary's husband was enthroned as Francis II . The 16-year-old king died just a year later. Mary's mother-in-law became regent for her third son , the new king.
After fighting between the Huguenot and Catholic factions (which formed the prelude to the Huguenot Wars ), Maria Stuart was now undesirable after 13 years at court. France withdrew its troops from Scotland, dropped Mary and recognized Elizabeth I's rule over England. Mary reached Edinburgh on August 14, 1561. She insisted on maintaining her Catholic denomination, which aroused suspicion from John Knox and other reformers. The kings of Sweden, Denmark and France, the Archduke Charles of Austria , Don Carlos of Spain, the Dukes of Ferrara , Namur and Anjou , the Earl of Arran and the Earl of Leicester were proposed as husbands to the widow, the latter by hers in 1563 Rival Elisabeth. Maria showed interest in Don Carlos, but King Philip II feared that this marriage would have brought him too much at odds with England.
Finally, in 1565, she fell in love with her nineteen-year-old cousin Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley , the son of the Earl of Lennox . The two were married on July 19, 1565. The marriage resulted in a quickly suppressed rebellion led by Moray and the Hamiltons against the Catholic couple. Maria granted her husband the royal title but did not give him any powers.
After Moray's uprising, her secretary, David Rizzio, became her main adviser. Darnley saw Riccio as the greatest obstacle on his way to the throne and, together with Protestant rebels, forged a plot around Count Moray, Ruthven and Morton. On March 9, 1566, they broke into the Queen's dining room in the Palace of Holyroodhouse and stabbed Riccio in the anteroom. Maria was able to flee.
On June 19, 1566, their son James was born in Edinburgh Castle. On the night of February 10, 1567, the house where Darnley, who had smallpox, was staying was completely destroyed by a gunpowder explosion. The main mastermind behind this assassination attempt was very likely the devoted James Hepburn, Count Bothwell . He was charged with murder; the court acquitted him. Twelve days later Bothwell kidnapped the Queen on her way from Stirling to Edinburgh to his castle in Dunbar . He divorced his wife on May 3rd, and on May 12th Maria publicly forgave her kidnapper by making him Duke of Orkney; The two married on May 15 (three months after their second husband was murdered).
The call for abdication became loud and when her own army turned against her, Mary had to surrender on June 15, 1567 and be imprisoned at Loch Leven Castle . On July 24, she signed her abdication in favor of her son, who henceforth was named King James VI. ruled. But until 1573 her followers and those of her son fought each other. Meanwhile, on May 2, 1568, Mary managed to escape from Loch Leven Castle. Again she led an army of 6,000 men; this was crushed on May 13 at Langside near Glasgow . Maria fled to Carlisle , where she wanted to ask her second aunt and rival, Queen Elizabeth , for support.
However, Elisabeth felt threatened by Maria. As the daughter of Henry VIII , she was a Protestant and was not supported by many English Catholics - instead, they regarded Mary Stuart, the Catholic great-granddaughter of Henry VII , as the legitimate heir to the throne. That is why Maria was imprisoned by Elizabeth's vassals in the 19 years after her escape, most recently in Fotheringhay . Eventually the Babington conspiracy , which included the murder of Elizabeth and the liberation of Mary, was exposed and Mary was accused of complicity. She was tried in England for high treason , the death sentence was passed on October 25, 1586, and on February 8, 1587 she was beheaded .
In addition to Catholicism and the Anglican Church, other denominational groups existed. English Puritanism , which emerged in the second half of the sixteenth century, was influenced by Calvinism in Geneva and the Huguenots and called for a liturgical and moral renewal of the Church. It was only with Oliver Cromwell between 1640 and 1660 that it achieved its decisive political impact, but the struggle for the episcopate split Scottish society even earlier.
Union with England
Personal union, Scottish Revolution and Civil War (1603–1660)
James, who had just formally protested his mother's execution, also held back diplomatically in matters of religion in Scotland. In order not to endanger his claims to the throne as a relative of the childless Elizabeth of England, he even agreed to the Treaty of Berwick in 1586 . This treaty was a protective alliance against France, an ally of Scotland for centuries.
With the death of Elizabeth in 1603, James VI ascended . as a direct relative and descendant of Henry VII, the English throne and became King James I of England. From then on, both countries were ruled by a monarch in a personal union, but retained their own parliaments, separate administrative and legal systems, and their own national church.
After James took office, political life was centered around London in England. The king moved there with his entire court from Edinburgh and returned to Scotland only once (1617). James tried to fill new offices with English and Scots and to promote a more extensive union between the two states. Understandably, however, these attempts met with little approval from the British political elite and got stuck in the early stages.
James' second son, Charles I , was born in Dunfermline , Scotland, but grew up in England and was not very familiar with Scottish conditions when he ascended the throne in 1625. His eldest brother Henry, the actual Crown Prince, died in 1612 at the age of 18. The sister Elisabeth married the German Friedrich V , Elector of the Palatinate. He in turn was elected King Frederick I of Bohemia in 1619, but was forced into exile a year later at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War .
Charles introduced the Royal Mail , but made himself extremely unpopular due to high taxes and duties and his extravagant lifestyle. The biggest problems in dealing with Scotland, however, caused him his adherence to the divine right of the crown and his attempt to enforce the episcopal Anglican church order in Scotland, which had been Calvinist reformed since 1560 , in which the Church of Scotland strictly rejected an episcopal hierarchy in favor of the presbyterial church constitution.
The widespread indignation was evident in the uproar in Edinburgh's St. Giles Cathedral in 1637 . When the new liturgy was first introduced there, it aroused the wrath of the church reformed by John Knox . Some left the church and protested loudly in front of it, and the bishop had to flee in a hurry. The whole thing culminated in 1638 when the reformed Scottish nobility and bourgeoisie united in the so-called National Covenant . In this declaration they recognized the secular rule of the king. However, they emphatically demanded the independence of the new Reformed Church from secular influences and the abolition of the previous hierarchies in favor of a presbytery. The members of the movement have called themselves " Covenanters " since then . In 1638 this influential group used the general assemblies of the National Church (moderated by Alexander Henderson ) and the Scottish Parliament to abolish episcopalism. The revolution received support from Sweden and the Netherlands. Feelers were also extended to Paris from 1639 to 1640 in order to win an ally there again.
Charles I encountered similar resistance in England. Here he ruled as absolute sovereign since 1629 even without the uncomfortable parliament. But he had to convene it again in 1640 in order to finance the fight against religious unrest in Scotland, especially as French interference threatened. From the old differences between the King and the English Parliament in London, the English Civil War broke out , which lasted from 1642 to 1648. In its course, the puritanically dominated parliament used the newly created New Model Army under Oliver Cromwell against the king. In the summer of 1643 the English Parliament signed a "Solemn League and Covenant". This act obligated the Covenanters to introduce Presbyterianism in England and Ireland for the sake of Scottish assistance against the royalists and to pay a large sum of money.
Meanwhile in Scotland under James Graham , Count of Montrose , a royalist force was formed in the Highlands, which fought bitterly the Covenanters, but never won the support of the Lowlands and was disbanded with the defeat of the king.
So initially the majority of Scots fought for the cause of the English Parliament, but that changed when Charles surrendered to the Scottish Army. He refused to establish the Presbyterian Church in England, and so the Scots turned their king over to the Puritans. The English executed Charles on January 30, 1649 outside Whitehall . The Scots, who were actually loyal to the king, were so appalled by the king's execution that shortly afterwards they proclaimed his son king in Edinburgh and enthroned him on January 1, 1651 in Scone . Charles II was the last king to be crowned there.
Oliver Cromwell defeated the Scots with his elite troops, the Ironsides , first at Dunbar and then again at Worcester in England in 1650/51 . Charles fought at the head of the Scottish Army, but after his defeat in Worcester, he had to flee abroad on an adventurous escape. Scotland was then occupied by Cromwell's army. By 1654 his General Monck also stifled the last royalist resistance in the highlands. Overall, the occupation of Scotland lasted until the death of Oliver Cromwell (1658). Although Cromwell's son succeeded his father, he failed and was deposed. The parliament, newly convened by Monck, ensured the restoration of the monarchy by inviting Charles to ascend the English throne.
- see also main article Scotland in the wars of the three kingdoms
Fight over the diocese question, covenants, killing times , renewed sectarian battles
After his declaration of Breda in 1660, in which he promised freedom of religion for everyone, Charles II was enthroned in London. Although initially reluctant on religious matters, Charles viewed the Covenanters' party in Scotland as a threat to his authority there. In 1662 he revoked the covenant he had initially reluctantly signed and reinstated the episcopate in the church.
Charles never set foot on Scottish soil again and was represented there by John Maitland , Duke of Lauderdale . This also tried vigorously to enforce the episcopate in Scotland. The result was that bloody clashes broke out, particularly in Dumfries and Galloway in the southwest . There were two uprisings in 1666 and 1679 (the Pentland Rising and the Battle of Bothwell Bridge ) - both of which were bloodily suppressed.
The followers of the Covenant met in convents that held services in private houses or even in the open air and were sometimes even guarded by armed men. On the one hand there were the moderately Reformed faithful to the king, on the other there were the extreme, Reformed supporters of the Covenant. Jacob converted to Catholicism in 1668 or 1669 . With the passing of the test act , his Protestant opponents in parliament, led by Anthony Ashley Cooper , achieved that all civil servants had to take an oath that was incompatible with the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church . They were also required to receive communion according to the rite of the Church of England . The Duke of York, who later became King James II , refused to take the oath and receive communion. King Charles II opposed his brother's change of denomination and demanded that the duke's children be raised Protestants. Nevertheless, he allowed his brother to marry the Catholic Maria of Modena in 1673 .
Faced with strong opposition in England, the Duke of York decided to leave the country and go to Brussels . However, in 1680 he was appointed Lord High Commissioner of Scotland. The associated persecution of the Presbyterians culminated in ruthless fighting and massacres. It went down in history as the "Killing Times" - the "Years of Killing" - which peaked between 1681 and 1689. In 1683 there was an attempted attack (the Rye House Plot ), which provided for the killing of the king and his brother. The king died without legitimate descendants on February 6, 1685.
The Duke of York ascended the English throne as James II in 1685 and became James VII in Scotland. He tried to re-Catholicize Britain. When his only son James, the future heir to the throne from his second marriage, was baptized Catholic, the majority of English Protestants feared that Catholicism would dominate over the long term.
Glorious Revolution, Presbyterian State Church, Jacobites
In the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the English Parliament in London decided Jacob II./VII. and to propose the throne to Jacob's Protestant daughter - Maria - and her Protestant husband, William of Orange , governor of the Netherlands . Both the parliamentary Whigs and the majority of the otherwise loyal Tories approved the invitation. After this (until then) bloodless coup, Jakob II./VII fled. into French exile. The Scottish Parliament in Edinburgh also recognized William as king. As a result, like the English parliament, he succeeded in increasing his rights. So from then on it had to be convened regularly and reintroduced Presbyterianism as a state church.
In the Scottish Highlands, however, the support of the rightful Stuart king was still very high. Wilhelm made the reluctant clan chiefs of the highlands swear an oath of loyalty on the flag under pressure, which most of them only followed with great reluctance. The Jacobites were followers of Stuart who named themselves in England, Ireland and especially in Scotland after their former king Jacob. As a result, they held on to the Stuart dynasty, particularly in the Scottish highlands and in the north-east around Aberdeen. In an age-old tradition, the clan chiefs and feudal lords there felt bound to the king through their oath of allegiance despite religious differences. Now the hitherto unknown situation arose that the new, Protestant King William demanded the same oath of allegiance from them while James, who had fled into exile, was still alive.
But when the head of the MacDonalds at Glencoe arrived five days late to take the oath, Wilhelm saw the opportunity to make an example. In 1692 he had a massacre among members of the MacDonald clan through his Scottish representative in the Glencoe valley . Loyalty to London suffered a severe blow as a result.
Darién project, national bankruptcy
While England increasingly benefited from its colonies, Scotland was excluded from access. The Scottish merchant and financial expert William Paterson , who founded the Bank of England in London , believed he had a solution to the dilemma. He founded a trading company, the Company of Scotland , and planned to set up a colony in what is now Panama . However, the English East India Company opposed the project. The project therefore became a purely Scottish one. The subscription book, opened in London on November 13, 1695, raised £ 300,000 in a short period of time, but English merchants were discouraged from investing in the Darién project . So only Scottish capital could be raised. The company was incorporated on February 26, 1696. Half of Scotland's capital was put into Paterson's company, but the adventure ended in disaster. The selected area, New Edinburgh Colony , was malaria-ridden and the Scottish settlers were attacked by Spanish colonialists. The king gave explicit instructions not to give any help to the Scottish settlers, as otherwise he feared conflicts with Spain. When the colony collapsed, the money invested was lost, 2000 Scottish settlers were dead before the plan was finally abandoned in 1700. Scotland was bankrupt.
Complete union with England (1707) and the royal house of Hanover (1714)
In view of the broken financial situation, the royal house operated the final unification of England and Scotland. At first, however, in view of numerous deaths in the royal family, the dynastic question was urgent. The future Queen Anne lost the last possible successor with the death of William, Duke of Gloucester. He was the youngest of their 17 children - his siblings had all died before him. The English Act of Settlement of 1701 then made it fundamentally impossible for Catholics to rule or hold a state office. The English parliament also determined that Anne should be succeeded by the House of Hanover . Since she was now childless, Anne appointed the Electress Sophie of Hanover as her successor. She was the fifth and only Protestant daughter of Elisabeth of Bohemia and thus a granddaughter of James VI./I.
In 1703 the Scottish Parliament passed a law to prevent Scotland from being drawn into warlike enterprises outside the country by Anne's successors. In return, Anne's government passed the Alien Act in 1705 . This law threatened to treat all Scots outside England as foreigners, thus excluding them from trade with England and its colonies. Many Scottish nobles, among them the Duke of Argyll and the Duke of Queensberry , then saw the parliamentary union with England as the only way to protect the interests of their class, which had been hard hit by bankruptcy.
But after 1705 a perfect union seemed further away than ever. Relationships had hit another low point through a series of mutually challenging acts and laws. In addition to the collapse of the Company of Scotland, which had been sabotaged by the English government, the Scottish Parliament had effectively suspended the English Act of Settlement for Scotland through the Act of Security in 1703 and created the possibility of a separate succession to the throne in the two countries. It also claimed to direct Scottish foreign policy ( Act Anent Peace and War ). The English parliament, for its part, responded to this challenge with a trade embargo and the treatment of all Scots as foreigners until the question of succession and political union was resolved ( Alien Act ).
The conclusion of the union negotiations of 1706/07 offered advantages for both countries. The Scottish economy was able to begin to rehabilitate itself, as it had from now on unlimited access to the important markets in England and its colonies. The Scottish State could now shift its debts on to London, and the Scottish Company's creditors were fully compensated by England. England, for its part, was now able to enforce the Protestant succession regulation of the Act of Settlement in both countries and no longer had to fear that Scotland would renew the old alliance with France, the Auld Alliance , and thereby endanger England's northern flank in the War of the Spanish Succession .
The Act of Union was ratified by the Scottish Parliament on January 16, 1707 by a majority of only 43 legitimate votes, but against the wishes of a significant part of the population of Scotland. The Edinburgh Parliament was dissolved and Scotland sent 45 Commons and 16 Peers to the new British Parliament in Westminster . In terms of population, Scotland was clearly underrepresented in the common Union: 45 (8.1%) of the 558 MPs in the House of Commons at Westminster came from Scotland, although around 15.1% of the UK's population lived there. However, it must be taken into account that only a very small part of the population even had the right to vote. In the whole of Scotland in 1800 that was only about 4,500 with a population of about 1.6 million. As England's population grew more rapidly, things were gradually reversed over the centuries, and from around 1885 the Scottish proportion of parliamentary seats was roughly equal to the proportion of the total population. From 1918, Scotland was even over-represented in Westminster parliament. The independence of the Church of Scotland and the preservation of the Scottish legal system were guaranteed and considerable economic and tax policy concessions were established.
Queen Anne died in 1714. The now British parliament brought Georg von Hannover , the German descendant of James VI./I., To the Thames as George I. This king understood little of British mentality and politics. In addition, he did not speak the language. He had to be represented by a prime minister, the first in British history.
The Jacobite Revolts and the Catholic States (1688–1746)
The events in Scotland were absolutely opaque and contradictory after James VII's flight to France in December 1688. Not a single major city supported or came to the rescue of the Catholic king. Even Aberdeen , once a bastion of the Stuarts, now recognized Maria and Wilhelm. Except in the highlands and in the north-east around Aberdeen there was little opposition when the Jacobite movement posed a constant threat to the Guelph kingdom of George for fifty years.
While it was interpreted in England as if Jacob had renounced the throne at the same time as he fled, the Scottish Convention Parliament on April 4, 1689, advocated removing the crown from Jacob. In Scotland this decision had been made for one reason only - Parliament had viewed the monarchy for hundreds of years as a contractually bound, almost constitutional monarchy (see above: Robert the Bruce).
The Orange William was the son of Mary, the daughter of Charles I. William was Protestant and married Mary, the daughter of James VII, who was also a Protestant. For some, it was the perfect Protestant alternative to the Catholic James. For the first time in Scotland, the Catholic royalists rose in the uprising of 1689 under the leadership of John Graham of Claverhouse , known as Bonnie Dundee. An act of revenge, which degenerated into the massacre of Glencoe , nevertheless aroused much sympathy for the Jacobites in the western highlands. It quickly became clear that the King in London was precious little interested in Scottish matters. He ratified English laws of the English Parliament which strengthened the English colonies and protected English trade, but excluded Scotland from everything.
What was special about the confused political situation was that it was based on the Stuarts' successor. This becomes completely clear through the uprisings of the Jacobites in 1715, 1719 and ultimately in 1745, but in between and only one year after the union, a rebellion took place in 1708. In the square between the exiled court of James VII./II., The discontented Scottish lowland nobility, the highland chiefs and the French government, from 1700 and in the following 40 years, first from France and later also from Rome Double game played: French aid depended on whether extensive support for an uprising in Scotland itself seemed guaranteed. On the other hand, the Scottish engagement was dependent on the extent to which military support and material were assured from France.
The government reacted to the last uprising, which ultimately failed in the Battle of Culloden in 1746, very decisively and with draconian measures. Troops were brought into the highlands via the network of roads and roads, which had already been expanded in the 1730s, and were posted there at strategically important points in fortresses such as the giant Fort George, which was specially built for this purpose, near Inverness.
The clan chiefs involved in the uprising and often also the clan members had to flee abroad or were executed. With the Act of Proscription passed in 1746, which made wearing of traditional highland clothing largely a criminal offense in addition to possession of weapons, the clan system of the Highlands was finally smashed. The economic and social structure in the highlands was drastically changed. What remained was the romantic memory of the last Catholic Stuart - Bonnie Prince Charlie .
The Scottish Enlightenment
At the beginning of the 18th century, Scotland was still one of the poorest countries in Europe with a population of perhaps 1.2 million. The only export products were animal hides, wood, coal, salt and wool or linen. At the same time, however, the time of the Scottish Enlightenment began. It produced outstanding personalities in the fields of art and literature, science, technology and architecture.
The Scottish Enlightenment had its center in Edinburgh. The Scot who worked furthest in the field of economics was Adam Smith (1723-1790). Some other outstanding personalities of the Scottish Enlightenment were writers and poets such as Robert Burns (1759–96) and Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832), painters such as Allan Ramsay (1713–84) and Henry Raeburn (1756–1823) or technicians like James Watt (1736-1819). The special role of Scotland continued after the 18th century. Even after the actual phase, many personalities achieved a remarkable series of first deeds, discoveries and achievements in the most varied of fields, such as the writers Robert Louis Stevenson (1850–94) and Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930), the Africa explorer David Livingstone (1813– 73) and the doctor Alexander Fleming (1881–1955), who discovered penicillin . John Logie Baird (1888–1946) invented color television .
Industrialization, Irish Immigration, Clearances
At the turn of the 19th century there was a change from an agricultural to an industrial state. Great Britain became the model case of the industrial revolution. This development reached Scotland and especially the Lowlands in the 1820s. Hand in hand with this went rapid population growth. Many farmers in the Highlands were evicted and relocated to the coast or had to emigrate as part of the Highland Clearances , the "evacuation" of the Highlands. Their houses were destroyed, their land turned into sheep pastures. The beneficiary was u. a. the 1st Duke of Sutherland , the richest Briton of the 19th century. One effect of the clearing of the highlands was that tens of thousands of highlands poured into the cities of the central belt. They formed the factory workers employed in the newly established industrial centers.
The underdeveloped infrastructure of Scotland caused difficulties: there were very few roads and roads. As in England, canals were built in Scotland from the beginning of the 19th century, but the much more economical railways soon made them obsolete and lost their importance. The ensuing centralization of industry and the development of high-yield coal seams in south-west Scotland were the factors that led to the rise of Glasgow.
In the mid-1840s, hundreds of thousands of people immigrated from Ireland fleeing potato rot and famine . Without any planning, makeshift dwellings grew especially around Glasgow's factories. There were multiple epidemics, and typhus and cholera decimated entire districts. Nevertheless, the population grew, both due to further immigration and the slowly improving living conditions.
After its rise under the influence of the wealth of the tobacco barons in the mid-18th century, Glasgow had suffered a dramatic decline with the loss of Virginia plantations . With industrialization, the tide turned again. Around 1850 Glasgow was a working-class town, first because of its shipyards and with the advent of the railroad as a stronghold of locomotive construction. Glasgow became the second city of the British Empire after London. Architects like David Rhynd , the Burnets, James Thomson , Alexander "Greek" Thompson , Honeyman and later Charles Rennie Mackintosh left their legacy in this metropolis.
Industrialization and the huge needs of the numerous armies benefited wool and food production. In a way, the sheep helped the landowners to great fortune.
Despite the intensified exchanges with the south, Scotland was far from being assimilated by England. Nevertheless, Sir Walter Scott wrote in postscripts to his Waverley novellas in 1814 : “No European nation has changed so completely in just half a century as this Kingdom of Scotland.” However, this contribution to the Empire by no means corresponded to the degree of its political participation. In Parliament in London, the Scottish MPs were only a small minority, and the industrial workers had hardly any rights to organize themselves. But in 1875 the trade unions were legally guaranteed the right to exist and to strike, and in 1885 the Scottish Office was established as a separate ministry for Scotland.
As a reaction to the dark side of industrialization and urbanization, especially in England, the longing for nature and landscape came more and more into focus; It was above all Queen Victoria who discovered Scotland for herself and made it popular as a natural travel destination.
Starting with the increasing availability of refrigeration machines and the associated cheap imports of sheep meat and sheep wool from overseas, prices fell from the 1870s onwards, making sheep farming in Scotland increasingly unprofitable. The resulting collapse in land prices accelerated the so-called “balmoralization” of Scotland - named after the Scottish estate and castle Balmoral acquired by Queen Victoria in 1848 - an era in the second half of the 19th century that began with the establishment of large estates dedicated to hunting was marked. These so-called "sporting estates", which to this day large parts of the countryside were shaping, especially for the game on red deer and the hunt for grouse designed pursued the mostly members of the aristocracy and industrialists from England. The concentration of land ownership increased as a result of this development, so that by the end of the 19th century 60 percent of the entire land consisted of "sporting estates" and only 118 people owned half of all land in Scotland.
Labor disputes, decline of heavy industry, status of autonomy
The industrial revolution had created extensive heavy and shipbuilding industries and a numerically large working class, particularly in western Scotland. Before the First World War , about a fifth of all shipyard capacity worldwide was in Scotland. The peace treaty after the First World War soon brought a massive economic depression to Scotland as the country depended on heavy industry and international competition had an impact.
The majority of the Scottish workforce was left-wing politically. Glasgow went "red" politically. In 1929 there were general strikes; at times there was even a revolution in the air, and the threat of military action. At the height of the Depression in 1931, 65% of the shipyard workers on the Clyde were unemployed. As the economic situation in Scotland continued to deteriorate, it was rightly believed that London was making matters worse by neglecting Scottish concerns. The call for home rule , an independent government, grew louder in Scotland. The British government then appointed a Secretary of State for Scotland with the rank of cabinet member in 1928. In the course of this first step in the direction of devolution , the administrative detachment from London, he was made head of health, agriculture and education in Scotland. This minister had his seat at St. Andrew's House in Edinburgh.
But none of that was enough to suppress the desire for independence in Scotland. A striking expression of this was the symbolic abduction of the Stone of Destiny from the coronation chair in Westminster Abbey to Scotland in 1950 . In the general election in February 1974 and October 1974 , the autonomist Scottish National Party , which was formed in 1934, won 22 and 30% of the Scottish vote, respectively, making it the second largest party. Under pressure from the SNP, the British Labor government approved a referendum on limited self-determination. This referendum on decentralization was held on March 1, 1979 and a slim majority of 51.6% of the voters voted for it. However, this was less than 40% of the eligible voters; therefore the law did not come into force.
In September 1997, in a second referendum, 74% of the electorate voted for partial autonomy for Scotland ( devolution ), on the basis of which a parliament for Scotland was elected again on May 6, 1999 after 300 years. His legislative competencies extend to the areas of health care, education, local law, social affairs, housing, economic development, justice, the environment, agriculture, fisheries and forestry, sport, art and culture and various areas of transport. However, some parts of these competence titles are reserved for the British central parliament. Parliament elects a First Minister (First Minister) as head of the Scottish Executive that the former Scottish Office replaced and is responsible to Parliament. The first incumbent, Donald Dewar , passed away in October 2000.
A vote on independence took place on September 18, 2014 under First Minister Alex Salmond . This referendum was rejected by 55.3% of voters. One of the decisive factors here was that it was postulated that an independent Scotland would automatically no longer be part of the EU . When the vote on Brexit on June 23, 2016 , Scotland (calculated separately) voted against it, the question of independence was brought up again - this time with a different sign: in order to be able to remain within the EU. Whether and when the next independence referendum will take place also depends on the Brexit treaty agreements.
- Alan Orr Anderson , Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson: Early Sources of Scottish history, A.D. 500 to 1286. 2 vols., Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh / London 1922 (2nd edition. Paul Watkins, Stamford 1990; reprinted in 2000).
- Chris Bambery: A people's history of Scotland , Verso, London 2014. ISBN 978-1-78168-284-5
- Christopher Harvie : A short history of Scotland , Oxford University Press, Oxford 2002. ISBN 0-19-210054-8
- Allan I. MacInnes : A History of Scotland. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke 2019. ISBN 978-0-333-67148-1
- Bernhard Maier : History of Scotland , CH Beck, Munich 2015. ISBN 978-3-406-67617-8
- Michael Maurer : History of Scotland , 2nd, revised edition, Reclam, Ditzingen 2011. ISBN 978-3-15-018862-0
- Robert S. Rait: An Outline of the Relations between England and Scotland (500-1707) , Echo Library, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4068-3722-3
- T. Christopher Smout: People and Woods in Scotland. A History , Edinburgh University Press, 2003.
- David M. Wilson : Scotland. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 27, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2004, ISBN 3-11-018116-9 , pp. 268-275.
- Jenny Wormald: Scotland. A History , Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN 0-19-162243-5
- Geoffrey Wallis Steuart Barrow : Scotland . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 7, LexMA-Verlag, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-7608-8907-7 , Sp. 1546-1551.
Prehistory and early history
- Carolin R. Wickham-Jones: Scotland's First Settlers , Batsford / Historic Scotland, London 1994 (incorrectly assumes first immigration only around 7000 BC).
- Tony Pollard, Alex Morrison: The Early Prehistory of Scotland , Edinburgh University Press for the University of Glasgow, 1996.
- Kevin J. Edwards, Ian Ralston (Eds.): Scotland After the Ice Age. Environment, Archeology and History, 8000 BC-AD 1000 , Edinburgh University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1736-1
- Colin K. Ballantyne: After the Ice: Paraglacial and Postglacial Evolution of the Physical Environment of Scotland, 20,000 to 5000 BP , in: A. Saville (Ed.): Mesolithic Scotland and its Neighbors. The Early Holocene Prehistory of Scotland, its British and Irish Context, and some Northern European Perspectives , Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Edinburgh 2004, pp. 27-44. ISBN 0-903903-28-8
Celts and Romans
- Antony Kamm: The Last Frontier. The Roman Invasions of Scotland , Neil Wilson Publishing, Glasgow 2009. ISBN 978-1-906476-06-9
- David Breeze: Roman Scotland. Frontier Country , BT Batsford Ltd., 1996. ISBN 978-0-7134-7890-7
- OGS Crawford : Topography of Roman Scotland. North of the Antonine Wall , first edition 1949, Cambridge University Press, 2011. ISBN 978-1-107-68473-7
- Alan Anderson: Early Sources of Scottish History, AD 500 to 1286. 2 vol., Edinburgh 1908 and 1922, Stanford 1991 (numerous translations of sources into English).
- Andrew DM Barrell: Medieval Scotland , Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-58443-4
- Geoffrey Wallis Steuart Barrow : The Kingdom of the Scots. Government, Church and Society from the Eleventh to the Fourteenth Century , 2nd Edition. Edinburgh University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1803-1
- Geoffrey Wallis Steuart Barrow: Kingship and Unity. Scotland 1000-1306 , 2nd edition, Edinburgh University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-7486-1800-7
- Ruth Margaret Blakely: The Brus Family in England and Scotland, 1100-1295 , Boydell Press, Woodbridge 2005. ISBN 1-84383-152-X
- Michael Brown: The Wars of Scotland, 1214-1371 , Edinburgh University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7486-1238-6
- Keith M. Brown, Roland J. Tanner (Eds.): Parliament and Politics in Scotland, 1235-1560 , 3 Vols., Vol. 1, Edinburgh University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-7486-1485-0
- Dauvit Broun: Scottish Independence and the Idea of Britain. From the Picts to Alexander III , Edinburgh University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7486-2360-0
- Elizabeth Gemmill, Nicholas Mayhew: Changing Values in Medieval Scotland. A Study of Prices, Money, And Weights And Measures , Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-521-02709-8
- Cynthia J. Neville: Land, Law and People in Medieval Scotland , Edinburgh University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-7486-3958-8
- Maria-Claudia Tomany : Destination Viking and Orkneyinga saga. Problems of historiography and regional identity in Orkney , Herbert Utz, Munich 2007. ISBN 978-3-8316-0417-3
- Alex Woolf : From Pictland to Alba 789-1070 , Edinburgh University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7486-1234-5
- Thomas M. Devine, Jenny Wormald: The Oxford Handbook of Modern Scottish History , Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-19-956369-2
- Stephen Boardman: First Stewart Dynasty. Scotland, 1371-1488 , Edinburgh University Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-7486-1235-2
- Clare Jackson: Restoration Scotland, 1660-1690. Royalist Politics, Religion and Ideas , Woodbridge 2003. ISBN 0-85115-930-3
- Trevor Royle: The Flowers of the Forest. Scotland and the First World War , Birlinn, Limited 2006. ISBN 978-1-84341-030-0
- Trevor Royle: A Time of Tyrants. Scotland and the Second World War , Birlinn, Limited 2012. ISBN 978-1-78027-060-9
- Archeology Scotland
- Scottish Archaeological Internet Reports (SAIR) (archeology)
- Vicky Cummings, Colin Richards: A monumental task: building the Neolithic megaliths of Britain and Ireland , excavation of Blasthill chamberd tomb, Brodgar 2009.
- Ancient Scotland Tour (prehistoric places in Scotland)
- "History of Scotland: Primary Documents" (sources, uploaded by Brigham Young University)
- Society of Antiquaries of Scotland
- Maps of Scotland, 1560-1947 , maps stored in the National Library of Scotland
- The Gazetteer for Scotland History Time-Line
- History of Scotland ( Memento from August 15, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (Timeline of the history of Scotland, not always reliable)
- Robert M. Gun: Scottish Event & Historical Timeline
- Scotland , The National Archives
- Information on gene flows, which may be due to movements of larger groups, comes from Stephen Oppenheimer : The Origins of the British. A Genetic Detective Story. The Surprising Roots of the English, Irish, Scottish and Welsh. Carroll & Graf 2006, passim. A discussion about this: A United Kingdom? Maybe. In: The New York Times . March 6, 2007.
- Alan Saville, Torben Bjarke Ballin, Tam Ward: Howburn, near Biggar, South Lanarkshire: Preliminary Notice of a Scottish inland early Holocene lithic assemblage. In: Lithics. The Journal of the Lithic Studies Society. 28 (2007), pp. 41–49, here: p. 43.
- BBC News reported: Signs of earliest Scots unearthed. In: BBC News . April 9, 2009.
- Torben Bjarke Ballin, Alan Saville, Richard Tipping, Tam Ward: An upper palaeolithic flint and chert assemblage from Howburn Farm, South Lanarkshire, Scotland. First results. In: Oxford Journal of Archeology. 29,4 (November 2010), pp. 323-360.
- T. Christopher Smout: People and Woods in Scotland. A history. Edinburgh University Press, 2003, p. 17.
- Antony Kamm: The Last Frontier. The Roman Invasions of Scotland. Neil Wilson Publishing 2009, 1: The Celts in Scotland.
- T. Christopher Smout: People and Woods in Scotland. A history. Edinburgh University Press, 2003, p. 32.
- T. Christopher Smout: People and Woods in Scotland. A history. Edinburgh University Press, 2003, p. 24.
- Bill Finlayson, Kevin J. Edwards: The Mesolithic. In: Kevin J. Edwards, Ian Ralston (Eds.): Scotland After the Ice Age. Environment, Archeology and History, 8000 BC – AD 1000. Edinburgh University Press, 2003, reprinted 2005, p. 115.
- Nuts give clue to 'oldest' Scots site (however with partly incorrect information on the age of other sites).
- Dating information from: Steven Mithen: After the Ice. A Global Human History, 20,000-5000 BC. Hadrette 2011.
- Bernhard Weninger, Rick Schulting, Marcel Bradtmöller, Lee Clare, Mark Collard, Kevan Edinborough, Johanna Hilpert, Olaf Jöris, Marcel Niekus, Eelco J. Rohling, Bernd Wagner: The catastrophic final flooding of Doggerland by the Storegga Slide tsunami ( Memento vom March 25, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) , in: Documenta Praehistorica 35 (2008) 1–24 (PDF; 2.4 MB).
- Torben Bjarke Ballin, Tam Ward: Biggar Pitchstone. Biggar Archeology Group 2008, p. 21.
- New Light on the Earliest Neolithic in the Dee Valley, Aberdeenshire. In: Past. 50 (2005).
- Richard D. Oram: Scottish Prehistory. Birlinn, Edinburgh 1997, p. 33 f.
- Graham Ritchie, Anna Ritchie: Scotland, Archeology and Early History. Edinburgh University Press 1991, p. 40.
- Special issue of the Islander , 2012, p. 9.
- The Ness of Brodgar Excavations .
- Andrew Heald, Gerry McDonnell, Ian Mackmany: Ironworking debris. In: Michael Cressey, Sue Anderson: A Later Prehistoric Settlement and Metalworking Site at Seafield West, near Inverness, Highland. Scottish Archaeological Internet Report 47, 2011, pp. 20–24, here: p. 23.
- Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica, Book V, 21.3.
- Tacitus Agricola chap. 23.
- Duncan Campbell: Mons Graupius AD 83. Rome's battle at the edge of the world. Osprey Publishing, 2010.
- Entry on Sculptor's Cave in Canmore, the database of Historic Environment Scotland (English)
- WS Hanson: Roman campaigns north of the Forth-Clyde isthmus: the evidence of the temporary camps. In: Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, volume 109 (1978), pp. 140-150.
- Anthony R. Birley: Septimius Severus: The African Emperor. Routledge, London 1971 and 1999, p. 186.
- Gordon S. Maxwell: The Romans in Scotland. Edinburgh 1989, p. 35.
- Vindolanda tablets online .
- James Earle Fraser: From Caledonia to Pictland. Scotland to 795. Edinburgh University Press, 2009, p. 56.
- James Earle Fraser: From Caledonia to Pictland. Scotland to 795. Edinburgh University Press, 2009, p. 58.
- L. Alcock: Kings and Warriors, Craftsmen and Priests in Northern Britain AD 550-850. Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Edinburgh 2003, p. 63.
- James Earle Fraser: From Caledonia to Pictland. Scotland to 795. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2009, p. 71.
- James Earle Fraser: From Caledonia to Pictland. Scotland to 795. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2009, p. 90.
- This section is based on Art. Scottland in the Lexikon des Mittelalters , Volume 7, Munich 1995, Sp. 1546–1551.
- In his Res gestae (27, 5) he writes of "Picti in duas gentes divisi, Dicalydonas et Verturiones".
- Andrew DM Barrell: Medieval Scotland. Cambridge University Press 2000, p. 2.
- 2001 Ewan Campbell contradicted the assumption of an Irish origin of the Scoti: Were the Scots Irish? In: Antiquity. 75 (2001), pp. 285-292. Although he was contradicted by linguists, his suggestion that the Irish came to Scotland much earlier, perhaps as early as the Bronze Age, could be correct, because archaeologically there is no cultural break for the early 6th century, which is usually mentioned as the time of immigration prove. Possibly the Irish groups that the metal trade had attracted and to which the Beaker pottery would then go back came from Spain or Greece. Copper mining began on Ross Island as early as 2400 BC. (Barry Cunliffe: Britain Begins. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2013, p. 202).
- Annals of Ulster , engl. Translation.
- Alex Woolf: Scotland. In: Pauline Stafford (Ed.): A Companion to the Early Middle Ages. Britain and Ireland, c. 500-1100. John Wiley & Sons, 2009, pp. 251-267, here: p. 251.
- Alex Woolf: Scotland. In: Pauline Stafford (Ed.): A Companion to the Early Middle Ages. Britain and Ireland, c. 500-1100. John Wiley & Sons, 2009, pp. 251-267, here: p. 252.
- DP Kirby: The Earliest English Kings. Routledge 2000, p. 52.
- NJ Higham: The Kingdom of Northumbria AD 350-1100. Sutton, Stroud 1993, p. 82 ff.
- DP Kirby: The Earliest English Kings. Routledge 2000, p. 57.
- R. Mitchison: A History of Scotland. Routledge, London, 3rd edition. 2002, p. 10.
- FD Logan: The Vikings in History. Routledge, London, 2nd edition. 1992, p. 49.
- Alex Woolf: Scotland. In: Pauline Stafford (Ed.): A Companion to the Early Middle Ages. Britain and Ireland, c. 500-1100. John Wiley & Sons, 2009, pp. 251-267, here: p. 253.
- Alex Woolf: From Pictland to Alba. 789-1070. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2007, p. 128.
- Alex Woolf: Scotland. In: Pauline Stafford (Ed.): A Companion to the Early Middle Ages. Britain and Ireland, c. 500-1100. John Wiley & Sons, 2009, pp. 251-267, here: p. 259.
- Angelo Forte, Richard D. Oram, Frederik Pedersen: Viking Empires. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2005, p. 197 f.
- Alex Woolf: Scotland. In: Pauline Stafford (Ed.): A Companion to the Early Middle Ages. Britain and Ireland, c. 500-1100. John Wiley & Sons, 2009, pp. 251-267, here: pp. 261 f.
- There is a stone at the place where Macbethead is said to have been killed: Entry on Macbeth's Stone in Canmore, the database of Historic Environment Scotland (English)
- This year name Joseph Gribbin, Martin Brett: English Episcopal Acta. Canterbury 1070-1136. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2004, p. 83.
- Charles Arnold-Baker: The Companion to British History. 2nd edition. Routledge, London 2001, p. 440.
- Alex Woolf: Scotland. In: Pauline Stafford (Ed.): A Companion to the Early Middle Ages. Britain and Ireland, c. 500-1100. John Wiley & Sons, 2009, pp. 251-267, here: p. 261.
- Richard Oram: David I. The King who made Scotland. History Press 2009, passim.
- GWS Barrow (ed.): The Charters of King David I. The Written Acts of David I King of Scots, 1124-53 and of His Son Henry Earl of Northumberland, 1139-52. Boydell, Edinburgh 1999, p. 3.
- GWS Barrow (ed.): The Charters of King David I. The Written Acts of David I King of Scots, 1124-53 and of His Son Henry Earl of Northumberland, 1139-52. Boydell, Edinburgh 1999, p. 1.
- David Allan: Understand Scottish History. Hachette, London 2011.
- This and the following from: Peter Hume Brown: History of Scotland to the present time. Cambridge 1911, pp. 80-84. For his interpretation model cf. Ian L. Donnachie, Christopher A. Whatley: The Manufacture of Scottish History. Polygon, Edinburgh 1992, pp. 85 f.
- RR Davies: The First English Empire. Power and Identities in the British Isles, 1093-1343. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2000, p. 57.
- Lester B. Orfield: The Growth of Scandinavian Law. The Lawbook Exchange, 1st edition. 1953, Union, New Jersey 2002, p. 138.
- Michael Brown: The Wars of Scotland, 1214-1371. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2004, p. 160.
- Urquhart Castle on the Historic Scotland website.
- Michael Brown: The Wars of Scotland, 1214-1371. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2004, p. 166.
- On the role and interpretation of his role cf. GWS Barrow: Robert Bruce and the Community of the Realm of Scotland. 4th edition. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2005 of the work first published in 1965.
- Michael Brown: The Wars of Scotland, 1214-1371. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2004, pp. 161-166.
- Michael Brown: The Wars of Scotland, 1214-1371. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2004, p. 182.
- Alex Woolf: From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2007, p. 57.
- James Hunter: Last of the free. A millennial history of the Highlands and islands of Scotland. Mainstream Pub, Edinburgh 1999, p. 78.
- Alex Woolf: From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland. Edinburgh University Press 2007, p. 141.
- Alex Woolf: From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland. Edinburgh University Press 2007, pp. 216-218.
- Alex Wolf: From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland. Edinburgh University Press 2007, p. 218 f.
- Alex Wolf: From Pictland to Alba, 789-1070. The New Edinburgh History of Scotland. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2007, p. 213.
- WH Murray: The Companion Guide to the West Highlands of Scotland. London 1977, p. 100.
- Michael Brown: The Wars of Scotland, 1214-1371. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2004, p. 196 f.
- Grant G. Simpson: The Declaration of Arbroath Revitalized. In: Scottish Historical Review. 56, pp. 11-33 (1977).
- SH Rigby (Ed.): A Companion to Britain in the Later Middle Ages. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford 2003, pp. 109-111.
- after David Ross: Scottish place-Names. Birlinn, Edinburgh 2001, ISBN 1-84158-173-9 , p. 24 ff.
- Joachim Ehlers: The Hundred Years War. Beck, Munich 2012, p. 56.
- Peter Armstrong: Otterburn 1388. Bloody Border Conflict. Osprey Publishing 2006, passim.
- Richard Cavendish: The Battle of Homildon Hill. In: History Today. 52 (2002), p. 54 f.
- Alastair Campbell: A history of Clan Campbell. Vol. 1, Polygon at Edinburgh, Edinburgh 2000, pp. 120 f.
- The university itself is based on the founding year 1413, cf. the website of the house . The university was founded by Bishop Henry Wardlaw in 1410, but papal confirmation did not take place until 1413 (RN Swanson: Universities, Academics and the Great Schism. Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 184).
- Alfred Lawson Brown, Michael S. Moss: The University of Glasgow, 1451-1996. Edinburgh University Press, 1996, p. 4.
- Elizabeth Gemmill, Nicholas J. Mayhew: Changing Values in Medieval Scotland. A Study of Prices, Money, and Weights and Measures. Cambridge University Press, 1995, pp. 8-10.
- Steven G. Ellis: The Making of the British Isles. The State of Britain and Ireland, 1450-1660. Pearson Education, Harlow 2007, p. 30.
- This and the following according to Andre Vauchez, Barrie Dobson , Michael Lapidge (eds.): Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Cambridge 2001, Vol. 2, p. 1322.
- Alasdair A. Macdonald: Princely Culture in Scotland under James III and James IV. In: Martin Gosman, Alasdair A. MacDonald, Alasdair James Macdonald, Arie Johan Vanderjagt (eds.): Princes and Princely Culture, 1450-1650. Pp. 147–172, here: p. 149.
- DH Caldwell: The Battle of Pinkie. In: Norman MacDougall (Ed.): Scotland and War, AD 79-1918. John Donald, Edinburgh 1991, pp. 61-94, here: p. 86.
- John A. Wagner, Susan Walters Schmid: Encyclopedia of Tudor England. Santa Barbara 2012, p. 115.
- Leanna Packard: The Scottish Revolution in its International Context, 1639-1640. Theses, Ohio State University, 2009, passim.
- GM Yould: The Duke of Lauderdale's Religious Policy in Scotland, 1668-79- In: Journal of Religious History. 11, 2 (1980), pp. 248-267.
- The Scottish Parliament (Constituencies) Bill: Bill 4 of 2003-4. (PDF; 779.73 kB) www.parliament.uk, February 3, 2004, accessed on July 28, 2013 (English, see Appendix 1). Iain McLean: Are Scotland and Wales over-represented in the House of Commons? In: Political Quarterly. 66: 250-268 (1995).
- The Scottish Parliament (Constituencies) Bill: Bill 4 of 2003-4. (PDF; 779.73 kB) www.parliament.uk, February 3, 2004, accessed on July 28, 2013 (English, see Appendix 1).
- The Scottish Parliament (Constituencies) Bill: Bill 4 of 2003-4. (PDF; 779.73 kB) www.parliament.uk, February 3, 2004, accessed on July 28, 2013 (English, see Appendix 1).
- Jenny Wormald: Scotland: A History . Oxford University Press, Oxford 2005, ISBN 1-4294-2128-2 , pp. 183 .
- Charles R. Warren: Managing Scotland's environment . 2nd ed., Completely rev. and updated. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2009, ISBN 978-0-7486-3063-9 , pp. 45 ff., 179 ff .
- Jayne Glass: Lairds, Land and Sustainability: Scottish Perspectives on Upland Management . Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2013, ISBN 978-0-7486-8588-2 , Field sports and game management.
- Cf. SS “Arandora Star” ( Memento of July 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ).
- The Devolution Debate This Century. In: BBC News. Retrieved May 25, 2013 .
- Scotland decides. In: BBC News. September 19, 2014, accessed September 20, 2014 .