A kinship relationship is a relationship between two people, one of whom is biologically derived from the other , or who both have a common ancestor . In addition to this underlying consanguinity, there is also the legal relationship by establishing parenthood for a non-biological child ( adoption , acknowledgment of paternity , birth after egg donation ). With relatives of spouses or registered partners is in most countries no legal relationship, but an affinity , commonly known as indirect relationship called a form of social relationship .
In the various cultures , simple or extensive kinship systems have developed for all of these relationships , each with their own kinship names for the family members of a person. These names always refer to the person who uses them or whose relationships are named, and they are mutually complementary, for example a person is the granddaughter of their grandmother , at the same time she is the great-granddaughter of their great-grandmother . When depicting relationships in family trees or genealogical tables , the main person is referred to as the ego (I) or test person (test person) and all names refer only to them (see genealogical representation ).
This article explains the German, Austrian, and Swiss relationship names. They are culturally shaped by the understanding that a person is descended equally from both parents ( cognatic-bilateral relationship ). Essentially, they correspond to the kinship system that is common in the western world today .
The degree of kinship (close or distant) between two people is based on their both ancestry, a distinction is made between the legal degree of kinship ("in the first degree": 1 mediating birth) and the numbered generation distance of side lines ("1st degree “: A generation back; see graphic on the right).
Relationship system and terms
The German family names are ethnologically (ethnologically) assigned to the “ Eskimo system ”, which was classified by the American anthropologist George P. Murdock in the 1940s . The Eskimo peoples in the northern polar region do not differentiate between relatives on the paternal and maternal side ( patri- and matrilateral ), so an uncle can be the brother of the father or mother, an aunt the sister of the mother or the father. This corresponds to the German names, but the names Oheim (mother brother) and Muhme (mother sister) were also common in the past . As cousins and cousins are both the children of uncle and aunt and the grandson of Great Uncle and Aunt, and the great-grandson of great-great uncle and called Aunt, without further distinction; If necessary, an addition is added to indicate the generation gap: “1. Grades ”for the children of your uncle or aunt.
In contrast, other peoples and ethnic groups have, for example, two different names for uncle , which can be translated as father-brother and mother-brother . This shows a difference between the two, as is the case with your children. The Eskimo and German systems make fewer distinctions, in contrast to descriptive , descriptive systems. One such is the " Sudan System ", which is common in Turkey and China and was widespread in the Roman Empire (see Latin-German kinship names ). There are separate names for uncles and aunts as well as cousins, which indicate their gender , their descent and their relationship to a parent (see also kinship terminology ).
Some cultures differentiate between older and younger siblings : In Turkish, the “older sister” is abla , the “younger sister” kız kardeş , the “older brother” abi , the “younger brother” kardeş (see Turkish family names ). The Thai distinguishes between an older and a younger sibling. The Korean language also distinguishes between a man's brother and a woman's brother.
|Person ( ego , test person )|
- Mother = the original carrier of the egg cell ( ovum ) from which the person grew
- Father = the producer of the sperm ( sperm ) that the egg of the mother fertilized
The biological parenthood is one of the three roles of parents. The basis of the biological relationship ( consanguinity ) is the conformity of the genetic makeup between a child and its two parents ( Genitor and Genetrix ). In modern reproductive medicine, a woman's egg cell can be transplanted into another woman who will carry the child and “give life” to it at birth ; however, the child has no genetic similarities with this woman (see surrogate mother , egg donation , biological lineage , embryo protection law ). The biological father is colloquially called the producer , which is traditionally often incorrectly understood to be the sole generation of the child (authorship), while the technical term genitor also includes the mother of the egg cell as the child's producer . The genetic relationship coefficient of parents and their biological children is 0.5: around 50% of their hereditary information matches (also between full siblings , see hereditary disease risks ). In sociobiology , parenting effort describes every effort by parents that leads to the fitness of their offspring. The mother's mother (grandmother) also plays an important role in this: Her active support brings about an important survival advantage for her grandchildren and is important in the evolutionary genetic development of mankind (see ethnological findings on grandmotherhood ).
- Mother = gave birth to the person
- Father = has recognized the person as his child or has been established as the father
- Adoptive parents: adoptive mother, adoptive father = have adopted the person "in place of the child" (see below: adoptive )
Legal parenting is the legal definition of who is considered the mother and father of a child. Associated with this are parental rights and obligations (see legal guardians , legal affiliation to a family ).
Already in the Roman Empire the legal proverb was valid : Mater semper certa est : "The mother is always safe" - on the other hand: "The father is always uncertain": Pater semper incertus est . Until a few decades ago it had to remain unclear whether the presumed father was really involved in the conception or whether it was another man's cuckoo child (see false father ). Until the late 20th century, the family name was only passed on through the paternal line ( ancestral line ); the marital status (legitimacy) of a child was of decisive importance. Until 1970, the father and his illegitimate child were not considered related in the Federal Republic of Germany ; this fiction was eliminated by the illegitimate law (see also paternity in German law ). Today, paternity tests , sperm donation, and the issue of cloning matter.
In the German Civil Code since 1998: "The mother of a child is the woman who gave birth to it" (BGB § 1591). The father of a child is generally considered to be the man who is married to the mother or the man who has recognized his paternity, as long as this has not been successfully challenged (§§ 1592 ff.). If an unmarried mother does not indicate a father at birth, the child can grow up without a legal father (see fatherlessness , number father ). A child can have two parents of the same formal legal gender if one of them changes his civil status (based on his gender identity ) (see Transsexual Act ). Parents are the legal representatives and custodians of their minor children (§§ 1626 ff.). In exceptional cases, a court can withdraw custody or appoint a guardian , for example in the event of incapacity for upbringing or the death of the parents.
Legally, there is a first degree relationship to one's own parents because there is only 1 “mediating birth” between them and their children; There is a prohibition of marriage or civil partnership and cohabitation (see German incest prohibitions , in Austria only for blood relatives ).
If a child is given for adoption , legal parenting changes to the adoptive parents and the relationship to the previous legal parents expires . If the adoptive child is single or part of a same-sex civil partnership, the adoptive child has only one parent. When adopting a stepchild , one of the spouses or life partners takes part in legal parenting for the child of the other partner - in Germany, however, a life partner is not allowed to adopt an adopted child of his partner as his stepchild, nor is he allowed to participate in an adoption (because he is same-sex, see adoption by life partner ).
- Stepparents : stepmother , stepfather = new spouse or partner of a parent's own: with this the person is not related, but only indirectly related by marriage
- Foster parents : foster mother, foster father = persons of legal age who temporarily or permanently take in children of other parents as foster children (form of inpatient youth welfare or youth welfare )
- Dairy mother , foster mother = another mother or a wet nurse who breastfed the person(milk relationship or breastfeeding relationship in Judaism , Islam and oriental Christianity )
The social parenthood is not bound by biological descent even to legal provisions. With her, responsibility for a child is voluntarily taken on and cared for, for example in same-sex rainbow families . Often, parents take on social responsibility for stepchildren without adopting them. In earlier times in many places the maternal uncle ( uncle = mother's brother) took on a fatherly role for his sister's children; This form of social fatherhood ( Avunculate ) can still be found worldwide in many of the more than 150 ethnic groups and indigenous peoples who organize themselves according to their maternal lines ( matrilinear ) . A widespread form of voluntary acceptance of a social duty of care is Christian baptism sponsorship ; A godson's or godmother's job can include looking after the godchild in the event of the parents' early death .
Common names for the parents are:
- Mutti, Mueti, Mutsch, Mama , Mami, Ma, mum ( English ) , mom ( American )
- Vati, Papa , Papi, Paps, Pa, Date ( Tyrol ) , Tata ( South Tyrol ) , Däta ( Vorarlberg ) , dad, daddy (English)
Up until the late 20th century it was quite common in the upper classes of Europe for children to speak to their parents , that is, to address them as “you” or “your”; this custom is still found in some traditional families around the world today . In contrast to this, the anti-authoritarian upbringing and the 1968 movement called for parents to be addressed directly by their first names .
The offspring of parents are their children, grandchildren , great-grandchildren, great-grandson, great great great grandson , Ururururenkel , and so on in descending order.
Commons: parents (parents) : Mothers (mothers) + fathers (fathers) - Images and media files
- Daughter = female child
- Son = male child
- Adopted son, adopted daughter = equal to biological children
|Person ( ego , test person )|
The genetic relationship coefficient between children and their biological parents is 0.5: around 50% of their genetic information is the same (also between full siblings , see the possible inherited disease risks ). If the mother was artificially fertilized through a sperm donation , the child may find out the name of the biological father.
The legal mother of a child is the woman who gave birth to it; the legal father recognized it as his child or was established as the father (see above: Parents ). A child can grow up without a legal father if its mother was unmarried at birth and did not specify a father.
Legally, there is a first-degree relationship to one's own children because they descend directly from the person (1 mediating birth). Children of a person who have been adopted through adoption are also considered to be related to him and all of his relatives; they are treated as equal to biological children (see child relationship , child law ). Adoption removes the legal parenthood of the previous legal parents of adoptive children (extinct relationship) , but the prohibition of marriage or civil partnership and cohabitation between them continues to exist in Germany (see German incest prohibitions ); these prohibitions also exist between the adoptive child and his new siblings (and continue to be with his or her original biological siblings).
Forms of social filiation :
- Stepchild: stepson, stepdaughter = begotten by own spouse or partner with an earlier / other partners (only by marriage )
- Foster child: foster son, foster daughter = permanently admitted to care by adults ( foster family )
- Godchild: godson, goddaughter = voluntarily cared for by a godfather andgodmother( Christian baptism sponsorship)
- Dairy children = breastfed by another mother (foster mother) or a wet nurse (milk relationship in Judaism , Islam and oriental Christianity )
The children of children are grandchildren (children) , whose children are great-grandchildren , followed by great-great-grandchildren . The Guinness Book of Records lists 7 living generations in a straight line , 6 were recorded in 2013: In Canada , an 86-year-old woman witnessed the birth of her great-great-great-grandson, whose great-great-great-grandmother she is.
The children of siblings are nephews and nieces (likewise the children of brothers-in-law ; the children of cousins are nephews and nieces of the 2nd degree ); the children of uncles and aunts are cousins and cousins ; the children of great uncles and aunts are uncles and aunts of the 2nd degree .
Commons: children (children) : daughters (daughters) + sons (sons) - Images and media files
- Sister = daughter of both parents (full-time)
- Brother = son of both parents (full)
- Half-brother, half-sister = child of mother or father with another partner ( half-born )
- Adoptive brother, adoptive sister = equal to biological (half) siblings ( legally adopted by one or both parents )
|siblings||Person ( ego , test person )||Adoptive siblings||Half siblings||Step siblings|
Origin: The word siblings (actually: "totality of sisters") is originally a plural word , but is also used in the singular : the sibling, next to "sibling part". The old name Gebrüder for the sons of a family can still be found in traditional company names , abbreviated "Gebr.", And in historical figures such as the Montgolfier brothers or the German fairy tale collectors " Brothers Grimm ".
The genetic relationship coefficient between full siblings (outdated full sister, full brother ) is 0.5: around 50% of their genetic information is the same (as between biological children and parents ), around 25% between half-siblings (see also the inherited disease risks ).
Twin sister and twin brother are special siblings:
- Identical twins = full siblings, created from a single fertilized egg cell , which divided into two embryos with identical genetic makeup ( twin hatch )
- dizygoti twins = full siblings, developed from two different egg cells of the mother, which were fertilized by the same man at the same time (different appearance)
- Half twins = half-born siblings, developed from two different egg cells from the mother, which were fertilized by two men in quick succession (rare, common in animals)
- in a figurative sense: astrological twins = same time of birth of two people (similarly interpreted "life plan")
Legally, there is a relationship in the second degree to all of their own brothers and sisters (2 mediating births). In contrast to the straight line descent from one another, all siblings together with their offspring form side lines (independent family branches ). Full siblings have the same ancestors , half siblings have either father or mother in common. The children adopted by one parent are legally equal to the biological half-siblings, those adopted by both parents are equal to full siblings. There is no relationship to step-siblings, but a brother-in-law (the Duden falsely calls them half-siblings, but former children of the new partner of their own parent do not become half-brothers) There is no relationship of any kind with foster siblings.
In Germany there is a ban on marriage or civil partnership and cohabitation between full and half-born as well as adopted siblings (see German incest prohibitions , in Austria only for blood relatives ). This also applies to adopted children unchanged with regard to their biological siblings (extinct relatives) .
- Stepbrother, stepsister = by marriage of a parent: children of his new / old spouse or partner (only by marriage )
- Foster brother, foster sister = permanently taken in by parents (share) for care (see foster parents )
- Milk brother, milk sister = by being breastfed togetherby the same woman (foster mother) or wet nurse ( Jewish , Islamic and Christian-oriental milk relationship)
- Blood brother, blood sister = by mixing drops of blood and swearing brotherhood , two unrelated persons are united (imitated consanguinity; see also men's associations )
- Brother, co-sister = through membership in the same brotherhood or sisterhood , usually with a religious objective (for example friar , religious sister )
- Drinking brother, drinking sister =friendly relationship ceremonially initiatedby "drinking brotherhood"(see also wine brotherhood , wine sisterhood )
The “ brotherhood ” is derived from the close family relationship between siblings , in the sense of an overarching solidarity between people. The understanding of a "sibling of all people" was a basis of the first " World Parliament of Religions " in 1893 .
The designation of a non-relative as a "brother" is an expression of friendship worldwide (see also " Brother's meal "). The ideal of brotherhood is known in almost all cultures of the world , as fraternization between people. The slogan " Freedom, Equality and Fraternity " became a global slogan after the French Revolution and is part of the French and Haitian Constitutions. “All people become brothers” is a world-famous quote from the Ode to Joy . The “ Week of Brotherhood ” takes place annually in March, and has been an event for Christian-Jewish cooperation in Germany since 1952 . In recent times, sisterhood is also used in the sense of women's solidarity . In political terms, “brotherhood” is often replaced by the gender-neutral term “solidarity”.
Worldwide there are fraternities and sororities , especially as religious associations. Early historical examples in ancient Greece are the family associations of the Phratrien ( fratér "brother") as cultic , economically and politically oriented bodies . The term “nurse” goes back to the traditional way of addressing members of religious nuns or deaconesses as sisters (modern term: nurse ).
The ancestors of full siblings are identical, half siblings only have the ancestors of one parent in common.
Commons: siblings (siblings) : sisters (sisters) + Brothers (brothers) - Images and media files
Nephew and niece
For "Neffe" as a family name, see Neffe (disambiguation) .
- Nephew = son of sister or brother
- Niece = daughter of brother or sister
|father||Uncle (father brother)|
|sister||Person ( ego , test person )||Brothers||Cousin cousin|
|Nephew / niece
|Son, daughter||Nephew / niece
|Nephew / niece
Origin: The word nephew is related to the Latin nepos ("sibling son", old Indian nápāt ), as well as the word niece via the old high German nift . The foreign word nepotism, derived from the Latin root, means "nepotism" (mutual pushing of orders and benefits).
The genetic coefficient of relationship to children of their own full siblings is 0.25: around 25% of their genetic information matches their own (also to biological grandparents and half siblings , see corresponding inherited disease risks ).
The children of brothers-in-law (married couples) are also commonly referred to as nephews and nieces.
Children's children of siblings of the ( previous ) parents:
- Nephew, niece 2nd degree = son, daughter of cousin or cousin = grandson of uncle or aunt = great-grandchild of grandparents
- Nephew, niece 3rd degree = children of cousin or cousin 2nd degree = great-grandchildren of great-uncle or great-aunt = great-great-grandson of great-grandparents
A cousin's children are always nephews and nieces of an additional degree: a cousin's son (1st degree) is a 2nd degree nephew , the daughter of a 2nd degree cousin is a 3rd degree niece , and so on - where "Degree" here indicates the generation gap to the original sibling pair of the side lines, not their legal degree of relationship .
uncle and aunt
- Uncle = brother of the mother (formerly uncle ) or of the father
- Aunt of the mother (formerly = sister aunt ) or father
- out of date: half-uncle, half-aunt = half-brother, half-sister of a parent
|2nd degree uncle / aunt
|Cousin cousin||Cousin cousin|| Person
( ego , test person )
Cousin / cousin
Origin: Before the terms uncle and aunt from the French in the German-speaking world came, brother and father's sister were cousins (originally "Father Brother") and base (originally: "father's sister") called, and later their children (see below: Cousin and cousin ).
Legally, there is a third degree relationship to uncles and aunts (1st degree) (3 mediating births). They are descended from common grandparents . In contrast to the straight line descent from each other, uncles and aunts form side lines (independent family branches) together with their descendants . The genetic coefficient of relationship to blood-related uncles and aunts (1st degree) is 0.25: around 25% of their genetic information matches their own (also to biological grandparents or half-siblings , see also the inherited disease risks ).
Colloquially , the spouses or life partners of siblings of the parents uncle and aunt are also called; but these are legal only in the third degree by marriage . In the past, the mother's brother had its own designation as uncle , ohm or ohm , which was also used for the husband of the mother's sister. The mother's sister was the aunt , as was the mother's brother's wife.
The maternal uncle ( Latin avunculus "mother brother"; German uncle ) used to take over the social paternity for the children of his sister in many places ; this so-called avunculate can still be found worldwide in many of the more than 150 ethnic groups and indigenous peoples who are matrilineal , organized according to their mother's origin (see also avunculocality : marital residence with the mother's brother).
Children are sometimes instructed to also name unrelated women and men such as friends of their parents or neighbors or educators aunt or uncle , usually in connection with their last name, for example "Aunt Schmitz" or "Uncle Meier" (named aunt, named uncle) . Also Christian Taufpaten (Patenonkel, Patentante) are often used as uncle or aunt addressed, independent of a possible actual degree of relationship. In the old Catholic canon law there was a marriage ban between the person to be baptized and his godparent, which was lifted in 1983 with the Codex Iuris Canonici .
The children of uncles or aunts are cousins and cousins (first degree) , the grandson are nephews / nieces 2nd degree (children of cousins or cousins).
Another generation back are the grandparents' siblings:
- Great-uncle, great-aunt = brother, sister of grandmother or grandfather = uncle, aunt of one of the parents
- Uncle, aunt 2nd degree = son, daughter of great aunt or great uncle
The children of uncles or aunts of the 2nd degree are cousins of the 2nd degree , whose children are nephews / nieces of the 3rd degree - where "degree" indicates the generation gap to the original siblings of the siblings, not their legal relationship .
A generation ago, the siblings of the great-grandparents are :
- Great-great-uncle, great-great- aunt = brother, sister of great-grandmother or great-grandfather = uncle, aunt of a grandparent
- Great-uncle, great-aunt 2nd degree = children of great-great- aunt or great-great-uncle
- Uncle, aunt 3rd degree = children of great-aunt or great-uncle 2nd degree
The children of 3rd degree uncles or aunts are 3rd degree cousins , their children are 4th degree nephews / nieces . In general, however, such a distant relationship is not differentiated, but rather referred to as an " ancestral community ". In large families , more distant relatives are generally referred to as cousins, with no indication of a degree.
Wiktionary: uncle , aunt - father's brother , father's sister - great uncle , great aunt - great-great uncle , great-aunt - godfather , godmother - rated Aunt - meaning explanations, word origin, synonyms
cousin and cousin
- Cousin ([ kuˈzɛŋ , kuˈzɛ̃ː ]) or cousin = son of aunt or uncle = son of brother or sister of one of the parents
- Cousin ([ kuˈziːnə ]), also cousin (outdated base ) = daughter of aunt or uncle = daughter of brother or sister of a parent
- 2nd degree cousins = children of aunt or uncle 2nd degree = grandchildren of siblings of grandparents (2 generations back), regional siblings, siblings grandsons (common ancestors: great grandparents )
- 3rd degree cousins = children of 3rd degree aunt or uncle = great-grandchildren of siblings of great-grandparents (3 generations back: of great-great-grandparents)
- outdated: half-cousins, half-cousins = children of a half- uncle or half-aunt
( ego , test person )
Nephew / niece
Nephew / niece
|Son, daughter||Nephew niece||
Nephew / niece
Nephew / niece
Origin: The word cousin comes from French , from Latin cōnsobrīnus "belonging to the sister, sibling child " (originally only on the mother's side), from soror "sister". The plural form cousins applies only to cousin (male), not including cousins . The term cousinage generally means a joking relationship or a mocking relationship (see joking relationship ).
All persons who are cousins to one another (even distant ones) live in the same generation and can therefore not be directly related to one another. They are descendants of different sidelines via a sibling of a (pre-) parent, in independent family branches.
Cousins and cousins (1st degree) descend from a common grandmother and / or grandfather, or were adopted accordingly . Since this point of common ancestry is one (1) generation ahead of the parents, they will be more accurate than cousins “1. Degree ”. According to this degree calculation, own siblings could be cousins “0. Degree ”. This sideline degree differs from the legal degree of kinship , which is calculated according to the number of “mediating births”: There is a fourth degree of legal kinship with cousins (1st degree) (4 births). There is no distinction between whether they are related on a mother or father side, they can be children of siblings of the mother or the father.
The genetic relationship coefficient to blood related cousins (1st degree) is 0.125: around 12.5% of their hereditary information agrees with your own, and to cousins of 2nd degree 3.125% (see also hereditary disease risks ).
Sexual relationships and marriages between cousins and cousins are permitted under civil law in most countries (exceptions: some US states, several Balkan states , Korea , the Philippines ). For many ethnic groups and indigenous peoples , marriage between cousin and cousin is even preferred (example cross-cousin marriage ), in the Arab world and beyond in the Islamic cultural area, the bint ʿamm , the daughter of the father brother, is coveted. In the Catholic Church , the relationship between a cousin and a first cousin represents an obstacle to marriage , from which, however, one can be freed ( dispensation ).
Cousin and base
Before the French terms cousin and cousine spread in the German-speaking area , the sons of aunts or uncles were called cousins (originally: "father brother"), the daughters were called bases (originally: "father sister"). These terms are also used regionally for more distant relatives, but are out of date in this meaning.
The designation as a cousin comes from Middle High German vetere (e) ("father brother, brother son") from Old High German fetiro / fatirro ("father brother, uncle ") and is related to Latin patruus and Greek pátros ("father brother"). In German dialects (under the influence of the words " Gevatter " and "Pfetter"), cousin occasionally means the " godfather ". (See also nepotism ).
The cousin from Dingsda means figuratively some distant relative who lives somewhere; this linguistic image became known in the 1920s through the operetta of the same name by Eduard Künneke . A nepotism or female cousin economy is spoken of when family members or relatives obtain excessive advantages for one another, for example by postponing orders or " nudging ". The namesake or the namesake of a person or thing has the same name n (sbestandteil) as another without this equality is due to a relationship with each other.
Descendants The children of cousins are nephews and nieces of an additional degree: the son of a cousin (1st degree) is a nephew of a 2nd degree , the daughter of a 2nd degree cousin is a 3rd degree niece , and so on. Children of their own siblings are actually "1st degree nephews / nieces".
Great cousin and great cousin are not officially related names and are not used uniformly. Deviating from the normal pattern, relatives from the next older, the same or the next younger generation are used colloquially :
≈ cousin, 2nd degree cousin (according to Duden )
≈ cousin, cousin of one of the parents = uncle, aunty 2nd degree
≈ son, daughter of a cousin (1st degree) = nephew, niece 2nd degree
≈ general: cousins and their children, if their degree is not known
Cousins n. Degree
As the generation gap increases, the degree is not used for cousins but is generally referred to as an " ancestral community ". 10th degree cousins are connected by two ancestral siblings who both lived 10 generations earlier, and their parents 11 generations ago (great, great, great, great, great grandparents). The specification of the degree for cousins is relatively common, but the correct calculation method is rarely known. The following degree specifications with regard to the sideline differ from the corresponding legal degrees of relationship:
|People to each other
( subjects )
|siblings||parents||parents||0||in the second degree|
|Cousins ( 1st degree )||Uncle or aunt (1st degree)||Grandparents||1||in the fourth grade|
|2nd cousins||2nd degree uncle or aunt||Great grandparents||2||in the sixth grade|
|3rd cousins||3rd degree uncle or aunt||Great-great-grandparents||3||in the eighth grade|
|Grade cousins||Uncle or aunt of the degree||Great (n − 1) grandparents||n||im 2 × (n + 1). Degree|
A second cousin (ancestors: 2 generations back) is the daughter of a second-degree aunt or uncle (cousin or cousin of one of the parents), i.e. the granddaughter of a great-aunt or great-uncle (a sibling of the grandparents ); common ancestors were the great-grandparents. Second-degree cousins were regionally also referred to as secondary siblings, siblings or other siblings , incorrectly little cousin (s) .
With a 3rd cousin, the person (ego) has a common great-great-grandmother who had two children, whose children in turn are 1st cousins to each other; the children of these cousins are second cousins to each other, and their children are third cousins to each other. The ancestor generations are always counted.
Spouse and life partner
Spouse or spouse is the married person. The marriage does not establish any relationship or sisterhood between the spouses, but a relationship between their two families (see below: in -law ). There is no same-sex marriage in Switzerland.
Spouse or life partner in legal language refers to that same-sex person with a "registered partnership" was signed (Swiss: registered partner). This " partnership " forms its own legally anchored institute alongside that of marriage. She, too, does not establish any relationship or sisterhood between the life partners, but a relationship between her two families (see below: In -law ). Not registered partners, in a marriage-like community life ( " living in sin ") are legally considered significant other designated; there is no brotherhood between their families.
All kinship terms listed above with the following prefixes combined or parts of words, to name a more detailed or additional family relationship, so it could, for example, an adoptive semi originally large- uncle passed.
The prefix uppercase usually denotes a relationship with a distance of 2 generations :
- Grandparents: grandmother, grandfather = parents of one parent (see also mother's mother as an evolutionary advantage )
- Great-uncle, great-aunt = siblings of a grandparent = uncle, aunt of a parent
- Great-nephew, great-niece = son, daughter of a nephew or niece = grandchild of a brother or sister
- Great-nephew, great-niece 2nd degree = children of nephews or nieces 2nd degree = grandchildren of cousin or cousin 1st degree
- Grandchild = regional: a grandchild (United son, daughter large)
Great nephews and nieces are related to the same degree as their parents: A third degree great niece is the daughter of a third degree nephew or niece.
Great cousin and great cousin are not officially related names and are not used uniformly.
- Great-grandparents: Great-grandmother, great-grandfather = parents of a grandmother or a grandfather
- Great-great-uncle, great-great- aunt = brother, sister of great-grandmother or great-grandfather = uncle, aunt of a grandparent
- Great-great-grandparents: Great-great-grandmother, great-great-grandfather = parents of a great-grandparent
- Great-great-great-uncle, great-great-great-aunt = siblings of the great-great-grandparents
- Great greatur ... grandparents , and so on in the ascending line (see generational names )
- Ancestor (s), ancestor = any ancestor of the grandparents - also a progenitor (ancestor, founder) or an ancestral mother (ancestor, ancestor)
Normally, people can in the European cultural area to up to four ancestors maternal and paternal -Generationen remember, but rarely all siblings of ancestors with their offspring in the sidelines . In contrast, members of a culture with a single line of descent from the father or from the mother can usually list 10 or more previous generations of their lineage without any gaps (see also Lineage / descent group ).
- Great-grandchildren, great-granddaughter = son, daughter of a grandchild
- Great-great-grandchildren, great-great-grandchildren = children of great-grandchildren = grandchildren of grandchildren
- Great-great -grandchildren , great-great-granddaughter = children of great-great-grandchildren (5th generation of offspring)
- Great-great -nephew, great-great-niece = son, daughter of a grandchild of a brother or sister = great-grandchild of their own siblings
- Great -grand-nephew, great-great-niece 2nd degree = children of a grandson of cousins = great-grandchildren of cousin or cousin 1st degree
- Great-great-grand-nephew, great-great-great-niece = children of a great-grandson of brother or sister = great-great-grandchildren of their own siblings
- Great-great-grand-nephew, great-great-great-niece 2nd degree = children of a great-grandson of cousins = great-great-grandchildren of cousin or 1st cousin
Descending terms are continued to indicate retrospective kinship relationships, such as a person may be the great, great, great, great niece of an ancestor. The Guinness Book of Records lists 7 living generations in a straight line . 6 generations living in one family at the same time were found in 2013 when an 86-year-old Canadian woman witnessed the birth of her biological great-great-great-grandson (as great-great-great-grandmother).
For "grandchildren" as a family name, see Ellen Enkel .
The word part grandchildren originally referred to a family relationship that originates from a person's own children :
Grandchild = child child, the child of a child (regional grandchild , Swiss grandchild )
- Grandchildren (plural) = children of one child
- Grandson, grandson = son of a child (obsolete grandson )
- Granddaughter, granddaughter = daughter of a child (outdated granddaughter )
Great-grandchildren (plural) = children of one grandchild, regional great-grandchildren - sometimes any grandchildren's children
- Great-grandchildren, great-granddaughter = son, daughter of a grandchild = grandchildren of a child
- Great-great- grandchildren, great-great-grandchildren = children of a great-grandchildren = grandchildren of a grandchildren = great-grandchildren of a child
- Great-great -grandchildren , great-great-great-granddaughter = children of a great-great-grandchild = grandchildren of a great-grandchild ( experienced in 2013 by an 86-year-old Canadian woman)
- Great, great, great grandson, great great great granddaughter (7th generation ), and so on in descending order
Origin: The word grandchildren comes from the Old High German eninchili "little ancestor " (also: little grandfather). In this meaning, an early belief in the possible rebirth (transmigration of souls: reincarnation ) of deceased ancestors resonates within one's own family or clan , favored by occasional similarities between the newborn and an ancestor. Such ideas can still be found today among many ethnic groups and indigenous peoples around the world.
The prefix half- denotes a relationship that only runs through an ancestor of the oldest contained generation instead of both. However, this prefix is only used for direct siblings (half-life) and is used when this peculiarity of the relationship is to be emphasized:
- Half-siblings: half-sister, half-brother = child of mother or father with another partner
- out of date: half-uncle, half-aunt = half-brother, half-sister of a parent
- outdated: half-cousin, half-cousin = son, daughter of a half- uncle or half-aunt
Their biological relationship of vollbürtigen to distinguish siblings, half-siblings as halbbürtige siblings called ( legally called wrong the Duden them step-siblings , although they related and not related by marriage are). Legally, there is a second degree relationship to half-siblings in the sidelines (two mediating births), equal to full-time siblings.
In Germany there is also a ban on marriage or civil partnership and cohabitation between half-born siblings (see German incest prohibitions ) - in contrast to step siblings, as they do not have a common biological parent .
- Adoptive child: adoptive son, adopted daughter = on child instead of adopted person (official language in Austria: child of choice )
- Adoptive parents: adoptive father, adoptive mother = the legal parents or one legal parent of the adopted person (official language in Austria: adoptive parents )
- Adoptive brother, adoptive sister = equal to biological siblings
As a rule, a person adopts another person who is not biologically related to him or her as an adopted child ( minor or adult ). A common example is the adoption of a stepchild , in which one spouse or partner takes on legal parenting for the child of the other partner. In Germany, however, a civil partner (within the meaning of the Civil Partnership Act ) may not adopt an adopted child of his partner as his stepchild, nor may he participate in an adoption (because he is same-sex, see adoption by civil partners ).
Blood relatives can also be adopted. Adopted children who are not related by blood to their adoptive family are legally considered to be related to this (entire) family; they are treated on an equal footing with biological children and they are prohibited from marriage or civil partnership , and in Germany and Switzerland also from cohabitation (see German incest prohibitions ). A kinship under inheritance law also applies to all relatives of the adoptive parents.
Through the adoption of a minor, the legal parenthood of the previous legal parents of an adopted child is canceled and it lapses ; however, the prohibition of marriage or civil partnership remains between them (also to the original siblings). The adoptive family legally takes the place of the family of origin, the adoptive parents are not referred to as step-parents and adopted children are not referred to as step-children. If an adopted child speaks of his (biological) "mother", this is biologically correct, but legally incorrect: This relationship is considered to have died. For the adoption of adults or close blood relatives, partly different rules apply. Families organized in the German Nobility Associations traditionally make a strict distinction between biological and adopted family members.
- Foster child : foster son, foster daughter = minor child who temporarily or permanently lives and is cared for in another family (outdated foster son, foster daughter )
- Foster parents : foster mother, foster father = persons of legal age who take in children of other parents temporarily or permanently (in contrast to parents of origin )
A kinship-like relationship entered into voluntarily without a biological or legal basis is colloquially called nominal or elective kinship :
- Name aunt, name uncle = older caregivers, often from the circle of friends or acquaintances of the parents
- Elective parents, elective grandparents = reference persons from neighboring or close families (other use in Austria)
The word part Schwieger- denotes relatives of a person's spouse or partner , as well as the partners of their siblings and children ; these are not their biological or legal relatives (exception: relatives marriages ), but so-called affine relatives by marriage (Latin affinitas: sisterhood ):
- Brother -in-law = brother of one's own partner - also the husband of one's own sister or the life partner of one's own brother
- Sister-in-law = sister of one's own partner - also the wife of one's own brother or the life partner of one's own sister
- Brother-in-law, sister-in- law = siblings of brothers-in-law and sister-in-law
Parents -in-law: mother-in-law, father-in-law = parents, mother and father of one's own spouse or partner
- Opponents (parents) = parents of a child-in-law = parents-in-law of their own child
- Counter-in-law , obsolete counter -in-law = the mutual fathers-in-law = the two fathers of a married couple to each other
Relationships in marriage do not end , as is often assumed, with a divorce - there is no such thing as an “ex-brother-in-law”, and a relationship is fundamentally lifelong (unless a marriage is declared null and void ). In the event of another marriage, new brotherhoods are added. In different cultures, it is customary to marry his sibling after death of spouse: When Schwager marriage ( Levirate ) the brother marries one (childless) deceased whose widow , in Schwägerinheirat ( sororate ) a widower, the sister of his (childless) deceased wife .
A linguist described a very special language level of avoidance among many indigenous peoples as "mother-in-law" , which is only used when talking to unpopular relatives (including the mother-in-law) when communication with one another is absolutely necessary. Meanwhile, the is called " avoidance speech called" (avoidance speech) , without devaluing a particular person.
The prefix stepchildren ( Old High German stiof- "bereaved, orphaned ") refers to members with which a person is not biologically or related law is; to them is through a marriage or civil partnership a affinity , they are "married":
- Stepfamily, blended family = nuclear family with at least one child from a previous / different relationship with one of the spouses or life partners
- Stepmother, stepfather = new spouse or life partner of a parent
- Stepparents = only plural form of stepparent - if both parents are not the parents of origin, they are called adoptive parents or foster parents
- Step-siblings: Step-brother, step-sister = child of the (new) spouse or life partner of one parent with another / previous partner
- Stepchild: Stepdaughter, stepson = child of one's own spouse or partner with a previous / other partner
- Stiefenkel = child of a stepchild, grandchild only of the spouse or partner (according to inheritance law and German pension insurance ) - colloquially: the stepchild of one's own child (child of daughter-in-law or son-in-law )
- Step-grandmother, step-grandfather = new / future spouse or life partner of a grandparent
- Step flags = all (future) spouses of ancestors from whom a person is not descended
Step-parent relationships can also arise for children born out of wedlock . A new spouse or life partner can take over the legal parenthood for a child of the other partner through a stepchild adoption and thus become his mother or father; Adoptive parents are ( legally ) not referred to as step-parents and adopted children are not referred to as step-children. In Germany, however, a life partner is not allowed to adopt an adopted child of his partner as his stepchild, nor is he allowed to participate in an adoption (because he is same-sex, see adoption by life partner ). Step-siblings of a person are not half-siblings because they are not with their related , are only related by marriage (the Duden calls falsely so); There is therefore no prohibition of marriage or civil partnership or cohabitation between step-siblings .
Straight line - sideline
- straight line = direct, linear = one person descends from the other (also applies to adopted or recognized persons ), i.e. child of one parent , or grandchild of a grandparent , or great-grandchild of a great-grandparent , and so on
- Lateral line = indirect, collateral = all brothers and sisters, own as well as siblings of ancestors (also adopted or recognized), together with all their respective descendants
The German civil code stipulates relationship in section 1589 :
“Individuals, one of which is descended from the other, are directly related. Individuals who are not directly related but are descended from the same third person are related in the sideline. The degree of kinship is determined by the number of the mediating births. "
Brother and sister are related on the sidelines , as they do not descend from each other but from (at least) one common ancestor : in their case from one or both parents. This also applies to all of their descendants: nieces and nephews , great-nieces and great-nephews, and so on, are all indirectly related to one another through lateral lines. The same applies in ascending order to all uncles and aunts , great uncles and aunts and so on, together with all their children and grandchildren: cousins and cousins of any degree are indirectly, collaterally related.
There is a ban on marriage or civil partnership between all straight relatives (as well as between full, half and adoptive siblings ), and sexual intercourse between them is also prohibited (see German incest prohibitions ), although this only applies to blood relatives in Austria .
A typical example of straight lines in family history research ( genealogy ) are the " stem lines ". They contain only ancestors and descendants derived from each other: the oldest married sons as Erbnachfolger her father (see also fathers line from an ancestor , as opposed to a maternal line of a matriarch ). In aristocratic families , the main line is expressly differentiated from secondary lines , the side lines of the brothers of forefathers branching off from the “male line” (see also the coat of arms law ).
Degree of kinship
In general, the degree of kinship expresses the distance between two branches of the family ( side lines ), counted in generations up to the last common ancestor ( related by blood or recognized , adopted ). The resulting degrees are only correct if there was no generation of offspring between ancestors , which would result in overlapping relationships (as well as a loss of ancestors ): For example, in a sibling marriage within the ancestral lines, 50% of the ancestors are missing because they occupy two positions in the ancestral list at the same time ( see also cousin marriage , relative marriage , family tree , pedigree ).
For the degree of kinship (as opposed to the legal degree of kinship ), for example, the “2nd Degree "of a cousin to the 2 generations before which the sidelines split: This cousin is not the daughter of an uncle or aunt (siblings of the parents), but of an uncle or aunt of the 2nd degree (son or daughter of a sibling of a grandparent ), the common ancestor was a great-grandparent 2 generations before the parents ; this second cousin is also the granddaughter of a great-uncle or great-aunt (brother or sister of the grandfather or grandmother). The designation “3. Degree ”goes back even further to siblings of the great-grandparents - more distant degrees of relationship are summarized in genealogy as“ ancestral community ”.
Each degree increases the oldest generation in the relationship by one, while the generation level of the people compared remains the same: To put it simply, the people compared are the same age, but the number of generations going back increases in each case until both lines point to a common ancestor meet (see graphic above ). The legal degree of kinship differs from this calculation basis for the degree, according to which brother and sister are related to each other in the second degree (2 mediating births).
The legal degree of kinship is the legally defined “closeness” of a person’s kinship to another. In the German Civil Code (BGB), Paragraph 1589 of kinship states that the degree of kinship is determined by the number of “mediating births” (see also kinship law ). This basis is also used to determine the degree of affinity in the following paragraph in 1590 by marriage , which is based on the definition of relatives in § 1589th
In contrast to specific family names (such as cousin or nephew ), the marking by degrees contains a direct indication of the closeness of the relationship. Your own children and parents are related in the first degree : there is only 1 mediating birth in between. Own siblings , grandparents and grandchildren are all relatives in the second degree: 2 mediating births. Uncles, aunts , nephews and nieces are related in the third degree (3 mediating births), cousin and cousin ( 1st degree ) in the fourth degree , and so on (see graphic above ). There is no distinction between mother-side and father-side relationships.
The degree of kinship is used for the abstract designation of kinship relationships between people, for example in the case law on the right to refuse to testify . In inheritance law, on the other hand, the family relationship is classified according to the legal succession . The legal degree of relationship roughly corresponds to the genetic relationship coefficient and is important for research into hereditary diseases .
In the old Catholic canon law , a somewhat different determination of the degree of kinship in the side line was made until 1983 : The generations counted up to the common ancestor, the larger of the two numbers indicated the degree (cousins, cousins, uncles, aunts, nephews and nieces 1st degree = in the second degree ).
- Generation designations (names of 30 generations)
- List of Latin-German family names
- List of kinship terms of Turkish
- Kinship ethnology - kinship systems - kinship terminologies (culture-specific):
- Soul kinship (perceived similarity)
- joking relationship (joke relationship, cousinage)
- Relatives selection (sociobiological preference for close blood relatives)
- Michael Wagner, Yvonne Schütze (Ed.): Relatives. Social science contributions on a neglected topic (= the human being as a social and personal being. Volume 14). Enke, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-432-30151-0 (12 Articles of different authors; Extract in the Google Book Search).
- Andrea Kettenbach: Are mothers-in-law all the same? A typology from the perspective of the daughters-in-law (= contributions to social psychology. Volume 12). Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2011, ISBN 978-3-631-60912-5 .
- Ernst Erhard Müller: grandfather, grandson, son-in-law. Investigations into the history of family relationships in German. Winter Universitätsverlag, Heidelberg 1979, ISBN 3-533-02727-9 ( searchable in the Google book search).
- Wilhelm Schoof: The German family names. In: Journal for High German Dialects. Volume 1, 1900, pp. 193-298 (diachronic and synchronous overview).
- William Jervis Jones: German Kinship Terms (750-1500) - Documentation and Analysis (= Studia Linguistica Germanica. Volume 27). Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1990, ISBN 3-11-012023-2 (English; excerpt in the Google book search).
- Lukas, Schindler, Stockinger: Relationship. In: Online Interactive Glossary: Marriage, Marriage, and Family. Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Vienna, 1997 (in-depth remarks with references to sources in the entry Blood relationship ).
- Gabriele Rasuly-Paleczek: Structuring principles for the relatives - basic terms . ( Memento of October 21, 2013 in the Internet Archive ; PDF; 1 MB, 32 pages) Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Vienna, 2011, pp. 24–32 (documents on her lecture in the summer semester 2011).
- Hans-Rudolf Wicker: Kinship as a primary form of social organization. (PDF; 387 kB; 47 pages) In: Guide to the introductory lecture in social anthropology, 1995–2012. Institute for Social Anthropology, University of Bern, July 31, 2012, pp. 2–16 (lecture notes; Wicker is emeritus professor for ethnology).
- Wolfgang Kraus: Kinship Studies. ( Memento of October 4, 2013 in the Internet Archive ; PDF; 834 kB, 24 pages) In: Strategies for networked learning: A learning environment for methods and basic knowledge. Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology, University of Vienna, 2008 (in German; basic introduction to ethno-sociological kinship research).
- Ulf Neundorfer: Relationships (ancestral and family relationships / kinship terms). Private website, 2008 (comprehensive overview, good diagrams).
- Konrad Licht: Siblings in Conflict: An Everyday Examination of a Family in Dassantch, Southern Ethiopia. In: Documentaries Worldwide. Private website, 2006 (detailed text part of a multimedia project about social conflicts in Ethiopia).
- Brian Schwimmer: Kinship Fundamentals. In: Tutorial: Kinship and Social Organization. Department of Anthropology, University of Manitoba, Canada, 1995 (extensive tutorial on kinship).
- Dennis O'Neil: Kinship: An Introduction to Descent Systems and Family Organization. Behavioral Sciences Department, Palomar College, San Marcos California, 2013 (extensive study tutorial on various ancestry and family systems, good diagrams).
- Hans-Rudolf Wicker: Diagrams: Eskimo and Sudan system. (PDF; 387 kB; 47 pages) In: Guide to the introductory lecture in social anthropology, 1995–2012. Institute for Social Anthropology, University of Bern, July 31, 2012, pp. 8/9 , accessed on September 18, 2018 (lecture notes; Wicker is a professor emeritus for ethnology).
- Parent. In: Duden.de . Retrieved on September 17, 2018 : "Elter, das or der - part of speech: noun, neuter, or noun, masculine - use: technical language [...] meaning: parent (in humans, animals, plants) [...] origin: regressed from parents - Grammar: that or the parent; Genitive: of the parent, plural: the parents ” .
- For example Günter Burkart (ed.): Future of the family. Forecasts and scenarios. In: Journal of Family Research. Special issue. Buderich, Opladen u. a. 2009 ( sources of "Elter" in the book).
- BGB: comparison on lexetius.com. , for the first time from July 1, 1998, see version
- BGB: ; Quote: "The father of a child is the man 1. who is married to the child's mother at the time of birth, 2. who has recognized paternity or 3. whose paternity [...] has been established by a court." As well as the following paragraphs.
- BGB: , and the following paragraphs.
- J. Patrick Gray: Ethnographic Atlas Codebook. In: World Cultures. Volume 10, No. 1, 1998, pp. 86-136, here p. 104: Table 43 Descent: Major Type ; eclectic.ss.uci.edu (PDF; 2.4 MB, 52 pages); one of the few evaluations of all 1267 ethnic groups at that time; Quote: “584 Patrilineal […] 160 Matrilineal […] 349 Bilateral” (= 46% patrilineal • 12.5% matrilineal • 27.5% cognatic-bilateral ). At the end of 2012, the Ethnographic Atlas by George P. Murdock recorded exactly 1,300 ethnic groups worldwide .
- Richard Schröder : Nineteen sixty-eight. In: Bernhard Vogel , Matthias Kutsch (Ed.): 40 Years 1968: Old and New Myths - A pamphlet. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung , Herder, Freiburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-451-30200-8 , pp. 195–207, here p. 206; kas.de (PDF; 67 kB, 13 pages); Quote: “Now children speak up who complain that they were never allowed to say father and mother, but had to address their parents by their first names. "Erika, do we have to play what we want again today?"
- Gerd Braune: Ottawa: Six generations live in a Canadian family. In: Badische Zeitung. July 19, 2013, accessed September 18, 2018 (with photo): “Baby Ethan is the youngest member of the Steiner family in Mississauga near Toronto. It is believed to be the only family in Canada that has six generations. [...] Doreen Byers, great-great-great-grandmother since the weekend, is 86 years old. "
- Most living generations (ever). In: Guinness Book of Records . 2015, accessed on September 18, 2018 (English): “The most generations alive in a single family has been seven. [...] "
- BGB : ; Quote: “A marriage must not be concluded between relatives in a straight line or between full and half-born siblings. This also applies if the relationship has lapsed through adoption as a child. ”Explanation: An adopted child may not marry its biological parents or siblings (expired legal relationship ), nor its adoptive parents or siblings (new legal relationship).
- Siblings, that. In: Duden.de. Accessed on May 12, 2020 : “2. (Technical language; also Swiss) individual siblings [...] Origin: Middle High German siblings, Old High German giswestar, actually = totality of the sisters, to sister ” .
stepbrother. In: Duden.de. Retrieved September 17, 2018 : “Stepbrother who […] meanings: 1. Brother who has only one parent in common with a sibling; Half brother; 2. Male person who has no parent in common with a sibling, but has been adopted or brought into the marriage by one of the parents; not biological brother - synonyms for stepbrother: half-brother [...] origin: 1st component (in compositions) Middle High German low German, Old High German stiof , actually well = trimmed, robbed, orphaned, well to push ” .
Ibid: Half-brother: "Meaning: stepbrother (a)" (Note: What is meant is "(1st)", ie the 1st meaning).
Ibid: step siblings: “Meanings: 1. Siblings who only have one parent in common; Half siblings; 2. Children in a marriage who have neither the same father nor the same mother, but have been brought into the marriage by their respective parents ”.
Ibid: Half-siblings: "Meaning: step siblings (a)" (Note: What is meant is "(1st)", ie the 1st meaning).
- Jonathan Gawlitta, René A Bostelaar: Aus for »Sister Anja« - Clinic of the University of Cologne examines the handling of name tags. In: The sister / the nurse. Volume 44, No. 11, Bibliomed, 2005, pp. 890–893.
nephew. In: Duden.de. Retrieved on September 17, 2018 : “Nephew, the [...] son of someone's sister, brother, sister-in-law or brother-in-law [...] This word is part of the vocabulary of the Goethe Certificate B1. - Synonyms for nephew (scenic, otherwise out of date) sibling; (joking, otherwise out of date) Neveu [...] Origin: Middle High German neve , Old High German nevo , probably actually = underage , related to Latin nepos , nepotism ” .
Ibid: Niece: “Daughter of someone's sister, brother, sister-in-law or brother-in-law [...] This word is part of the vocabulary of the Goethe Certificate B1. - Synonyms for niece: (scenic, otherwise outdated) sibling - Origin: from Low German <Middle Low German niece , related to Old High German nift (Low German -cht- corresponds to High German -ft-, see Schacht) = niece, related to Latin nepos, nepotism ".
- cousin. In: Duden.de. Retrieved September 16, 2018 : “Meanings: 1st cousin; 2. (outdated) more distant relative […] Synonyms for cousin: cousin; (scenic, otherwise outdated) Sibling - origin: Middle High German veter (e) , Old High German fetiro , to father and originally = father brother ” . Note: The word Vetter does not belong to the vocabulary of the German certificate.
- base. In: Duden.de. Retrieved on September 16, 2018 : “Usage: Southern German, otherwise out of date - synonyms for Base: 1. Cousin; (scenic, otherwise out of date) sibling; 2nd aunt; (outdated) Aunt, mother sister, father sister [...] Origin: Middle High German base = father sister, Old High German basa , probably Lallwort ” . Note: The word Base does not belong to the vocabulary of the German certificate.
- cousin. In: Duden.de. Retrieved September 16, 2018 : “Cousin, the […] son of the brother or sister of one of the parents; Vetter […] This word is part of the vocabulary of the Goethe Certificate B1. […] Synonyms for cousin: Vetter; (scenic, otherwise out of date) Sibling - origin: French cousin , via Vulgar Latin to Latin consobrinus ” .
- cousin. In: Duden.de. Retrieved on September 16, 2018 : “Cousine, Kusine, die […] Spelling recommended by Duden: Cousine - Alternative spelling: Kusine […] Meaning: daughter of the brother or sister of a parent; Base […] This word belongs to the vocabulary of the Goethe Certificate B1. […] Synonyms for cousine: (southern German, otherwise out of date) Base; (scenic, otherwise out of date) Sibling - origin: French cousin ” .
- cousin. In: Digital dictionary of the German language . Retrieved September 18, 2018, cousin. In: Digital dictionary of the German language . Retrieved September 18, 2018
- Cousins (German). Wortscheutung.info; accessed on September 18, 2018.
- cousin. In: Digital dictionary of the German language . Retrieved September 18, 2018 Base. In: Digital dictionary of the German language . Retrieved September 18, 2018
- Friedrich Kluge , Alfred Götze : Etymological dictionary of the German language . 20th edition. Edited by Walther Mitzka . De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1967; Reprint (“21st unchanged edition”) ibid 1975, ISBN 3-11-005709-3 , p. 820 ( Vetter ).
cousin. In: Duden.de. Retrieved on September 17, 2018 : "Great cousin, the [...] overview of meanings: second cousin" .
Ibid: Great cousin: "Great cousin, great cousin, the overview of meanings: [...] second cousin".
- The Fifth Generation. In: The Brisbane Courier. Australia, May 25, 1912, p. 12 ( online at nla.gov.au); Quote: "Mrs. Elizabeth Ann Crouch, Great-great-grandmother, 93; Mrs. John Negus, great-grandmother, 64; Mr. John Edward Negus, grandfather, 45; Mrs. Young, Mother, and her baby. The total number of Mrs. Crouch's descendants is nearly 200. "
- ur-, ur-. In: Duden.de . Retrieved on September 17, 2018 : "Ur-, Ur- - part of speech: prefix […] meanings: […] a reinforcement […] far back, at the beginning […] the first […] denotes the in formations with relatives Belonging to the next or previous generation [...] Origin: Middle High German, Old High German primordial , originally = (her) from ” .
- grandchildren . Duden; accessed on September 18, 2018.
- Eidam . In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 3 : E – research - (III). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1862 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ). Daughter husband . In: German dictionary . tape 21 , 1935, Sp. 536 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).
- Johann Christoph Adelung : 1. The cord. In: Derselbe: Grammatical-Critical Dictionary of High German Dialect . 2nd, increased and improved edition. Volume 3, Leipzig 1793-1801, column 1610-1611. Sons . In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm (Hrsg.): German dictionary . tape 16 : Sea life – speaking - (X, 1st section). S. Hirzel, Leipzig 1905, Sp. 1423 ( woerterbuchnetz.de ).
- SGB IX § 74: R3.1.1 The substitute worker is related to the beneficiary up to the 2nd degree or by marriage. German pension insurance . Quote: "Stiefenkelkinder (grandchildren of the spouse)". Note: No entry on "Stiefenkel" in the Duden, different usage by lawyers. The Inheritance and Gift Tax Act (ErbStG) mentioned in § 15 tax brackets only "2. Children and stepchildren, 3. the descendants of the children and stepchildren named in number 2 ”. The German Forum for Inheritance Law writes under I. Legal foundations of inheritance and gift tax law: “200,000 EUR for all other grandchildren and stepchildren”.
- BGB: .
- BGB: , paragraph 1, sentence 2; Quote: "The line and the degree of sisterhood are determined by the line and the degree of kinship mediating it."