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The grandmother with her grandchildren (unknown artist, around 1860)

Grandparents is the second ancestor generation of a person: the parents of their parents, two grandmothers and two grandfathers , even grandma and grandpa called trivializing Omi and Opi :

( ego , test person )

The person in turn is a grandchild of these grandparents, there is a gap of 2 generations between them (indicated by the prefix grand- ). Legally speaking , grandparents are second-degree relatives (two “mediating births ”). As soon as a person has their own children and grandchildren (grandchildren), they are themselves a grandparent. The grandparents are divided into father and mother side ( patrilateral and matrilateral relationship ).

All grandparents, parents, children and grandchildren of a person are in direct, " a straight line related" to each other, because the one from the other biologically derived ( blood relationship ), or because they were legally recognized ( adoption , paternity , birth after foreign egg donation ). All siblings of the ancestors as well as own brothers and sisters would be side relatives ( collateral ) because the person does not descend from them.

In addition to biological ancestors, there are also social grandparents, for example the foster parents of one of the parents, or a nominated grandpa or grandma chosen by friends or in the neighborhood , or a professional "surrogate grandparent" as a carer ( see below on social grandparents) .

A person has fewer than 4 grandparents if their parents are (half) siblings (see also sibling marriage , ancestral loss ) - or more than 4 in the case of an adoption, because there are then other legal grandparents in addition to the biological grandparents.

The parents of the grandparents are the great-grandparents (see generation names ), the siblings of grandma or grandpa are great-aunts and great-uncles . Other children of the four grandparents are uncles and aunts , siblings of their own parents.

Sequence of three generations on a traditional pedigree


The singer Charmiane Neville with her grandson (concert in New Orleans 2009)

The words grandfather and grandmother are equivalent to the French grand père and grand mère ; they have displaced the earlier names Ahne , Ahnl or similar , which are still common in the Alpine German-speaking area. In the southern German-speaking countries is Omama and Opapa use, on Luxembourgish Boma and Bopa . The "O" or the "A" (Ä) as an abbreviation for formerly alder, elder, older are the "older" dad and the "older" mom.

In Swiss German , grandmothers and grandfathers were the most common in the first half of the 20th century (Swiss spelling with double s), in the Bern region the grandfather was referred to as Grosätti and Groosatt . Today, their grandmother or Grosi and Grosspapi more frequently used than before. Due to the influence from Germany, grandma and grandpa are on the rise. In Graubünden and in the south of the canton of St. Gallen , where Romansh was previously spoken, the grandmothers are still referred to as Aani or Naani and the grandfathers as Eni or Neni .

In Low German , the terms Ellermutter (Eldermutter) for the grandmother and Eldervater for the grandfather are common. Ellermutter became known outside of the Low German-speaking area through the Grimm fairy tale The Devil with the Three Golden Hairs .

In some languages, for example Standard Chinese , Danish and Swedish , there are different names for the paternal and maternal grandparents. In Denmark and Sweden, the mother and father of the mother are called mormor (mother mother; mother of the mother) and morfar (mother father; father of the mother), the mother and father of the father farmor (father mother; mother of the father) and farfar ( Father father; father of father).

Social grandparenthood

Children sometimes use the term grandma or grandpa colloquially for unrelated older people (named grandma or named grandpa as an elective relationship). A “surrogate grandma” is an older woman who, for a fee, temporarily looks after children of other families and carries out activities with them, as a grandmother normally does (see also foster parents ); There are loan grandma agencies to mediate them. The Austrian television series Der Leihopa was telling stories from a grandma agency back in the 1980s . The term patenoma / patenopa (godfather grandparents) is also common for purely voluntary workers .

Social role of grandparents

A farmer with his grandchild (propaganda image of the GDR 1957, Federal Archives)

Studies have shown different forms of grandparenthood, which depend on the gender of the grandparents, on the physical distance, on the age of the grandchildren, on crisis situations such as a divorce of the parents and on the parents' attitude towards the grandparents.

Commitment to looking after the grandchildren

Grandparents play an important role in raising and supervising grandchildren in many cultures . Since the industrialized nations have seen longer lifetimes for individuals and a decline in the birth rate and thus an increasing proportion of older people in the total population, the investigation of the role of grandparents in raising children is of increasing interest. Maternal grandparents tend to offer greater support, and a closer geographic distance is usually associated with greater support from the grandparents. Several studies have shown that grandparents' care has a positive effect on their grandchildren's language acquisition .

Grandparents provide important support through practical help and emotional affection, especially in times of crisis such as unemployment, accidents or chronic illness. If parents are no longer available to raise their children, the most common foster parents are the grandparents below . Especially single parents are grandparents aside. Data from the Survey of Health Aging and Retirement 2010 from 16 countries show that single parents receive more intensive childcare support from their parents than parents. The role of grandparents is also very important in supporting parents of disabled children. In individual cases with regard to the grandparents of disabled children, it is found that the parents perceive the influence of the grandparents as interference or as overly concerned or that the grandparents do not understand the parents' difficulties enough. Society often offers little help to grandparents in fulfilling their role.

It is predominantly grandparents from the middle and upper classes who are involved in this form as “active grandparents”. According to a study by the German Youth Institute in 2018, the frequency of contact with parents also depends on age and marital status: Younger grandparents have at least weekly contact with their grandchildren more often than older ones (grandparents aged 40 to 54: 84%; 55- Grandparents up to 69 years of age: 79%; older: 61%) and grandparents in couple relationships see their grandchildren more often than single grandparents, although this is particularly true of grandfathers.


According to the results of a survey by the German Center for Aging (DZA) published in 2002, almost every fifth German between the ages of 40 and 85 regularly looks after their grandchildren. (See also: Parental home education in Germany # Parental home situation .)

Under certain circumstances, working grandparents have a statutory right to take time off to look after their grandchildren as grandparents' leave.

The youth welfare office does not support childcare by grandparents, or only to a limited extent; However, the costs of childcare, including travel costs, can under certain circumstances be deducted from tax as childcare costs . If grandparents (or someone else) look after a child under the age of three who does not attend a day care center and is not cared for as part of child day care, the parents are entitled to the childcare allowance within certain time limits .

In the middle class, grandparents also partly contribute to the financing of education for their grandchildren, for example to the costs of private schools, stays abroad or universities of excellence.

Since the reform of the child law reform of July 1, 1998, grandparents have the right to contact their grandchildren based on Section 1685 of the German Civil Code (BGB) , provided that it is judicially determined that this serves the best interests of the child . It is assumed that it is good and beneficial for the child to continue existing interpersonal relationships, and there is a legal presumption that the child's dealings with its parents are in the best interests of the child . However, this presumption can be refuted if the child gets into a significant conflict of loyalty due to existing conflicts between parents and grandparents. In 2017 , the BGH stated in a ruling: “The way grandparents deal with the child regularly does not serve their well-being if the parents and grandparents who reject such dealings are so divided that the child would get into a conflict of loyalty if they were dealt with ".


According to a survey from Switzerland, the volume of family work of grandparents is around 100 million hours per year, which is significantly higher than that of all Swiss primary school teachers. The relationships are characterized by “camaraderie, shared emotionally satisfying activities and voluntary mutual assistance”.

United States

In the United States , half of all grandparents were under 60 and a quarter under 55 in 1995. From 1970 to 1997 there was a significant increase in households with a grandparent as head of household. In 1997, two thirds of these households were three-generation households. No parent lived in the remaining third; this was often related to divorce, drug addiction, mental illness, prison sentence, or parent death. Studies show that grandparents find it stressful when they have to take full responsibility for their grandchildren in such cases.

During the daytime in the United States, 16% of all preschool children are cared for with their grandparents.

Other countries

As part of the Survey of Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), people over the age of 50 who had grandchildren under the age of 15 in eleven European countries and in Israel were asked to what extent they look after grandchildren. Over 60% of the grandmothers surveyed and almost half of the grandfathers surveyed had looked after a grandchild at least once in the previous year. According to the results of a study that was organized by the Vienna Institute of Demography (VID), among others, grandparents in northern European countries generally only look after them occasionally - while children in southern European countries are regularly supervised by their grandparents during the week. This international variation is demonstrably related to the availability of childcare places for (small) children: where there is sufficient quantitative and high-quality state childcare, grandparents occasionally look after their grandchildren. Where these are missing, however, grandparents look after the (grand) children regularly and time-consuming.

In African and Caribbean countries, many children live with their grandparents. The reason for this is often that the parents move to a distant city to pursue their employment or can no longer fulfill their parenting duties due to an AIDS disease (or a death caused by it). According to data from nine African countries, countries with high HIV prevalence are more likely to have children raised by their grandparents. In Latin America, Asia and the Caribbean, too, there are reports of high rates of orphans living with their grandparents. In Thailand and South Africa, this affects around half of AIDS orphans .

Relationships between grandparents and grandchildren

In a study in Switzerland, over 90% of the grandchildren and grandparents surveyed said that relationships with one another were important. The majority of the grandchildren described their grandparents as loving and generous, a minority as strict and impatient. It was mentioned as particularly valuable that grandparents were there for their grandchildren, listened to them and had time for them. The questioning of the grandchildren revealed that a lively relationship requires the grandparents to be in relatively good physical and mental health and that this is more important than their actual age.

At the end of the 1980s, studies of around 400 grandparents, parents and grandchildren of all age groups showed that the satisfaction with the grandparent-grandchildren relationship and the intensity of this relationship was less dependent on the frequency of contact than on sufficient contact with one another. The emotional support, including cuddling and trusting conversations, the lack of pressure to perform, the lack of educational mandate, the time available and the unreserved acceptance of the grandchildren were highlighted as important positive factors.

In 1988, Peter Schwob claimed that the grandparents perform the function of a "quadrangulation" in the family, the inclusion of a fourth person in the father-mother-child relationship, in analogy to the father-mother-child function of "triangulation" in relation to the mother Child relationship. It helps the grandchildren to break away from their parents, while at the same time making them realize that this does not have to mean the dissolution of family ties. At the same time, it enables the grandson to relativize the role of the parents.

At the same time, the grandchildren's parents have a kind of guardian function: They exert a strong influence on the nature and intensity of the grandparents' relationship with the grandchildren.

During puberty , the relationships between grandchildren and their grandparents are often not subject to the same fluctuations and conflicts as parent-child relationships . Grandparents are sometimes particularly important caregivers for their grandchildren at this time. According to a study by the German Youth Institute 2018, young people want to be taken seriously by their grandparents, but do not want to talk to them about intimate topics of growing up.

Grandparents give their grandchildren a look at family history and often serve as role models.

If the grandparents live abroad, despite the importance attached to the relationship, there is usually too little contact and joint activities. In this case, they take place primarily in the form of digital communication, visits or vacations. Grandchildren from immigrant families in particular would like to have more frequent contact with their grandparents.


Adopted children are treated as biological children and therefore legally have the same degree of kinship with their grandparents.

In many countries, such as the USA , grandparents do not have their own right to visit their grandchildren. For example, parents can refuse their parents contact with their children, for example if the parents divorce or if there is a conflict between the parents and grandparents. However, consideration is given to the best interests of the child .

If grandchildren and grandparents live in different countries, the grandparents' commitment may be tightly limited, as their family relationship usually does not entitle them to family reunification . For example, in Germany, according to the General Administrative Regulations for the Residence Act, minor grandchildren can join a grandparent "only if they are orphans [...] or if the parents are demonstrably no longer able to take care of the person in the long term (e. B. because of a need for care ). "

Role expectations

Due to the longer life expectancy of women, mothers and grandmothers are present longer than fathers and grandfathers, which results in a “feminization of family intergenerational relationships” in the second half of life.

Grandparenthood, especially grandmotherhood, is a family age role that has a positive connotation today, but is also strongly influenced by stereotypes . At the same time, in social reality, grandparents are often committed to a clearly defined “holiday existence” with limited competencies, which counteracts any possible competition with the mother. There is a model of a "loving and understanding grandmother", whereby the bourgeois idea also points to an asexual and tolerant person (for the role of the grandmother, see also the grandmother hypothesis ).

Evolutionary advantages of the maternal grandmother

Studies on the role of the grandmother in human history consistently show a positive influence on the living conditions of the family, for example in the form of an improvement in the nutritional situation of children or a reduction in mortality among newborns; this support often resulted in a higher number of maternal pregnancies. On the basis of such observations, grandmothers are assigned a role in the evolutionary genetic development of mankind. However, these observations predominantly only apply to the mothers of the mother of the child: The mother-side grandmother brings about a considerable survival advantage for the children, be it living with the family or visiting them frequently. Eckart Voland and Jan Beise from the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research analyzed population data from the 18th and 19th centuries; after that, a grandmother is definitely a blessing for the grandchildren, as long as she is the mother of the mother. But if she is the father's mother, then the grandchildren have exceptionally poor chances of survival in their first year of life.

The grandfathers generally have no supportive role in the survival of their young grandchildren; In patrilineal families (descent according to the paternal line), the father of the father supports the firstborn grandson, but this limits the survival of the other grandchildren.

Grandparents in culture, literature and art

Grandparents are mentioned briefly in only three places in the Bible . According to the historian Erhard Chvojka (2003), the modern iconography of grandparents, who lovingly accompany the life of their grandchildren, did not emerge until the 18th century with the development of bourgeois society . Before that time, grandchildren and grandparents living together (“multi-generational family”) were only widespread in farming families, so that even getting to know the grandparents closely is, to a certain extent, a modern phenomenon.

The only work in which William Shakespeare has a grandfather-grandchildren couple on stage is his early Roman tragedy Titus Andronicus (1594). In his later work, references to grandparents are regularly of a purely genealogical or proverbial nature.

Grandparents in literature

Numerous fairy tales and literary works deal with the relationships between grandmother or grandfather and grandchildren, well-known examples:

In the short story My Time is the Night by the Russian writer Lyudmila Petrushevskaya from 1990, a poet-grandmother named Anna Andrianovna is portrayed as the narrator with bitter irony - in stark contrast to the traditional glorifying portrayal of Russian babushka . Among other things, Anna Akhmatova, mythicalized as the Russian all-mother, is satirized . Even if Petrushevskaya portrays the narrator as crazy and sadistic, this is to be understood as part of the author's intention to draw attention to the situation in which many grandmothers in Russia actually find themselves, especially in view of the myth of their role. The author is by no means disagreeable in solidarity here, but rather drastically thematizes the violent nature of the influence of stories as they generally circulate about grandmothers, according to Connor Doak's interpretation in a 2011 contribution.

See also


  • Erhard Chvojka: History of grandparent roles from the 16th to the 20th century. Böhlau, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-205-98465-X .
  • Gertrud Ennulat: Grandchildren challenge us. 2nd Edition. Klett-Cotta, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-608-93756-0 .
  • Juliane Haubold-Stolle: Grandma is the best. A cultural history of grandma. Past Publishing, Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-940621-05-4 .
  • François Höpflinger, Cornelia Hummel, Valerie Hugentobler: Grandchildren and their grandparents. Intergenerational relationships in transition. Seismo, Zurich 2006, ISBN 3-03777-041-4 .
  • Donna L. Leonetti et al. a .: In-law Conflict: Women's Reproductive Lives and the Roles of Their Mothers and Husbands among the Matrilineal Khasi. In: Current Anthropology . Volume 48, No. 6, December 2007, pp. 861–890 (English) (PDF; 450 kB, 32 pages), doi: 10.1086 / 520976 ; Field study with 11 comments on marriage strategies and reduced child mortality through maternal-grandmotherly support among the indigenous people of the matrilineal Khasi in northeast India .
  • Marie-Luise Marx: Grandparents as surrogate parents of their grandchildren. A neglected problem of social policy. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-17-006769-9 .
  • Rolf Oerter : Grandparents between tradition and innovation. In: Gunther Klosinski (ed.): Grandparents Today - Help or Obstacle. Analyzes and perspectives for educational-psychological practice. Attempo, Tübingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-89308-404-3 , pp. 13-32; (PDF; 92 kB; 22 pages).
  • Fritz Oser, Tomas Bascio, Ronnie Blakeney: Do grandparents convey values ​​to their grandchildren in different ways than parents do to their children? Department of Education, University of Friborg, Switzerland 2006 ( summary of the results ).
  • Peter Schwob: grandparents and grandchildren. On the family dynamics of the generation relationship. Asanger, Heidelberg 1988, ISBN 3-89334-127-7 .

Web links

Commons : grandparents (grandparents)  - collection of pictures and media files
Wiktionary: grandparents  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
  • Atlas of everyday German language: grandparents. University of Salzburg, June 30, 2011 (language variations and distribution graphics).

Article in the online family handbook from the Bavarian State Institute for Early Childhood Education (IFP) :

Individual evidence

  1. German Civil Code ( BGB ): § 1589 Relationship: “People, one of which is descended from the other, are related in a straight line. Individuals who are not directly related but are descended from the same third person are related in the sideline. The degree of kinship is determined by the number of the mediating births. "
  2. grandparents. In: Atlas of everyday German language. University of Salzburg, June 30, 2011, accessed on March 27, 2018 (language variations and distribution graphics).
  3. Georg Gindely: Grandma and Grandpa are on the advance. (PDF; 2.9 MB; 5 pages) In: Grandparents Magazine. September 2014, pp. 22–26, here p. 23 below , accessed on March 27, 2018 (interview with Hans Bickel, linguist).
  4. a b Elisabeth Sticker: The role of grandparents. About the relationship between the generations . In: The Political Opinion. Monthly magazine on questions of time, No. 469 . December 2008, p. 33–37 (5 pp., [PDF; 236 kB ; accessed on March 27, 2018]).
  5. a b c Grandparents - Parents' Place. (No longer available online.) In: Friends and Family. Royal National Institute of Blind People, London, November 20, 2008, archived from the original on August 21, 2009 ; accessed on March 22, 2018 (English).
  6. a b c d e f Annette Schäfer: Family life: grandparents - the indispensable generation. In: Psychology Today . No. 9, 2006, p. 32 ( , PDF; 134 kB; 6 pages)
  7. Werner Stangl: Grandparents and Grandchildren: Social science perspectives and research results regarding a rarely examined relationship. Different theoretical perspectives and approaches. In: Own website, 2006, accessed on March 27, 2018 .
  8. Ursula Adam, Tanja Mühling u. a .: Grandchild care. Facets of an important intergenerational achievement. Budrich, Opladen u. a. 2014, ISBN 978-3-8474-0179-7 , p. 108.
  9. Ursula Adam, Tanja Mühling u. a .: Grandchild care. Facets of an important intergenerational achievement. Budrich, Opladen u. a. 2014, ISBN 978-3-8474-0179-7 , pp. 192-193.
  10. ^ Ines Possemeyer: grandchildren and grandparents . In: GEO Magazin , 2, 2009, p. 127. Quoted from: Memorandum “Family Living” - Impulses for a family-conscious time policy. (PDF; 3.3 MB) BMFSFJ, June 2, 2009, p. 26 , accessed on March 22, 2018 (95 pages).
  11. a b c Carolin Seilbeck, Alexandra Langmeyer: Results of the study “ Cross- generational use of time: grandparents, parents, grandchildren”. German Youth Institute e. V., Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-86379-296-1 ( PDF: 871 kB, 76 pages (PDF) on
  12. Dominic Eser: Travel expenses are deductible for childcare provided by grandparents. In: June 5, 2019, accessed September 8, 2019 .
  13. Cornelia Koppetsch : The unsettled middle. From the elevator to the wagon castle. (PDF; 929 MB; 121 pages; pp. 12–16) DGB, March 4, 2014, accessed on March 22, 2018 .
  14. On the grandparents' rights of access in the event of a serious conflict with their daughter. In: December 19, 2017, accessed September 8, 2019 .
  15. BGH judgment of July 12, 2017 - XII ZB 350/16
  16. "Grandparents' benefits of considerable economic importance: the volume of work roughly corresponds to the volume of employment in the postal and telecommunications professions and is significantly higher than that of all primary school teachers in Switzerland. Valued at a modest hourly rate of 20 francs, this results in a value of 2 billion francs. ” Tobias Bauer, Silvia Strub: Without the Grosi crèche, many things would stand still. (PDF; 59 kB) In: Forum Family Issues, keywords on the working group “Achievements and performance potentials of grandparents”. Büro BASS, September 11, 2002, p. 4 , accessed July 5, 2010 .
  17. Tobias Bauer, Silvia Strub: Without the crib, Grosi, many things would stand still. (PDF; 59 kB) In: Forum Family Issues, keywords on the working group “Achievements and performance potentials of grandparents”. Büro BASS, September 11, 2002, p. 1 , accessed July 5, 2010 .
  18. Jan Glenda Phillips Reynolds, James V. Wright, Betty Beale: The Roles of Grandparents in Educating Today's Children. (No longer available online.) In: Journal of Instructional Psychology. December 2003, archived from the original on March 23, 2018 ; accessed on March 22, 2018 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  19. a b J. Blustein, S. Chan, FC Guanais: Elevated depressive symptoms among caregiving grandparents. In: Health services research. Volume 39, number 6 Pt 1, December 2004, pp. 1671–1689, doi: 10.1111 / j.1475-6773.2004.00312.x , PMID 15533181 , PMC 1361092 (free full text).
  20. JC jr. Glass, TL Huneycutt: Grandparents parenting grandchildren. Educational Gerontology, No. 28, pp. 139–161, 2002. Quoted from Harald Uhlendorff: Grandparents and Grandchildren. (PDF: 41 kB) Accessed March 22, 2018 . This essay was created on the basis of a lecture by the author at the conference "Youth Culture Elderly Culture - Specialist Day for Intergenerational Cultural Work" of the Federal Working Group of Senior Citizens' Organizations Bonn and the project office "Dialogue of Generations" Berlin 2007 near Leipzig.
  21. Karsten Hank, Isabella Buber: Grandparents Caring for Their Grandchildren. Findings from the 2004 Survey on Health, Aging and Retirement in Europe. Mannheim Research Institute for the Economics of Aging, June 2007; (PDF; 137 kB; 26 pages); quoted from: Isabella Buber, Karsten Hank: What are grandparents doing today? Care for grandchildren varies across Europe. In: First-hand demographic research. Volume 4, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1–2 ( , PDF; 514 kB; 4 pages).
  22. Isabella Buber, Karsten Hank: What are grandparents doing today? Care for grandchildren varies across Europe. In: First-hand demographic research. Volume 4, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1–2 ( , PDF; 514 kB; 4 pages).
  23. Ursula Adam, Tanja Mühling u. a .: Grandchild care. Facets of an important intergenerational achievement. Budrich, Opladen u. a. 2014, ISBN 978-3-8474-0179-7 , pp. 188-196.
  24. Jini L. Roby: Children in Informal Alternative Care. (PDF; 625 kB; 68 pages) United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Child Protection Section, 2011, pp. 15-16 , accessed on March 22, 2018 (English, Discussion paper).
  25. Kathrin Meier-Rust: About grandparents and grandchildren. In: . February 25, 2007, accessed March 22, 2018 .
  26. ^ François Höpflinger, Cornelia Hummel, Valérie Hugentobler: Grandchildren and their grandparents. Intergenerational relationships in transition. Seismo, Zurich 2006, ISBN 978-3-03777-041-2 . Quoted from a review by Harald Uhlendorff. In: socialnet reviews. March 22, 2007, accessed March 22, 2018 .
  27. Peter Schwob: Grandparents, Parents, Children: Love - and what else? In: P. Buchheim u. a. (Ed.): Love and Psychotherapy. The body in psychotherapy. Dependency (= Lindau texts. Texts on psychotherapeutic further and advanced training ). Springer, Berlin a. a. 1992, pp. 62-76, here p. 73; (PDF; 707 kB, 304 pages).
  28. Reidunn Stuedahl: It's lucky that there are grandma and grandpa. Different ages, different forms of communication. In: Online family manual. State Institute for Early Childhood Education (IFP), March 16, 2010, accessed on March 27, 2018 .
  29. Christiane Gelitz: Why grandparents are so important. In: April 20, 2019. Retrieved November 20, 2019 .
  30. Donald J. Franklin: Grandparent Visitation. In: Psychology Information Online. Retrieved March 22, 2018 (1999–2011).
  31. Federal Ministry of the Interior : On § 36 - Re-entry of other family members. Section In: General administrative regulation for the Residence Act. October 26, 2009, p. 189.
  32. ^ François Höpflinger: Women and Generational Relationships in the Second Half of Life. In: Ministry for Family, Children, Youth, Culture and Sport of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia (ed.): Demographic change. The city, the women and the future. 2007, pp. 255-268, here p. 255; (PDF; 2.7 MB; 532 pages).
  33. ^ François Höpflinger: Women and Generational Relationships in the Second Half of Life. In: Ministry for Family, Children, Youth, Culture and Sport of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia (ed.): Demographic change. The city, the women and the future. 2007, pp. 255-268, here p. 264; (PDF; 4.2 MB; 556 pages).
  34. Rafaela von Bredow: Evolution: The devil in the house . In: Der Spiegel . No. 11 , 2006 ( online ). Quote: "Grandmothers mean a significant survival advantage for the children," believes Jan Beise from the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research in Rostock. "However, this mainly applies to maternal grandmothers." Wherever the researchers not only have an eye on the absolute number, but also on the well-being of the grandchildren, Mama's mother is almost always involved [...] "The only one who really helps among the grandparents is the maternal grandmother "[...]."
  35. Margrit Ehlers: It depends on the right grandma . In: Welt am Sonntag . January 5, 2003 ( [accessed March 27, 2018]).
  36. See studies on the role of grandfather in general: Andreas Jahn: Life expectancy: Superfluous grandpa . In: Spectrum of Science . July 26, 2007, accessed October 10, 2018;
    Quotation: “It was found that women had more children the older their own mother became. In addition, a grandmother living in the parental home significantly increased the grandchildren's chances of survival. […] Overall, however, Grandpa was unable to increase the reproductive success of his children. "
  37. Grandfathers and grandmothers are briefly mentioned in the following 3 places in the Bible : Judges 12.14 . ; 2. Chronicles 36.17 . ; 2 Timothy 1.5 .
  38. Erhard Chvojka: History of the roles of grandparents from the 16th to the 20th century. Böhlau, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-205-98465-X ; see also Alina Schadwinkel: Family history: "Gate into a strange world" . In: Die Zeit , No. 52/2011.
  39. ^ William Shakespeare : Titus . Boy, 3rd and 4th act.
  40. Shakespeare Concordance: Search terms: grandfather, grandmother, grandchild .
  41. Connor Doak: Babushka Writes Back. Grandmothers and Grandchildren in Liudmila Petruschevskaia's Time: Night. In: Forum for Modern Language Studies. Volume 47, No. 2, 2011, pp. 170-181 ( doi: 10.1093 / fmls / cqq075 ).