William Shakespeare

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The portrait engraving of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout on the cover of the " First Folio " (1623)
Shakespeare's signature

William Shakespeare [ ˈwɪljəm ˈʃeɪkspɪə ] (baptized April 26,  1564 July in Stratford-upon-Avon ; † April 23 July / May 3,  1616 greg. Ibid) was an English playwright , poet and actor . His comedies and tragedies are among the most important plays in world literature and are the most frequently performed and filmed . The complete works that have survived include 38 (according to other numbers 37) dramas, epic poems and 154 sonnets .

He is considered one of the most important poets in world literature.

Life

Early years

Shakespeare's birthplace

Shakespeare's date of birth has not been recorded. He was baptized on April 26, 1564, according to the church records of Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire . Since the 18th century, April 23rd has often been mentioned as his birthday, but this information is not certain and probably only goes back to the fact that Shakespeare died on the same day in 1616 (April 23rd). Occasionally, April 23rd as Shakespeare's alleged birthday is backed up with the claim that in Elizabethan England children were baptized three days after their birth; but in fact there was no such three-day custom.

William Shakespeare's parents were John Shakespeare and Mary Arden , who came from a wealthy family. His father was a freelance landowner and brought it to Oberaldermann in his town. Later, however, his fortune deteriorated and he lost his reputation because of his debts.

William Shakespeare probably attended the Grammar School in Stratford-upon-Avon , where he received classes in Latin, Greek, history, morality, and poetry. The lessons at a grammar school imparted knowledge of rhetoric and poetics and also instructed the students in the production of small dramas based on ancient models. There is no evidence that Shakespeare attended university like other contemporary English playwrights.

At the age of 18, he probably married on November 30 or December 1, 1582, Anne Hathaway , the daughter of a large landowner eight years older. The date of the wedding is not known, the marriage license report was ordered on November 27, 1582. This date of the call is documented by an entry in the register of the Diocese of Worcester about the granting of a license for the marriage of "Willelmum Shaxpere et Annam Whateley". The bride's maiden name apparently incorrectly stands for "Hath (a) way". On November 28, 1582, the consistory of the aforementioned diocese documented a surety between two friends amounting to a considerable amount of £ 40 in order to receive a dispensation from the three-time contingent required for the marriage of "Willm Shagspere" and Anne Hathwey of Stratford. This elaborate dispensing procedure was necessary so that the marriage could take place before the start of Christmas, as from the first Advent on bids and weddings were no longer permitted under canon law. The daughter Susanna was born about six months after the marriage (date of baptism May 26, 1583). Twins, the son Hamnet and the daughter Judith, were born almost two years later. The baptism entry in the Stratford church book of February 2, 1585 read: " Hamnet and Judith, son and daughter to William Shakespeare ". Nothing is known about the relationship between the couple and their children. There are no relevant documents, which is not unusual, since all personal relationships among the bourgeoisie were usually not recorded in writing, neither in private letters nor in diaries, which usually did not contain any personal records. Shakespeare's son Hamnet died in 1596 at the age of eleven (buried August 11, 1596; cause of death unknown), while the two daughters survived childhood. A letter has survived from 1598 in which a certain Richard Quiney asked Shakespeare for a loan of £ 30. Eighteen years later, on February 10, 1616, William Shakespeare's daughter Judith married his son Thomas Quiney.

Lost years

Little is known about the approximately eight years 1584/85 to 1592, which Shakespeare research calls the "lost years". In the absence of sufficient sources, all the more legends have emerged, some of which can be traced back to anecdotes passed down by contemporaries. Essentially, rumors circulating about Shakespeare's life were first recorded in the Shakespeare edition by Nicholas Rowe , who provided his edition with a life report of Shakespeare, in which he recorded the traditional myths and legends in a compiled form, but without a critical examination or assessment of the respective To make truthfulness. From a factual point of view, however, such a historical gap in the documentary records is by no means surprising for a young man who was neither involved in litigation nor involved in real estate transactions.

In the centuries that followed, right into the present, the sparse inventory of historically established facts about Shakespeare's biography led to completely different images of his personality and life, some of which changed dramatically from epoch to epoch. Despite the lack of verified evidence, the author's image was adapted to the changing needs and demands of the various epochs in terms of the history of reception, in order to construct the appropriate artist personality for the specific perspective of his works.

The first written document proving that Shakespeare was in London comes from the poet Robert Greene , who defamed him in a pamphlet in 1592 as an upstart. Greene blasphemed that Shakespeare presumed to write poetry like the respected poets of his time: there is an upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers, that with his Tygers hart wrapt in a Players hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blanke verse as the best of you: and beeing an absolute Johannes fac totum, is in his own conceit the onely shake scene in a countrey . (Because there is a crow that has come up, finely dressed with our feathers, who with its tiger heart, hidden in an actor's robe, thinks it can pour out blank verses like the best of you; and comes as an absolute jack-of-all-trades He claims to be the greatest theatrical shaker in the country.) The expression Shake-scene is a play on the name Shakespeare .

When the pamphlet was published posthumously, the editor added an apology, which suggests that Shakespeare was already popular and had influential patrons. At that time he was already a member of the Lord Strange's Men ' troupe , a large part of which formed the Lord Chamberlain's Men in 1594 and was one of the leading actors in London . Shortly after his accession to the throne, James I made her his own as King's Men .

Playwright and actor

First published under the name William Shakespeare, 1593

The theatrical system that emerged in Elizabethan times was still unsettled and subject to rapid, risky changes, but was just as profitable under favorable conditions. However, this did not apply to the professional poet or playwright, who, as numerous examples from this period show, could not make a living from his work as an author, from the flat-rate fees normally granted to him for the drama troops to whom he sold his dramatic texts, since all of them further rights of use were transferred to these theater groups with the handover of the manuscript. The formerly respected existence and way of life of the professional poet and author under the patronage of a noble patron whose literary activity was rewarded with generous donations or honorary salaries had largely been lost in Shakespeare's time.

On this historical background Shakespeare wrote two short verses, Venus and Adonis (1593) and The Rape of Lucrece (1594), which, in contrast to all his other works, he published himself and with a signed dedication to Henry Wriothesley, the Earl of Southampton , provided. Since epic works at that time were classified as high literature, while theater plays were classified as commercial literature, Shakespeare probably for this reason described Venus and Adonis as the first work (" first heir of my invention "). In this way he not only achieved a high reputation in the circles of literary connoisseurs and lovers, but was also more often praised and mentioned by his contemporaries as the author of these epics than later for his most frequently discussed and praised tragedy Hamlet . This enabled him to initiate his literary career as well as a commercially successful playwright appropriately.

As early as the beginning of 1595, Shakespeare was one of the most recognized members of the Lord Chamberlain's Men , which shortly afterwards became the leading drama troupe , as can be seen from a traditional payment receipt from the Master of the Revels or the Royal Treasury for a special performance at court on March 15, 1595 after the accession of James I to the throne in 1603 was placed under his patronage and thus raised to the service of the crown. Shakespeare's name appears together with that of Richard Burbage and the well-known actor William Kempe on a receipt for the receipt of ₤ 20 for two court performances of Lord Chamberlain's Men on behalf of the drama troupe and thus not only documented his full establishment within this drama group, but also his official authority to represent the troops externally.

Shakespeare not only wrote an abundance of plays for his theater troupe as their ancestral house playwright, but was also initially a co-owner (sharer) with a 10% financial stake in their profits. He also played as an actor in smaller roles himself. The diary entries of the theater entrepreneur Philip Henslowe, for example, show the financial merits of Shakespeare's plays; In contrast to many other contemporary playwrights, Shakespeare from now on achieved consistent success not only professionally or artistically, but increasingly in business and social terms.

His drama troupe was very popular with the court as well as with the theater audience of the large public theaters and earned accordingly. Shakespeare signed on the occasion of two court performances during the Christmas celebrations in 1594. From 1596 onwards it can be demonstrated in detail without set-off that Shakespeare continuously invested money or invested in real estate. When Shakespeare's troupe moved the venue to the newly built Globe Theater in 1599 , James Burbage, whose family had owned the old Globe Theater , gave him a partnership of initially a tenth. Some time later this proportion rose to a seventh in 1608, when the Blackfriars was built as a second theater, mainly for performances in the winter season.

As his greatest poetic competitor was initially Christopher Marlowe , later Ben Jonson . It was customary to rewrite older plays and perform anew: Shakespeare's Hamlet , for example, could be an adaptation of an older “Ur-Hamlet”. In some cases, myths and fairy tales were used several times in dramas, as in the case of King Lear . Pieces were also created from printed sources, such as Plutarch's biographies of great men, collections of Italian novels or chronicles of English history. Another common method was to write sequels to successful pieces. The figure of Falstaff in Henry IV was so popular with the public that Shakespeare had her appear again in The Funny Wives of Windsor .

Poet and businessman

In addition to his dramatic works, Shakespeare also wrote lyrical and epic poems (presumably when the theaters of London had to close temporarily due to the plague epidemics). The latter established his reputation as an author among his contemporaries. Probably in 1593 he wrote the two verses mentioned above, Venus and Adonis and Lucrece . The subsequent publication of 154 sonnets in 1609 is surrounded by numerous puzzles. In a short publisher's introduction, which is usually read as a “dedication”, there is talk of the only begetter and Mr. WH ; the identity of this person has not yet been clarified. Perhaps this sonnet publication is a pirated print .

London, Shakespeare's Globe Theater (reconstruction)

As a co-owner of London's Globe Theater , which his troupe had built to replace the theater after its lease expired, Shakespeare became increasingly successful as a poet and businessman. The Lord Chamberlain's Men , named after their patron and sponsor , often performed at Queen Elizabeth's court. Under Elizabeth's successor James I , they named themselves King's Men after their royal patron .

As a partner in the Globe , Shakespeare made a considerable fortune and influence. In 1596 his father John Shakespeare was granted a family coat of arms, which he had applied for in 1576 without success. The corresponding document (printed in Chambers, Shakespeare, Volume II, pp. 19-20) states: “Wherefore being solicited and by credible report ‹info› rmed, That John Shakespeare of Stratford vppon Avon, ‹in› the count‹ e of ›Warwike,‹… ›was advanced & rewar> ded‹ by the most prudent ›prince King Henry the seventh‹… ›This sh ‹ield› or‹ cote of ›Arms, viz. Gould, on a Bend Sables, a Speare of the first steeled argent. And for his crest of cognizaunce a falcon his winges displayed Argant standing on a wrethe of his coullers: suppo ‹rting› a Speare Gould steeled as aforesaid sett vppon a helmett with mantelles & tasselles as hath ben accustomed and doth more playnely appeare depicted on this margent: Signefieing hereby & by the authorite of my office aforesaid ratefieing that it shalbe lawfull for the said John Shakespeare gentilman and for his children yssue & posterite (at all tymes & places convenient) to beare and make demonstracon of the same Blazon or Atchevment vppon theyre Shieldes, Targetes, escucheons, Cotes of Arms, pennons, Guydons, Seales, Ringes, edefices, Buyldinges, vtensiles, Lyveries, Tombes, or monumentes or otherwise for all lawfull warlyke factes or ciuile vse or exercises, according to the Lawes of Arms , and customes that to gentillmen belongethe without let or interruption of any other person or persons for vse or bearing the same. "

Although the name of William Shakespeare is not explicitly mentioned in the document on the award of the coat of arms by the College of Arms , the royal coat of arms, of October 20, 1596, which was expressly confirmed again in 1599, it can still be assumed that he was one of these leaders Promoted and financed the family coat of arms. With the transfer of the right to use the coat of arms to Shakespeare's father, which included all children and grandchildren, Shakespeare now had the status of gentleman and with it an immense social advancement. In his role as a theater man, for example, he also used this newly acquired coat of arms and from then on added the addition of gentleman as a status in all documents .

In addition to his economic transactions in the theater industry, Shakespeare was also active as a businessman and investor in numerous businesses outside the theater company. Most of his money was invested in the acquisition of real estate in his native Stratford. On May 4, 1597, he bought New Place , the second largest house in the city, as his manor and on May 1, 1602 acquired 43 hectares (107 acres) of arable land, including forest and rights to use common land. On September 28, 1602 he bought another house with land opposite his manor and on July 24, 1605 acquired the right to collect part of the tithe income from various farmers' leases at a price of ₤ 440, which brought him annual net income of ₤ 40. Shakespeare not only invested the fortune he had acquired, but he also managed and made further profits from his new acquisitions. For example, he leased and leased land or arable land, sold his building rubble to the community or collected outstanding debts through court proceedings and also speculated on the hoarding of grain in addition to his interests in various joint activities of the group of large landowners. In London, Shakespeare also bought a house and shop in the immediate vicinity of the Blackfriars Theater .

The acquisition of the Blackfriars Theater by the theater entrepreneur James Burbage in 1596 , in which, as already explained, Shakespeare has also been involved since then, was not only profitable for Shakespeare . Unlike the Globe, it was a roofed theater in which the troupe would play during the winter months from now on. Because of the significantly higher entrance fees, the audience was more exclusive there than at the large open-air stages.

While Shakespeare was on the one hand quite goal-oriented to increase his fortune and his social advancement, on the other hand he did little or nothing to promote his literary prominence. It is true that he wrote his numerous works with a great deal of energy, but otherwise in no way made use of the limited but nonetheless existing opportunities for self-portrayal as an author and poet: with the exception of the abovementioned short epics, he did not have any of his individual works printed himself , nor did he himself commission a complete edition of his pieces. Neither did he try to make his authorship known as the author, and likewise forego a literary self-portrait in forewords or introductions to the works of other poets, as did his contemporary Ben Jonson , for example . As much as he was interested in his social advancement, the less he seemed to have been interested in his artistic fame and the conscious, planned promotion of his poetic and literary career.

Regardless of this, by 1598 at the latest, he had achieved such a level of notoriety and popularity that Shakespeare's name preferably appeared in large form on the title pages of the first printed editions, in some cases even in works that were not written by him. His name was also listed in various contemporary best lists, in particular that of Francis Meeres.

Last years

At the age of 46, Shakespeare returned to Stratford as a wealthy man and spent the last years of his life there as the second richest citizen, although unlike his father, he was not actively involved in local government. He did not let the ties to his former colleagues be completely severed, and he participated as a co-author of some theater productions. Several visits to London are documented for the following years, most of them for family and friendly occasions.

Shakespeare died in Stratford in 1616 at the age of 52, ten days after his great Spanish contemporary, Miguel de Cervantes , and was buried in the choir room of Holy Trinity Church on April 25, 1616 . He was entitled to this befitting place of honor as a «gentleman». The stone slab marking his grave bears the inscription:

GOOD FREND FOR JESUS ​​SAKE FORBEARE,
TO DIGG THE DVST ENCLOASED HEARE.
BLESTE BE THE MAN THAT SPARES THES STONES,
AND CVRST BE HE THAT MOVES MY BONES

O good friend, for Jesus' sake do not dig
in the dust that lies locked here.
Blessed be whoever spares these stones
cursed be he who moves my bones.

According to a local tradition, Shakespeare is said to have written this Knittel verse with the cursed in it to deter all efforts to open the grave after his death.

Shakespeare's grave in Holy Trinity Church

Probably shortly after Shakespeare's death, a memorial bust with a Latin inscription was erected in the side wall of the church by a person who is still unknown to this day.

Shakespeare's former theater colleagues John Heminges and Henry Condell published his works under the title Mr. William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies in a large-format book called First Folio . The volume is preceded by a tribute from Ben Jonson , in which it says:

Triumph my Britain, thou hast one to show
To whom all scenes of Europe homage owe.
He was not of an age, but for all time! ...

Britain, rejoice, you call it your own,
bow to the European stage.
It does not belong to one time, but to all times! ...

The cause of death is unknown. However, about 50 years after Shakespeare's death, John Ward, Vicar of Holy Trinity Church, Stratford, noted in his diary: “Shakespeare, Drayton and Ben Jonson had a happy get-together and apparently drank too much; for Shakespeare died of a fever that he contracted. ”Today this news is considered to be an anecdote without factual content, but its real essence may be that in Shakespeare's death year a typhoid epidemic raged, to which the poet fell victim could be.

Shakespeare's Testament and Legacy

Excerpt from Shakespeare's will of 1616

A short time before his death, probably in January 1616, Shakespeare drew up his will and had it drawn up by the notary Thomas Collins. This notarized will is dated March 25, 1616 and consists of three closely-written sheets of paper signed by Shakespeare on each page. It was not until the 18th century that Shakespeare's will was found again. The surviving copy with numerous revisions, changes and additions in the drafting during the period between January and March of the year 1616 is the most extensive private document that has survived from Shakespeare himself. Shakespeare's shaky signature on the first two pages is seen by various Shakespeare researchers as an indication of Shakespeare's already very poor state of health, which could also have been the reason why a final fair copy of the entire testamentary decree was apparently dispensed with.

Most of the Shakespeare's estate went to his eldest daughter Susanna, who, together with her husband, received the entire property, including the lease shares acquired by Shakespeare. In the first place in the will, however, her younger sister Judith is named as the first of the heirs. She bequeathed Shakespeare £ 100 from the estate and an additional £ 50 in the event of an assignment of the claim to the house on Chapel Lane across from Shakespeare's New Place mansion . If she or one of her children were still alive three years after the will was drawn up, a further ₤ 150 was earmarked for her, of which she was only allowed to dispose of the interest for the duration of her marriage. Access to Judith's entire inheritance from her husband was expressly prevented by Shakespeare in his will by deleting the word "son-in-law".

Shakespeare gave his sister Joan an amount of £ 20 in addition to his clothes and a lifelong right of residence in his father's estate on Henley Street for a small nominal rent. In addition, Shakespeare's will recognized gifts of money to his Stratford friends as well as a comparatively generous donation of 10 for the poor in the community. Shakespeare also honored the three former actors Richard Burbage and John Heminges and Henry Condell , the later editors of the First Folio of 1623.

In previous biographical research on Shakespeare, the focus of interest has concentrated in particular on a single sentence in the legacy, which has raised numerous questions and has given rise to very different, sometimes purely speculative, interpretations and interpretations up to the present day: « Item, I give unto my wife my second best bed wih the furniture ”, whereby furniture could be understood as bedding as well as furnishing in the linguistic usage at the time. The name of Shakespeare's wife Anne does not appear anywhere else in the will with the exception of this passage.

Some of the later Shakespeare biographers interpret this largely lack of care for his wife Anne in Shakespeare's last will as an undisguised expression of his indifference or even disregard for her. On the other hand, another section of the biographers refers to the wives' pension rights, which was common in England at that time, who as a widow had a right to a third of the entire belongings of her deceased husband as well as a lifelong right to live in the house he left behind, even without a special order. Therefore an explicit mention of his wife in the will was superfluous. The legacy of the “second best bed” is also sometimes interpreted as a special proof of affection or love, since the “best bed”, according to the rationale, was reserved for guests and this “second best bed” was the shared double bed, which Shakespeare may have subsequently explicitly granted to his wife at her special request.

In contrast to this, however, especially in recent research, it is sometimes pointed out that this customary law with regard to widow claims in Elizabethan-Jacobean England was by no means uniform, but tied to local customs and therefore varied from place to place. Especially the renowned Shakespeare scholar EAJ Honigmann , in his comparison with wills of similarly wealthy families from this time in his study from 1991, comes to the conclusion that the expressly mentioned, rather scanty legacy for his wife in Shakespeare's last will in this form does not correspond to the usual testamentary wording.

In a retrospective overall view of the will, the recognized German Shakespeare researcher Ulrich Suerbaum primarily sees clear signs that Shakespeare was primarily concerned with a closed transfer of all his possessions; He tried to take the remaining inheritance claims into account in such a way that the main inheritance could be transferred without any major reduction. For all other people with whom he was friends or family, he therefore left only one rather symbolic object of memory.

Shakespeare portraits

Shakespeare's funerary monument in Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon
The so-called Chandos portrait , around 1610
The so-called Flower portrait from 1609
Shakespeare's death mask from 1616 after the illustration in the Encyclopædia Britannica from 1911

Some pictures and portraits of Shakespeare have come down to us. With the increasing reputation of the playwright, these images were copied many times and modified to a greater or lesser extent. Several unsecured works were also called Shakespeare portraits early on.

The only two portraits likely to depict the historical William Shakespeare were made posthumously:

  • the Droeshout engraving (1623), the frontispiece of the title page of the first folio edition. It was probably engraved from an original that was lost today. Martin Droeshout the Younger (* 1601) is traditionally considered an artist, but the older Martin Droeshout (1560–1642) has also recently been mentioned.
  • the funerary monument in Holy Trinity Church , Stratford-upon-Avon (before 1623).

Anything possibly created during the poet's lifetime is also considered likely to be authentic

  • Chandos portrait (from approx. 1594–1599). The exact date of creation is unknown, the painter was probably Joseph Taylor (1585–1651). Research by curator Tarnya Cooper in 2006 showed that the picture dates from Shakespeare's time and could show the poet.

Other portraits, about the authenticity of which there is no broad consensus and some of which are very controversial, include: a .:

  • the Sanders portrait, discovered in Canada in 2001, is believed to have been painted during Shakespeare's lifetime
  • the Cobbe portrait , made famous in 2006 and presented to the public in 2009, is accepted as authentic by Stanley Wells and the Shakespeare Birthplace Trust, Stratford-upon-Avon
  • the Flower portrait from 1609, initially believed to be a 19th century fake after an investigation by the National Portrait Gallery in 2004. More recently, however, more recent research has led to the assumption that this portrait was not created based on the Droeshout engraving from 1623, as previously assumed, but rather, conversely, that it served the engraving from 1623 as a model. For example, the recognized German English scholar and Shakespeare researcher Hildegard Hammerschmidt-Hummel assumes, based on her extensive investigations into the authenticity of the Darmstadt death mask, that not only the Chandos portrait, but also the Flower portrait are authentic. However, given the current state of research, this hypothesis is still controversial.
  • the Janssen portrait, by the same painter as the Cobbe portrait, known since 1770, restored in 1988.

As inauthentic u. a .:

Shakespeare's language

Title page of the first edition 1609

Shakespeare had an extensive vocabulary: 17,750 different words are counted in his works. Shakespeare is characterized by his stylistic diversity, which equally dominates all language levels and registers from the lowest Goss language to the highest court language. A special feature of his literary language is the diverse use of picture language (imagery) .

In Shakespeare's time, grammar, spelling, and pronunciation were not as standardized as they have been increasingly since the 18th century. It was also possible and customary to mint new words when the need arose. Many terms found in English today appear for the first time in Shakespeare (for example, multitudinous, accommodation, premeditated, assassination, submerged, obscene ). However, the impression that Shakespeare created more new expressions and phrases than any other English poet can partly be explained by the fact that the Oxford English Dictionary , which emerged in the 19th century, prefers to use Shakespeare quotations as initial evidence.

Authorship of his works

Today's Shakespeare research assumes that doubts about the authorship of William Shakespeare from Stratford in the work traditionally ascribed to him are unfounded. For more than 150 years, however, there has been a debate about the “true” authorship. This is due not least to the fact that the romantic image of the “genius poet” seems incompatible with a person like the business-oriented London theater entrepreneur Shakespeare. The first folio edition of 1623, with its concrete definition of Shakespearean drama corpus, disregarding the previous apocryphal dramas, did the rest of outlining the image of a genius who suddenly appeared, which could easily be converted into that of a straw man. The problematization of the authorship of William Shakespeare in the work ascribed to him is not regarded as a legitimate research topic by established academic Shakespeare research. However, some Shakespeare scholars criticize the refusal of academic literary studies to seriously discuss with non-academic (and now also some academic) researchers who also call themselves "anti-Tratfordians". ( Stratfordians, then, are those who believe that Stratford-born William Shakespeare is the author of the works ascribed to him.)

The background to the authorship debates among many “anti-Tratfordians” is the view that the poet of Shakespeare's works could not have been a simple man of little education from the provinces. Teaching at a grammar school , such as Shakespeare probably attended in Stratford, provided the basic knowledge and skills necessary to acquire the knowledge that went into his dramas. In the 18th century Shakespeare was considered an uneducated author. It is hard to say both: the author of the plays had an unexplained high level of education and at the same time he was poorly educated. Another argument against Shakespeare's authorship of his works is that no original manuscripts of his works have survived, apart from the controversial manuscript of the play Sir Thomas More . However, this is not unusual for authors of the 16th century. In addition, the six handwritten signatures of Shakespeare that have been obtained are viewed by some assessors as so awkward that they could have made them downright illiterate. But this too is evaluation from a modern point of view that does not take historical reality into account.

The discussion about the real author of Shakespeare's works begins with the writer Delia Bacon . In her book The Philosophy of Shakespeare's Plays (1857) she developed the hypothesis that behind the name William Shakespeare hid a group of writers consisting of Francis Bacon , Sir Walter Raleigh and Edmund Spenser . Their publication sparked further speculation that continues to this day and in which new candidates are named for authorship.

Among the people named as possible authors of Shakespeare's works, Francis Bacon , William Stanley and, more recently, Edward de Vere are the most frequently named. In addition, Christopher Marlowe also plays a certain role (see Marlowe theory ). In the 19th and 20th centuries, prominent personalities such as Georg Cantor , Henry James and Mark Twain made public statements in line with the anti-Tratfordian theses.

Reception in Germany

Shakespeare monument in Weimar

In Germany, the Shakespeare reception has an eventful history, in which the poet was employed for the most varied of interests.

Shakespeare was of great importance for the literary theory of the Enlightenment with Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (in the 17th literary letter 1759), for the dramatists of Sturm und Drang, for example, with Heinrich Wilhelm von Gerstenberg ( letters about merits of literature , 1766/67), with Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz ( comments on the theater , 1774), with Johann Gottfried Herder ( Von deutscher Art und Kunst , 1773) and with Johann Wolfgang von Goethe ( speech on Schäkespears Day , 1771), also with the amateur, but all the more enthusiastic Ulrich Bräker ( Something about William Shakespear's plays by a poor ignorant citizen of the world who was lucky enough to read the same. Anno 1780) ; likewise for the German Romanticism , especially with August Wilhelm von Schlegel (Viennese lectures on dramatic art and literature 1809–1811) and for the drama theory of the 19th century. The theoretician Johann Christoph Gottsched , who was influential in the early 18th century and committed to 17th century French classicism, a. based on the three Aristotelian units of French drama theory, had, like Voltaire before him, expressed quite disparaging remarks about Shakespeare. In the second half of the century, however, Shakespeare became the prototype of genius for the drama theorists of the Late Enlightenment and Sturm und Drang, and in the judgment of not only the theater poet remained an unreached “star of the highest heights” (Goethe) to our present day.

The theater principal Abel Seyler and the Seylersche Schauspiel-Gesellschaft contributed significantly to Shakespeare's popularity in German-speaking countries in the 1770s; Seyler also had great merit in the actual arrival of Shakespeare at the National Theater in Mannheim , founded on November 2, 1778 , which he led as founding director.

One of the peculiarities of the German Shakespeare reception since Romanticism is the view that the Germans have a special affinity for Shakespeare, that his work is closer to the German soul than to the English. The preoccupation with Shakespeare and the political popularization of his work found its institutional anchoring in the German Shakespeare Society , which was founded in 1864 by enthusiasts rather than specialist philologists. It is the oldest Shakespeare society in the world and significantly older than the English one. On the occasion of Shakespeare's 400th birthday, the German Shakespeare Society and the Institute for Theater Studies at the University of Cologne compiled a documentation and exhibited it under the title Shakespeare and the German Theater in the Bochum Art Gallery and Heidelberg Castle.

The number of Germanizations of Shakespeare (often specially made for individual productions) for over 250 years is unmistakable. Well-known transfers of the dramas are the editions by Christoph Martin Wieland and Johann Joachim Eschenburg (both published in Zurich) as well as by Gabriel Eckert (who revised the Wieland / Eschenburg texts in the so-called “Mannheimer Shakespeare”), by Eduard Wilhelm Sievers , that by Johann Heinrich Voß and his sons Heinrich and Abraham, the Schlegel-Tieck edition (by August Wilhelm von Schlegel , Wolf von Baudissin , Ludwig Tieck and his daughter Dorothea Tieck ) and, in earlier times, the translations of individual pieces by Friedrich von Schiller and Theodor Fontane in recent times, during the Weimar Republic very popular because road-worthy versions of Hans Ludwig Rothe after a Goebbels , however, were -Erlass prohibited, as well as the extensive translation (27 pieces) of Erich Fried and the planned total ratio are (37 pieces for End of 2017 before) by Frank Günther . Newer translations of individual pieces that caused a sensation were e.g. B. those of Thomas Brasch and Peter Handke .

In recent years, Shakespeare's translation work has again concentrated more on the sonnets , which many translators have tried to do since the eighteenth century.

Shakespeare's work has become the most abundant source of eloquent words over the centuries . Only the Bible is quoted more often.

The asteroid of the main outer belt (2985) Shakespeare is named after him.

Films about Shakespeare (selection)

In addition to numerous film adaptations of Shakespeare's works, there are also various films about him and his life. These are mostly fictional adaptations of the author's biography, dramatizations or comedies. A well-known example of the latter is Shakespeare in Love from 1998. Joseph Fiennes starred in the role of the poet in this Oscar- winning romantic comedy . Another romantic comedy was the 2007 Spanish film Miguel y William , which is about a fictional meeting between the poet and Miguel de Cervantes .

As early as 1907, Shakespeare Writing “Julius Caesar” was the first short film that is currently considered lost.

In the 1999 film Blackadder: Back & Forth , which is a continuation of the Blackadder series and is a comedy, the poet is portrayed by Colin Firth . In the BBC production A Waste of Shame from 2005, Shakespeare's sonnets are used to describe a history of the origins of these. Rupert Graves took on the role of poet.

Roland Emmerich's film Anonymus (2011) is a historical thriller that also deals with William Shakespeare's authorship . Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford held the actual authorship of the British works. In Bill (2015), on the other hand, the rather unknown stages of Shakespeare's life, the so-called lost years, are dealt with in an adventurous family comedy. Richard Bracewell directed and Mathew Baynton played the lead.

Kenneth Branagh , who himself has been responsible for several Shakespeare films as a director, made All Is True, a film about the last years of Shakespeare's life. Branagh also played the leading role here.

Works

Shakespeare was primarily a playwright, but also wrote two verses and 154 sonnets . The first attempt at a complete edition of his theatrical works appeared posthumously in Mr. William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies , the so-called folio edition . This contains 36 dramas, including 18 previously unpublished ones, a foreword by the editors and poems of praise and dedication.

The drama Cardenio, performed in 1612, has not survived . Also not counting is the collaboration on Sir Thomas More , a play that was written by several authors; Shakespeare's participation has recently been called into question again. A number of dramas have been attributed to Shakespeare since the third folio edition (1662). Apart from Pericles, which, written by Shakespeare together with another author, is accepted as an authentic work, these pieces, known as "Apocrypha", have long ceased to be considered candidates for inclusion among the real works of Shakespeare. In research, there is ongoing discussion about the addition and depreciation of further works and about the collaboration of other authors on his works or about Shakespeare's collaboration on the works of other authors. More recent suggested attributions concern Edward III and Double Falshood or The Distrest Lovers . In Edward III (printed 1596) Shakespeare's co-authorship is assumed (among others by Brian Vickers); the drama was included in the most recent edition of "The Norton Shakespeare" and in the second edition of "Oxford Shakespeare". Double Falshood , whose authorship has been controversial since the beginning of the 18th century, became part of the Arden edition of Shakespeare's works in 2010.

Historical dramas

The Globe (replica)
  • King John ( King John , around 1595/96)
  • Henry VIII. ( King Henry VIII or All Is True , ca.1612/13)

York tetralogy

  • Henry VI.
    • Part 1 ( King Henry VI, Part 1 ; 1591)
    • Part 2 ( King Henry VI, Part 2 ; 1591–1592)
    • Part 3 ( King Henry VI, Part 3 ; 1591–1592)
  • Richard III ( King Richard III ; around 1593, printed 1597)

Lancaster tetralogy

  • Richard II ( King Richard II ; between 1590 and 1599, printed 1597)
  • Henry IV.
    • Part 1 ( King Henry IV, Part 1 ; around 1595/96, printed 1598)
    • Part 2 ( King Henry IV, Part 2 ; around 1597, printed 1600)
  • Henry V ( King Henry V ; 1599, printed as pirated print in 1600 )

Comedies

Cheerful comedies

Problem pieces

Romances

tragedies

Early tragedies

Roman dramas

Later tragedies

Vers seals

expenditure

Old Spelling Editions

  • The First Folio of Shakespeare . The Norton Facsimile. Ed. by Charlton Hinman. Norton, New York 1969.
  • The complete works of William Shakespeare. Edited and glossed over by WJ Craig, London 1978.
  • The Oxford Shakespeare. The Complete Works. Original Spelling Edition . Ed. by Stanley Wells, Gary Taylor, John Jowett, William Montgomery. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1987.

Updated editions

  • The Arden Shakespeare. Complete Works . Revised edition. Ed. by Ann Thompson, David Scott Kastan, Richard Proudfoot. Thomson Learning, London 2001 (without the notes in the Arden individual editions)
  • The Oxford Shakespeare. The Complete Works . Second edition. Ed. by Stanley Wells, Gary Taylor, John Jowett, William Montgomery. Clarendon Press, Oxford 2005. (no annotations)
  • The Norton Shakespeare . Based on the Oxford Edition. Second edition. Ed. by Stephen Greenblatt, Jane E. Howard, Katharine Eisaman Mouse. Norton, New York 2008.

Translations

  • Shakespeare's Dramatic Works. New edition in nine volumes . Translation by August Wilhelm Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck. Printed and published by Georg Reimer, Berlin 1853 to 1855.
  • William Shakespeare: Dramas. With an afterword and notes by Anselm Schlösser, 2 volumes. Berlin / Weimar 1987.
  • William Shakespeare: The Complete Works in Four Volumes. (Edited by Günther Klotz, translation by August Wilhelm Schlegel, Dorothea Tieck, Wolf Graf Baudissin and Günther Klotz, with comments by the editor). Structure, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-7466-2554-8 .
  • Complete Shakespeare edition in 39 volumes. (Translation by Frank Günther ; published so far: 33 volumes). Ars Vivendi Verlag, Cadolzburg.

Audio book

  • Robert Gillner (Ed.): Shakespeare for Lovers . Speaker: Catherine Gayer , David Knutson u. a. Monarda Publishing House, Halle 2012, 2 CD, 92 minutes.

See also

literature

  • Peter Ackroyd : Shakespeare: The Biography. Translated from the English by Michael Müller and Otto Lucian. Knaus, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-8135-0274-0 .
  • Harald Bloom: Shakespeare. The invention of the human. Comedies and Histories. From the American by Peter Knecht. Berlin Verlag, Berlin 2002.
  • Harald Bloom: Shakespeare. The invention of the human. Tragedies and late romances. From the American by Peter Knecht. Berlin Verlag, Berlin 2002.
  • Edmund K. Chambers: William Shakespeare. A study of facts and problems . Clarendon Press, Oxford 1930.
  • Nicholas Fogg: Hidden Shakespeare: a Biography. Amberley, Stroud 2012, ISBN 978-1-4456-0769-6 .
  • Hans-Dieter Gelfert : William Shakespeare in his time . CH Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-65919-5 .
  • Stephen Greenblatt : Will in the world. How Shakespeare became Shakespeare . Berlin-Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-8270-0438-1 .
  • Stephen Greenblatt: Negotiations with Shakespeare. Interior views of the English Renaissance . Wagenbach, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-8031-3553-2 .
  • Frank Günther: Our Shakespeare. Insights into Shakespeare's alien-related times. Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-423-26001-5 .
  • Hildegard Hammerschmidt-Hummel : William Shakespeare - His time - His life - His work . Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2003, ISBN 3-8053-2958-X .
  • Graham Holderness: Nine lives of William Shakespeare. Continuum, London a. a. 2011, ISBN 978-1-4411-5185-8 .
  • Ernst AJ Honigmann: The Lost Years . Manchester University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-7190-1743-2 .
  • Charles T. Onions : A Shakespeare glossary. Oxford 1911; 2nd edition, ibid. 1919; Reprinted in 1929.
  • Roger Paulin: The Critical Reception of Shakespeare in Germany 1682-1914. Native literature and foreign genius . (English and American texts and studies, 11). Olms, Hildesheim u. a. 2003, ISBN 3-487-11945-5 .
  • Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare Handbook. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 .
  • Samuel Schoenbaum: William Shakespeare. A documentation of his life. Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1981, ISBN 3-458-04787-5 .
  • Samuel Schoenbaum: Shakespeare's Lives . New edition. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1991, ISBN 0-19-818618-5 .
  • Marvin Spevack: A complete and systematic concordance to the works of Shakespeare. Volume I ff., Hildesheim 1970.
  • Ulrich Suerbaum: Shakespeare's Dramas . UTB, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-8252-1907-0 .
  • Ian Wilson: Shakespeare - The Evidence. Unlocking the Mysteries of the Man and his Work . London 1993, ISBN 0-7472-0582-5 .

Web links

Commons : William Shakespeare  album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: William Shakespeare  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Date of death according to the Julian calendar that was valid throughout Shakespeare's lifetime in England (April 23, 1616); According to the Gregorian calendar , which was introduced in the Catholic countries in 1582 but not until 1752 in England , the poet died on May 3, 1616. As a result, he has the same date of death as the Spanish national poet Cervantes , although he outlived it by ten days.
  2. ^ EK Chambers: William Shakespeare - A Study of Facts and Problems . At the Clarendon Press, Oxford 1930. Volume 2, pp. 1 f. See also Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, pp. 345–376, here p. 347. Suerbaum sees the determination of Shakespeare's birthday on the April 23, the day of the feast of the national saint, St. George , also as part of the Shakespeare legend. Similar to the description by Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , p. 136 f.
  3. Chambers, Volume 1, p. 13; Volume 2, p. 2.
  4. TW Baldwin: William Shakspere's Small Latine and Lesse Greeke. Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana 1944, 2 volumes. In research, Baldwin's evidence that Shakespeare actually attended grammar school is widely recognized, as specifically stated in Charles Martindale / Michelle Martindale: Shakespeare and the Uses of Antiquity: An Introductory Essay . Routledge, London 1989, p. 6. However, Shakespeare's school attendance is not historically documented; Such a lack of documentation of school attendance, however, has little informative value, since school attendance in Shakespeare's time was usually not recorded by written evidence and student lists at the Grammar School in Stratford only existed since around 1800. A visit to the Grammar School is generally viewed in Shakespeare research as very likely or “as good as certain” due to Shakespeare's educational horizon and the numerous quotes from school books in his dramatic works. In addition, according to Frank Günther, the social position of Shakespeare's family of origin speaks for the high certainty of such an assumption. His father was mayor of the city of Stratford at the time, thus the highest office holder, enjoyed a high level of social respect, attached great importance to befitting behavior and was considered to be advancement-oriented. Since school attendance was free and education was an important means of social advancement, it can be assumed with high probability that Shakespeare was sent to grammar school as the eldest son . In any case, with the current state of research, the assumption is undisputed that Shakespeare acquired the knowledge imparted in a grammar school at the time, although his academically trained poetic rival Ben Jonson later called this knowledge of Shakespeare "small Latin and less Greek" (dt .: "Hardly any Latin and even less Greek"). Cf. also Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, p. 345–376, here p. 350, as well as Frank Günther: Unser Shakespeare: Insights into Shakespeare's alien-related times. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 2nd edition Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-423-14470-4 , pp. 188–194. See also Samuel Schoenbaum: The Life of Shakespeare. In: Kenneth Muir and Samuel Schoenbaum (Eds.): A New Companion to Shakespeare Studies. Cambridge University Press 1971, reprint 1976, ISBN 0-521-09645-6 , pp. 1-14, here p. 3f.
  5. See Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, pp. 345–376, here pp. 351f. See also Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 137-140. on the biographical information also Samuel Schoenbaum : The Life of Shakespeare. In: Kenneth Muir and Samuel Schoenbaum (Eds.): A New Companion to Shakespeare Studies. Cambridge University Press 1971, reprint 1976, ISBN 0-521-09645-6 , pp. 1-14, here p. 4f. The baptism of the first child on May 26, 1583 has led to much speculation in various Shakespeare biographies; Documentary evidence of a previous engagement of the couple or the conclusion of a marriage precontract , which was common in Elizabethan times , does not exist, although such engagement cannot be entirely ruled out. For more details see Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity , ibid p. 138f.
  6. Chambers, Volume 2, p. 101: Loving countryman; I am bold of you as of a friend, craving your help with £ 30 ... You shall neither lose credit nor money by me ... so I commit this to your care and hope of your help .
  7. ^ Arthur Acheson: Shakespeare's Lost Years in London . Brentano's, New York 1920.
  8. Cf. Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , p. 121 as well as the detailed description of the traditional legends of Shakespeare's life, for example as a poacher or groom, ibid p. 122ff. The recognized Shakespeare researcher Samuel Schoenbaum , on the other hand, considers it quite possible in his biography of Shakespeare that Shakespeare joined one of the traveling theaters from around the summer of 1587, the Leicester’s , Warwick’s or Queen 'Men as actors who traveled through the province and in also made appearances in Stratford in the 1580s. See Samuel Schoenbaum: The Life of Shakespeare. In: Kenneth Muir and Samuel Schoenbaum (Eds.): A New Companion to Shakespeare Studies. Cambridge University Press 1971, reprinted 1976, ISBN 0-521-09645-6 , pp. 1-14, here p. 5.
  9. Cf. Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , Chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, pp. 345–376, here pp. 350f. See also fundamentally Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 118ff.
  10. See Ulrich Suerbaum : The Shakespeare Guide. Reclam, Stuttgart 2006, 3rd rev. Edition 2015, ISBN 978-3-15-020395-8 , pp. 13f. Regardless of this, Shakespeare's biography, which has been the subject of extensive research and is based on numerous traditional documents and registered entries, is probably the best-documented citizen biography from the Elizabethan age. See also Ulrich Suerbaum: Shakespeares Dramen. UTB, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-8252-1907-0 , p. 241f.
  11. Chambers, Volume 1, p. 58.
  12. See also Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 144-146.
  13. See in detail Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, pp. 345–376, here pp. 354–357. Cf. also Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , p. 146ff.
  14. See in detail Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, p. 345–376, here p. 358f. See also Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 146-130. See also Samuel Schoenbaum: The Life of Shakespeare. In: Kenneth Muir and Samuel Schoenbaum (Eds.): A New Companion to Shakespeare Studies. Cambridge University Press 1971, reprint 1976, ISBN 0-521-09645-6 , pp. 1-14, here pp. 6f.
  15. See u. a. Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare Handbook. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , p. 146f.
  16. See in detail Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, p. 345–376, here p. 358f.
  17. ^ Raymond Carter Sutherland: The Grants of Arms to Shakespeare's Father. In: Shakespeare Quarterly. Volume 14, 1963, pp. 379–385, here: p. 385:
    “… the still often-made statement that William secured arms to show the fact that he had 'arrived' is pure assumption with no basis in fact and may seriously misrepresent not only his attitude toward heraldry and society but also his relationship with the other members of his family. "
  18. See in detail Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, pp. 345–376, here pp. 361–363. See also Ulrich Suerbaum: Shakespeare's dramas. UTB, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-8252-1907-0 , p. 244ff. Cf. also Frank Günther: Our Shakespeare: Insights into Shakespeare's foreign-related times. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 2nd edition Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-423-14470-4 , pp. 184 ff. In this context, Günther also refers to the social network around Shakespeare's family, which can be clearly proven through traditional records and historical documents. This social network, in which Shakespeare Günther was firmly tied in Stratford, consisted of influential, very wealthy and educated citizens with demonstrable connections to London, the courts and the court.
  19. See in detail Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, pp. 345–376, here pp. 365f. See also in detail Ina Schabert (ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 150–153, here especially p. 152.
  20. See Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 166f.
  21. See in detail Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 161–164, here especially p. 152, and p. 164f.
  22. See in detail Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, pp. 345–376, here p. 369. Cf. also in detail Ina Schabert (ed. ): Shakespeare Handbook. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 164–167, here especially pp. 164f.
  23. See in detail Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 164–167, here especially pp. 165f. See equally in detail Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, p. 369–373, here especially p. 369–371.
  24. Cf. Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, pp. 345–376, here p. 369. See also for details Ina Schabert (ed.) : Shakespeare Handbook. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 164–167, here especially pp. 166f.
  25. Cf. Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , p. 168. See Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, p. 370 f. Cf. also EAJ Honigmann: Shakespeare Will and the Testamentary Tradition. In: Shakespeare and Cultural Traditions: Selected Proceedings of the International Shakespeare Association World Congress. Tokyo 1991, ed. by Tetsuo Kishi, Roger Pringle, and Stanley Wells (Newark: University of Delaware, 1994), pp. 127-137, here especially pp. 132ff. See also Günter Jürgensmeier (ed.): Shakespeare and his world. Galiani, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3869-71118-8 , p. 21. In contrast to Honigmann, Jürgensmeier assumes that Shakespeare's wife will be materially also according to English customary law or through her daughter Susanna's natural entitlement to care after his death was secured without further testamentary dispositions.
  26. See Ulrich Suerbaum: The Elizabethan Age. Philipp Reclam Jun., Stuttgart 1998 (first edition 1989), ISBN 3-15-008622-1 , chapter 3: Ein Bürgerleben: William Shakespeare, p. 369f.
  27. Mary Edmond: "It was for Gentle Shakespeare Cut". In: Shakespeare Quarterly. Volume 42, 1991, pp. 339-344.
  28. Charlotte Higgins: The only true painting of Shakespeare - probably ( Memento from July 12, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
  29. ^ Marie-Claude Corbeil: The Scientific Examination of the Sanders Portrait of William Shakespeare. ( Memento from April 20, 2011 on the Internet Archive ) Canadian Conservation Institute, 2008.
  30. Tarnya Cooper (Ed.): Searching for Shakespeare . With essays by Marcia Pointon , James Shapiro and Stanley Wells. National Portrait Gallery / Yale Center for British Art, Yale University Press, 2006.
  31. Cf. Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 180f. See also Perhaps a picture from a picture by Shakespeare . In: The world . February 12, 2014. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
  32. See also Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. Time, man, work, posterity. 5th, revised and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-520-38605-2 , pp. 373-376.
  33. ^ Manfred Scheler: Shakespeare's English. A linguistic introduction . (Basics of English and American Studies, 12). Schmidt, Berlin 1982, p. 89 (counting according to lexemes, not word types). Different calculation bases lead to different figures. The widespread figures of 29 066, which Marvin Spevack ( A complete and systematic Concordance to the works of Shakespeare , Vol. 4, Hildesheim 1969, p. 1) gives, and of 31,534, which in a study by Bradley Efron and Ronald Thisted ( Estimating the Number of Unseen Species: How Many Words did Shakespeare Know? In: Biometrika. Volume 63, 1976, pp. 435-447) go back to the fact that the authors count inflected word forms and spelling variants as separate words .
  34. David and Ben Crystal: Shakespeare's Words. A Glossary and Language Companion ( Memento of the original dated June 28, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.shakespeareswords.com archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Penguin, London 2002.
  35. ^ See: Wolfgang Clemen : The Development of Shakespeare's Imagery . Routledge, London 1977, ISBN 0-415-61220-9 .
  36. ^ Fausto Cercignani : Shakespeare's Works and Elizabethan Pronunciation . Clarendon Press, Oxford 1981, ISBN 0-19-811937-2 .
  37. The story of the “authorship question” is presented in the work of Samuel Schoenbaum: Shakespeare's Lives . New edition. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1991. See also David Kathman: The Question of Authorship. In: Stanley Wells, Lena Cowen Orlin (eds.): Shakespeare. To Oxford Guide . Oxford University Press, Oxford 2003, pp. 620-632; Ingeborg Boltz: Theories of Authorship . In: Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. The time - the person - the work - the posterity . 5. through u. additional edition, Kröner-Verlag, Stuttgart 2009, pp. 185–194.
  38. The negative attitude of academic Shakespeare research to the problematization of authorship is described by Thomas A. Pendleton: Irvin Matus's Shakespeare, In Fact. In: Shakespeare Newsletter. No. 44 (Summer 1994), pp. 26-30.
  39. ^ Irvin Leigh Matus: Reflections on the Authorship Controversy (15 Years On). In which I answer the question: Is it Important? (online) ( Memento of April 24, 2017 in the Internet Archive ); David Chandler: Historicizing Difference: Anti-Stratfordians and the Academy. In: Elizabethan Review. 1994 (online) ( Memento from May 6, 2006 in the Internet Archive ).
  40. Alexander Pope speaks in the Preface about The Works of Shakespear. In Six Volumes. Vol. I, Printed for J. and P. Knapton, London 1745, p. Xvi of the popular opinion of his want of learning .
  41. ↑ In Contested Will , James Shapiro has that before Delia Bacon a certain James Wilmot is said to have represented the Bacon thesis as early as the 18th century . Who Wrote Shakespeare? (Faber & Faber, London 2011, pp. 11-14) proven to be a forgery.
  42. Hans Wolffheim: The discovery of Shakespeare, German testimonies of the 18th century . Hamburg 1959. Günther Ercken also reports in detail on the reception in Germany in: Ina Schabert (Ed.): Shakespeare-Handbuch. 4th edition. Stuttgart 2000, pp. 635-660.
  43. Edmund Stadler, Shakespeare and Switzerland , Theaterkultur-Verlag, 1964, p. 10.
  44. ^ Ernst Leopold Stahl , Shakespeare and the German Theater , Stuttgart: W. Kohlhammer Verlag, 1947.
  45. See Friedrich Theodor Vischer's Shakespeare Lectures. 2nd Edition. Stuttgart / Berlin 1905, p. 2: “The Germans are now used to seeing Shakespeare as one of ours. [...] Without being ungrateful to England, which gave us this greatest of all poets, we can say it with pride: that the German spirit first recognized Shakespeare's nature more deeply. He also freed the English from the old prejudice that Shakespeare was a wild genius. "
  46. ^ Rolf Badenhausen : Laudation for the exhibition Shakespeare and the German Theater in Heidelberg Castle, June 6 - October 11, 1964 (exhibition in Bochum: April 23 - May 10). Digitized manuscript (excerpt): https://www.badenhausen.net/dr_rolfb/manuscripts/rbi_lec-229_HD1964-6.pdf Introduction in the exhibition catalog (p. 7–8): https://www.badenhausen.net/dr_rolfb/ manuscripts / rbi_intro-229_sp1964-04.pdf
  47. ^ Lutz D. Schmadel : Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . Fifth Revised and Enlarged Edition. Ed .: Lutz D. Schmadel. 5th edition. Springer Verlag , Berlin / Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 3-540-29925-4 , pp. 186 (English, 992 pp., Link.springer.com [ONLINE; accessed on September 28, 2019] Original title: Dictionary of Minor Planet Names . First edition: Springer Verlag, Berlin / Heidelberg 1992): “1983 TV 1 . Discovered 1983 Oct. 12 by E. Bowell at Anderson Mesa. "
  48. ^ Paul Werstine: Shakespeare More or Less: AW Pollard and Twentieth-Century Shakespeare Editing. In: Florilegium. Volume 16, 1999, pp. 125-145.
  49. Christa Jansohn: Doubtful Shakespeare. On the Shakespeare apocrypha and their reception from the Renaissance to the 20th century . (= Studies on English Literature. Volume 11). Lit, Münster u. a. 2000.
  50. ^ Brian Vickers: Shakespeare, co-author. A historical study of five collaborative plays . Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford et al. a. 2004.