|Nurhaci proclaims the Qing Dynasty in China .||William Shakespeare dies in Stratford-upon-Avon .|
are executed on the Frankfurt Rossmarkt.
|1616 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1064/65 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1608/09 (September 10/11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1021/22 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2159/60 (southern Buddhism); 2158/59 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||978/979 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3949/50 (2-3 October)|
|Islamic calendar||1024/25 (turn of the year 19/20 January)|
|Jewish calendar||5376/77 (September 11/22)|
|Coptic calendar||1332/33 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1926/27 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1927/28 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1672/73 (April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
After a protracted trial of the Fettmilch uprising of 1614 in the Free Imperial City of Frankfurt am Main , which lasted almost the whole of 1615 , Vinzenz Fettmilch and a total of 38 co-defendants were not directly convicted of the excesses against the Jews , but of crimes against majesty , as they were the orders of the Have disregarded the Kaisers. Seven of them will be sentenced to death, which will be carried out on February 28 on Frankfurt's Rossmarkt . Before being beheaded, the convicts are knocked off the oath's fingers, and fat milk is quartered after his execution. The heads of Vinzenz Fettmilch, Konrad Gerngroß, Konrad Schopp and Georg Ebel are impaled on the Frankfurt bridge tower, Fettmilch's house in Töngesgasse is torn down and a pillar of shame is erected in its place , which records his crimes in German and Latin. After the executions, which dragged on for several hours with the reading of the judgments, an imperial mandate was announced, which ordered the reinstatement of the Jews expelled in August 1614 to their old rights. On the same day, the Jews, who until then had mostly found refuge in Höchst and Hanau , are brought back to the Judengasse in a solemn procession . An imperial eagle with the inscription Roman imperial majesty and the holy empire protection is attached to the gate .
- In Bavaria , public and private law is codified by the Bavarian land law, which is not repealed until the Codex Maximilianeus Bavaricus Civilis in 1756.
Other events in Europe
- March 12th: The Gardes suisses are founded in France .
- March 19: Sir Walter Raleigh is released from the Tower of London after thirteen years in prison .
- With the Marsalforn Tower , the fifth of the Wignacourt Towers is being built on Malta under the rule of Grand Master Alof de Wignacourt to defend the island.
- January 12th: The Portuguese captain Francisco Caldeira Castelo founds the Forte do Presépio on the Baía de Guajará, the confluence of the Rio Guamá into the Rio Pará and the Bay of Marajó in Brazil , with the aim of defending the region against attempts at conquest by the British, Defend French and Dutch.
- Medellín , now the second largest city in Colombia, is founded by Francisco Herrera Campuzano .
Voyages of discovery
- January 29th: The Dutch sailors Jacob Le Maire and Willem Cornelisz Schouten reached the Pacific for the first time on their way around Cape Horn . As a result, they are the first Europeans to set foot on the island of Tonga .
- July 5th: After crossing Baffin Bay , later named after him, William Baffin discovers the entrance to Smithsund , which is blocked by solid ice.
- July 10: Robert Bylot and William Baffin , while searching for the Northwest Passage, discover the entrance to Jonessund , which they believe to be a bay .
- October 25th: After going ashore on an island in Shark Bay that was later named after him, the Dutch navigator Dirk Hartog entered Australia as the second European after Willem Jansz .
- The Manchu tribal prince Nurhaci proclaims the Ching dynasty and makes himself its first emperor with the later temple name Tàizǔ.
- Shabdrung Ngawang Namgyel unites several previously independent principalities and thus founds Bhutan .
- The first Danish East India Company is founded.
science and technology
- March 5th: The Holy Office of the Roman Inquisition forbids the book by Nicolaus Copernicus De revolutionibus orbium coelestium , published in 1543, with its heliocentric view of the world .
- John Smith publishes a description of his voyages of discovery in North America, in which he first used the name New England .
- The Jesuit priest Nicolaus Zucchius developed the first reflector telescope .
- In his Machinae Novae , Fausto Veranzio developed a parachute design inspired by Leonardo da Vinci .
- Duke August von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel publishes his book Das Schach- oder König-Spiel under the pseudonym Gustavus Selenus . It is the first German-language textbook on chess .
- The German town of Ströbeck is first handed down as a chess-crazy village.
- The alchemist Johann Valentin Andreae published the text Chymische Hochzeit Christiani Rosenkreuz anno 1459 .
- Artemisia Gentileschi is the first woman to be admitted to the Accademia di Belle Arti in Florence .
Date of birth saved
- Caspar Aman , court controller at the imperial court in Vienna († 1699) January 3:
- January 17: Bartholomäus Anhorn , Swiss pastor and historian († 1700)
- January 27: Christen Aagaard , Danish poet († 1664)
- Sophie Elisabeth of Brandenburg , Duchess of Saxony-Altenburg († 1650) February 1:
- Sébastien Bourdon , French painter († 1671) February 2:
- February 17: Matthias Abele von und zu Lilienberg , Austrian lawyer and writer († 1677)
- March 11: Johannes Brever , German Lutheran theologian († 1700)
- Christian Günther II , Prince of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen zu Arnstadt († 1666) April 1:
- Friedrich von Pfalz-Zweibrücken , Count Palatine and Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken († 1661) April 5:
- April 16: Trijntje Keever , largest woman in the world ever measured († 1633)
- April 19: Ludwig IV , Duke of Liegnitz († 1663)
- Heinrich Cosel , Bohemian jurist († 1657) May 3:
- May 18: Johann Jakob Froberger , German composer and organist († 1667)
- May 25: Carlo Dolci , Italian painter († 1686)
- François de Bourbon-Vendôme , Duke of Beaufort, Peer of France († 1669) June 6:
- June 24th: Philipp , Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen († 1671)
- Shah Shuja , son of the Indian Grand Mogul Shah Jahan († 1660) July 3:
- July 10: Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra , Spanish painter and sculptor († 1668)
- August 24: Johannes Choinan , Sorbian linguist and theologian († 1664)
- September 14th: Philips Angel van Middelburg , Dutch still life painter († 1683)
- September 25: Alexander More , French-Scottish Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1670)
- Andreas Gryphius (actually Greif), Silesian poet († 1664) October 2:
- October 21: Camillo Astalli , Archbishop of Catania, Cardinal Chamberlain of the Holy Roman Church († 1663)
- November 19: Eustache Le Sueur , French painter († 1655)
- John Wallis , English mathematician († 1703) December 3:
- December 17th: Roger L'Estrange , English pamphlet writer, author and devoted defender of royalty († 1704)
- December 21: Pietro Andrea Ziani , Italian organist and composer († 1684)
- December 25: Christian Hofmann von Hofmannswaldau , German-Silesian poet and epigrammatist, politician and diplomat († 1679)
Exact date of birth unknown
- June: John Thurloe , head of the English secret service under Oliver Cromwell († 1668)
First half of the year
- January 14th: Theodor Riphan , auxiliary bishop in Cologne (* 1577)
- January 15: Simeon Bekbulatowitsch , Khan of Kasimov and Grand Duke of Russia
- January 18: Karl , Count von Arenberg (* 1550)
- January 20: Melchior Eckhart , German Protestant theologian (* 1555)
- February 21: Alphons Rodriguez , Catholic priest (* 1526)
- February 23: Matthia Ferrabosco , Italian composer (* 1550)
- February 28: Vinzenz Fettmilch , Frankfurt clerk and gingerbread baker, leader of the Fettmilch Uprising (* between 1565 and 1570)
- Matthias de L'Obel , botanist and personal physician to James I of England, namesake of the Lobelia (lobelia plant genus) (* 1538) March 3:
- Francis Beaumont , English playwright (* 1584) March 6:
- Maria Anna of Bavaria , Archduchess of Austria (* 1574) March 8:
- March 20: Augustin Haffner , Mayor of Vienna (* around 1550)
- March 31: Johann Adolf , Protestant Prince-Bishop of Lübeck, Bishop of Bremen and Hamburg and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (* 1575)
- Pompeio Arrigoni , Italian cardinal (* 1552) April 4:
- Jacob Lucius the Younger , German printer (* around 1570) April 9:
- April 22: Miguel de Cervantes , Spanish author (Don Quixote) (* 1547)
- April 23: Inca Garcilaso de la Vega , Peruvian writer (* 1539)
- William Shakespeare , English playwright, poet and actor (* 1564) May 3:
- May 12: Urban Pierius , German Protestant theologian (* 1546)
- May 18: Kanō Naizen , Japanese painter (* 1570)
- May 24th: Margaret Russell , English nobleman and alchemist (* 1560)
- between May 24th and 31st: Thomas Parry , English politician (* 1544)
- Tokugawa Ieyasu , Japanese general, Shogun and one of the "three unifiers" (* 1543) June 1st:
- June 11: Johannes Wanckel , German historian (* 1553)
- June 30th: Sebastian Abesser , electoral and princely Saxon master game and hunter (* 1559)
Second half of the year
- Philipp Hahn , German Lutheran theologian (* 1558) July 6:
- Anna of Württemberg , Duchess of Wohlau, Duchess of Ohlau and Duchess of Liegnitz (* 1561) July 7th:
- July 13th: Peter Tilicki , Bishop of Kulm, Warmia, Kujawy and Krakow (* 1543)
- July 20: Aodh Mór Ó Néill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone , head of the Irish clan (* around 1540)
- July 25: Andreas Libavius , German polymath and alchemist (* 1555)
- July 28th: Adrien d'Amboise , French chaplain and Bishop of Tréguier (* 1551)
- July 29: Christian Friis , Danish statesman (* 1556)
- July 29th: Tang Xianzu , Chinese playwright (* 1550)
- Hans Meinhard von Schönberg , Elector Palatinate and Elector Brandenburg Field Brister and court master of the Elector Palatinate (* 1582) August 3:
- Wilhelm von Efferen , Prince-Bishop of Worms (* 1563) August 7th:
- Vincenzo Scamozzi , Italian architect (* 1548) August 7th:
- Cornelis Ketel , Dutch architect, sculptor and painter (* 1548) August 8:
- August 23: Hans von Schweinichen , German writer (* 1552)
- September 13: Anna Fugger , Swabian noblewoman (* 1584)
- September 13: Heinrich Hagemeister , Mayor of Stralsund (* 1549)
- September 29: Karl Ludwig zu Sulz , Imperial Feldzeugmeister and President of the Court War Council (* 1560)
- Ernst Hettenbach , German physicist and medic (* 1552) October 2:
- October 10: Maria von Oranien-Nassau , Countess of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (* 1556)
- October 23: Richard Hakluyt , English geographer and writer (* around 1552)
- October 23: Leonhard Hutter , Lutheran theologian (* 1563)
- October 27: Johann Richter , German astronomer, mathematician and instrument maker (* 1537)
- Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt , Electress of Saxony and Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (* 1573) November 3:
- November 14th: Johannes Krabbe , German cartographer, astrologer, astronomer, geometer and instrument maker (* 1553)
- before December 10th: Georg Leopold Fuhrmann , Nuremberg printer, music publisher, bookseller, engraver and lutenist (* 1578)
- December 10: Diogo de Couto , Portuguese historian (* around 1542)
- 24./26. December: Georg Thurzo , Hungarian-Slovak nobleman, Palatine of Hungary (* 1567)
- December 31: Oswald Gabelkover , German doctor, heraldist and historian (* 1539)
- December: Jacob Le Maire , Dutch navigator (* 1585)