Vincenzo Scamozzi

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Vincenzo Scamozzi, portrait by Paolo Veronese

Vincenzo Scamozzi (born September 2, 1548 in Vicenza , † August 7, 1616 in Venice ) was an Italian architect and architectural theorist of the late Renaissance and Mannerism .

life and work

Monument to Vincenzo Scamozzi

Scamozzi was the son of the carpenter and builder Giandomenico Scamozzi (1526–1582), from whom he received his first training. Together with his father, he initially carried out various construction and villa projects in the Vicenza area . From 1572 he stayed in Venice, where he studied the writings of Vitruvius in the annotated edition of the Patriarch of Aquileia , Daniele Barbaro .

Scamozzi's plan for Salzburg Cathedral, floor plan ( Salzburg Museum )

From 1578 to 1580 he traveled to Naples and Rome. His architectural studies in Rome formed the basis for his book about the antiquities in Rome of 1582. In 1580, shortly before Palladio's death , he settled in Venice, but he did not succeed there in achieving a similarly high level of prestige in the republic reach like Palladio. Scamozzi, whose architectural work is inconceivable without Palladio's example, completed some of Palladio's unfinished buildings, such as B. the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza. In 1599 he traveled to Prague, Germany and Paris and returned to Venice in 1600. In 1593, the Serenissima began building the fortress town of Palmanova near Udine , for which Scamozzi probably built the three main gates between 1603 and 1605, based on the model of the gates built by Michele Sanmicheli in Verona.

In 1604 he traveled to Salzburg . After the fire in the Romanesque cathedral in 1598 , Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau had the ruins pulled down together with 55 houses to make room for a new cathedral . Scamozzi drafted a plan for the new building, which, however, was only implemented in a greatly reduced and modified form by the master builder Santino Solari .

His architectural masterpiece is the Villa Pisani , called La rocca , in Lonigo near Vicenza, which he built when he was 26 years old. Although his plans were based on Palladio's Villa Rotonda, which was still under construction , he modified its design. While the Rotonda is designed as a central building with a uniform alignment on four sides, Scamozzi only emphasizes the southern front of the villa with a column with a gable and staircase, while the centers of the other sides are each marked by a serliana . The center of the system is a round domed room with steep diagonal niches. The ancillary rooms around the hall are subordinate to the domed hall and not, as in the Rotonda, part of an overall concept based on harmony.

For Scamozzi, the art of architecture, to which he had dedicated his life, was an exact science, the rules of which should be studied with devotion and passion.

Floor plan and elevation studies of the theater building in Sabbioneta

He embodied both the type of a technically excellently trained modern architect and that of a versatile scholar of the Italian Renaissance. He owned a remarkable personal library from various fields of science, from mathematics to physics, and wrote a work on architecture that could be described as a standard book for future architects. Some of his buildings were innovative for architecture: the Statuario della Repubblica di Venezia , designed and built by him between 1591 and 1593, is considered the first museum building in Europe. His theater in Sabbioneta near Mantua is the first fully planned theater building that was built according to the needs of the current theatrical art of its time.

The Scamozzi Foundation

Scamozzi was unmarried and had no children. He bequeathed his fortune to a foundation that was supposed to help gifted students to study architecture. The only condition of the scholarship was that the students had to accept the name of the founder. Two centuries later, for example, Ottavio Bertotti-Scamozzi (1719–1790), the leading architect of neo- Palladianism in Italy, was able to study with the help of this foundation.

The relationship with Palladio

“As a young man around the time the Villa Rotonda was built, he did an apprenticeship with Palladio. However, Scamozzi, a kind of child prodigy, did not remain a student of Palladio for long, but soon went into business for himself ... According to Inigo Jones , who met 65-year-old Scamozzi in Venice, the architect was bitter towards his former master. ... Scamozzi was an educated man and considered himself socially and spiritually superior to Palladio, whose reputation, despite his remarkable achievements, never came close to his own. "


  • Discorsi sopra le antichità di Roma. 1582 . Milan 1991.
  • L'idea della architettura universale . 6 books published in Venice in 1615 . Bologna 1982.

The work is the last of a series of theoretical Renaissance writings on architecture. Scamozzi was the first to mention buildings from the Middle Ages in addition to buildings from antiquity and the Renaissance. For a long time, his architectural strategy was considered to be a basic work for architects, especially in Central Europe.


  • Villa di Girolamo Ferramosca, Barbano di Grisignano di Zocco (Vicenza) ( with Giandomenico Scamozzi ), 1568–1575
  • Palazzo Godi, Vicenza , ( design, carried out posthumously ), 1569
  • Palazzo Thiene-Bonin, Vicenza, 1572–1593
  • Villa di Leonardo Verlato, Villaverla (Vicenza), 1574–1615
  • Palazzo Caldogno, Vicenza, 1575
  • Villa Pisani called La Rocca in Lonigo (Vicenza), 1575–1578
  • Palazzo Trissino-Trento (for Pierfrancesco Trissino), Vicenza ( with Giandomenico Scamozzi ), 1576–1579
  • Villa of Francesco Priuli, Castelfranco Veneto , ( Treviso ), ( north wing ), 1580
  • Villa Nani Mocenigo in Canda ( Rovigo ) 1580–1584
  • Villa Capra called La Rotonda , Vicenza ( Scamozzi completed the construction of Palladio ), 1580–1592
  • San Gaetano Thiene, Padua, 1581–1586
  • New Prokuratien , Piazza San Marco, Venice ( continued by Francesco Smeraldi and completed in 1663 by Baldassare Longhena ), 1581–1599
  • Biblioteca Marciana ( completion based on the designs by Jacopo Sansovino ); 1582-1591; Reception hall 1587–1596
  • Teatro Olimpico , Vicenza, ( completion of Andrea Palladio's theater by Scamozzi; auditorium and stage ) 1584–1585
  • Teatro Olimpico ( for Duke Vespasiano Gonzaga based on the model of the Teatro Olimpico in Vicenza ), Sabbioneta near (Mantua), 1588
  • Palazzo Duodo, Venice, 1592
  • Girolamo Contarini's villa, Loreggia (Padua), 1590
  • Church of San Nicolò da Tolentino, Venice, 1590–1595
  • Statuario della Repubblica di Venezia, museum building, 1591–1593
  • San Gaetano Thiene Monastery, Padua, 1591–1594
  • Villa Duodo e Cappella di San Giorgio, Monselice (Padua), 1591–1597
  • Villa of Valerio Bardellini, Monfumo (Treviso) ( destroyed ), 1594–1600
  • Villa of Girolamo Ferretti on the Brenta , 1596
  • Villa of Girolamo Cornaro, Piombino Dese, (Padua) 1596–1597
  • Villa of Nicolò Molin, Mandria, Padua, 1597
  • Prince Archbishop Salzburg Residence , Salzburg , 1603/1604
  • Sacristy door in the Church of Santi Giovanni e Paolo , Venice, with Alessandro Vittoria , 1605
  • San Giorgio Maggiore Church , Venice ( facade ), 1607–1611
  • Villa Cornaro al Paradiso, Venice, 1607–1616, ( pavilions )
  • Villa of Domenico Trevisan, San Donà di Piave (Padua), 1609
  • Palazzo Contarini (degli Scrigni) a San Trovaso on the Grand Canal , Venice, 1609–1616
  • Palazzo Loredan Vendramin, Venice ( east wing; destroyed in 1659 and rebuilt in 1660 ), 1614


  • Rainald Franz: Vincenzo Scamozzi. (1548-1616). The successor and finisher of Palladio (= studies on international architecture and art history. Vol. 3). Imhof, Peterberg 1999, ISBN 3-932526-21-X (also: Vienna, University, dissertation, 1996).
  • Walter Schlegel : Construction work by Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau (1587–1612). In: Austrian magazine for art and monument preservation. Vol. 63, No. 1/2, 2009, ISSN  0029-9626 , pp. 27-51.
  • Clemens Standl: The court arch building of the Salzburg Residence. In: Austrian magazine for art and monument preservation. Vol. 65, No. 4, 2012, pp. 344-361.

Web links

Commons : Vincenzo Scamozzi  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Vincenzo Scamozzi  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Witold Rybczynski : The perfect house.