Philip III becomes King of Spain and, as Philip II,
King of Portugal .
Henry IV of France signs the
Edict of Nantes .
Pons Aemilius in Rome
is largely destroyed when the Tiber floods .
|1598 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1046/47 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1590/91 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1003/1004 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2141/42 (southern Buddhism); 2140/41 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||960/961 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3931/32 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1006/07 (turn of the year 3rd / 4th August)|
|Jewish calendar||5358/59 (September 30th / October 1st)|
|Coptic calendar||1314/15 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1908/09 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1909/10 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1654/55 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
France / Spain / Portugal / Netherlands
- April 13 : The French King Henry IV signs the Edict of Nantes . It guarantees the Huguenots in France tolerance and civil rights, but fixes Catholicism as the state religion .
- May 2nd : The Treaty of Vervins is concluded between France and Spain . This ended the Eighth Huguenot War , the longest of the Huguenot Wars at 13 years .
- September 13th : Philip II of Spain and Portugal dies at the age of 71 in El Escorial in Madrid . His son Philip III. will be his successor. With him the decline of the Spanish empire begins . He places the government in the hands of favorites, above all Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas .
- 9. bis 14. October : The Siege of Rheinberg ends with the capture of the city by the Spanish. The Spanish winter of 1598/99 began .
Holy Roman Empire
- March 29 : The Habsburg troops under Adolf von Schwarzenberg succeed in recapturing the fortresses of Raab and Veszprém from the Ottomans in the Long Turkish War . On the order of Emperor Rudolf II , several Raaber Crosses were erected.
- The Diocese of Havelberg is secularized and united with the Electorate of Brandenburg .
- January 17th : After the end of the House of Rurik after the death of Fyodor I , Tsar Boris Godunov takes power in Russia . The " time of turmoil " begins .
- September 1st : Boris Godunov is crowned Tsar of Russia .
England / Ireland
- August 14 : In the Battle of Yellow Ford , during the Nine Years' War, the English are defeated by Irish rebel forces under Hugh O'Neill and Hugh Roe O'Donnell .
- September 25th : The Polish King Sigismund III. While trying to regain control of Sweden , Wasa is defeated by the Swedish ruler Karl Wasa in the Battle of Stångebro . This effectively ends the personal union between Poland-Lithuania and Sweden.
The Persian Shah Abbas I from the house of the Safavids moves his capital from Qazvin to Isfahan . Since his residence is to become an important center of trade, culture and religion, he brings together thousands of artists, craftsmen and traders from all over the country with the task of redesigning the oasis on the edge of the Zagros Mountains in the middle of the salt desert according to the ideas of paradise of Islam .
- After the death of Toyotomi Hideyoshi , the Council of Five Regents takes power, nominally until his son Toyotomi Hideyori comes of age .
- December 21 : The rebel Mapuche, led by war chief Pelantaro , defeat Spanish governor Martín García Óñez de Loyola and his soldiers in the battle of Curalaba in Chile .
- The Admiral van Warwick took possession of an island in the Indian Ocean for the Netherlands and named it Mauritius .
- January 13 : The London Stalhof of the Hanseatic League is closed on the instructions of Queen Elizabeth I and all goods are confiscated. It is a reaction to the closure of the Merchant Adventurer branch in Stade by Emperor Rudolf II.
- The first opera in music history, La Dafne by Jacopo Peri and Jacopo Corsi , is premiered.
- The first surviving edition of William Shakespeare's comedy Love's Labor's Lost appears, but it is probably preceded by a bad quarto . With the satirical " Honorificabilitudinitatibus " it contains the longest word of all Shakespeare's works.
- The Dutch engraver Jakob Matham produced the work The Sperm Whale stranded near Katwijk on February 3, 1598 .
Under the pen name of his son John Scultetus published Anton Praetorius , pastor in Laudenbach in the Palatinate, against witch hunt directed magazine From Zauberey vnd wizards Thorough report . With arguments from the Bible, he distances himself from Calvin and Luther's calls to burn the witches and calls for the abolition of torture.
- Archduke Albrecht VII of Habsburg resigns from his office as Archbishop of Toledo . Garcia de Loaysa Giron is his successor .
- May 13 : In an outbreak of Japanese volcano Asama are killed on the summit of 800 pilgrims.
- August: Floods, including on the Salzach (see History of the City of Burghausen # Early Modern Times ), Inn and Danube
- August 24 : landslide in Wartha
- December 24th : A flood of the Tiber largely destroys the 174 BC. Chr. Originating Pons Aemilius , the oldest stone bridge in Rome .
Date of birth saved
- February 19 : Johann Rudolf Philipp Forer , Swiss Protestant clergyman († 1666 )
- February 23 : Vincent Voiture , French poet and writer († 1648 )
- March 18 : Anna Sophia , Princess of Brandenburg, Duchess of Braunschweig and Lüneburg and Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel († 1659 )
- March 19 : Wilhelm Ulrich Romanus , German legal scholar († 1627 )
- March 26 : Johann von Waldburg , Prince-Bishop of Konstanz († 1644 )
- April 5 : Anna Elisabeth , Princess of Anhalt-Dessau and Countess of Bentheim-Steinfurt († 1660 )
- April 17 : Giovanni Riccioli , Italian astronomer († 1671 )
- April 19 : Johann Crüger , German composer († 1662 )
- April 21 : Wilhelm IV , Duke of Saxe-Weimar († 1662 )
- April 23 : Maarten Tromp , Dutch admiral († 1653 )
- May 14 : Wilhelm von Curti , English diplomat († 1678 )
- June 3 : Ortolph Fomann the Younger , German historian and legal scholar († 1640 )
- June 6 : Johannes Müller , German Lutheran theologian († 1672 )
- July 31 : Alessandro Algardi , Italian sculptor and builder († 1654 )
- September 3 : Christian I , Count Palatine of Bischweiler († 1654 )
- September 23 : Eleonora Gonzaga , youngest daughter of Vincenzo I Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua and Montferrat († 1655 )
- October 3 : Laurids Pedersen Thura , Danish orientalist, educator and pastor († 1655 )
- October 31 : Franz Albert von Sachsen-Lauenburg , important general in the Thirty Years War († 1642 )
- December 7th : Gian Lorenzo Bernini , Italian sculptor and builder († 1680 )
- December 22nd : Henri de La Trémoille , Duke of Thouars († 1674 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johann Carl Aichbühel , Rector of the University of Vienna († 1658 )
- John Atherton , English bishop († 1640 )
- Giovanni Battista Fasolo , Italian organist, conductor and composer († before 1680)
- Ralph Hopton, 1st Baron Hopton , loyal commander in the English Civil War († 1652 )
- Yoshida Mitsuyoshi , Japanese mathematician († 1672 )
Date of death secured
- January 13 : Reichard , Count Palatine and Duke of Simmern (* 1521 )
- January 17th : Fyodor I , Tsar of Russia (* 1557 )
- January 18 : Johann Georg , Elector of Brandenburg (* 1525 )
- February 4th : Abdullah II , Prince of the Uzbeks (* 1533 )
- February 10 : Anna , Archduchess of Austria, Queen of Poland, Grand Duchess of Lithuania and Queen of Sweden (* 1573 )
- February 25 : Paul von Eitzen , German theologian and reformer (* 1521 )
- February 27 : Friedrich Dedekind , German writer and theologian (* 1525 )
- March 5 : Lucas Maius , German Protestant theologian and playwright (* 1522 )
- April 8 : Ludwig Helmbold , Lutheran hymn poet (* 1532 )
- June 25 : Giacomo Gaggini , Sicilian sculptor (* 1517 )
- July 31 : Petrus Albinus , professor in Wittenberg and founder of Saxon historiography (* 1543 )
- August 4th : William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley , English politician (* 1521 )
- August 7th : Johann Latomus , German canon and chronicler (* 1524 )
- August 9 : Andreas Angelus , German pastor, inspector and chronicler (* 1561 )
- September 13 : Philip II , King of Spain and, as Philip I, King of Portugal, son of Charles V (* 1527 )
- September 18 : Toyotomi Hideyoshi , Japanese general and politician (* 1537 )
- September 23 : Jacques Mahu , Dutch explorer (* 1564 )
- September 30th : Wilhelm I , Count of Schwarzburg-Frankenhausen (* 1534 )
- October 11th : Joachim Camerarius the Younger , German doctor, botanist and naturalist (* 1534 )
- October 11 : Wirich VI. von Daun-Falkenstein , German statesman and diplomat, promoter of the Reformation (* around 1542 )
- November 25th : Petrus Calaminus , German Protestant theologian (* 1556 )
- December 15 : Philips van Marnix , Dutch writer and politician (* 1540 )
- December 16 : Yi Sun-sin , Korean military leader and admiral (* 1545 )
- December 23 : Martín García Óñez de Loyola , Spanish nobleman and governor of Chile (* around 1549 )
- December 31 : Heinrich Rantzau , Danish governor (produx cimbricus) of the royal share of Schleswig-Holstein (* 1526 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Benedictus Arias Montanus , Spanish theologian and orientalist (* 1527 )
- Niccolò Circignani , called il Pomarancio , Italian painter (* approx. 1530 )
- Adrian Le Roy , French lutenist, music publisher and composer (* around 1520 )