Calendar overview 1599
Karl Wasa becomes
imperial administrator of Sweden .
Enno III. becomes
Count of East Friesland .
|Cahir Castle is conquered by the English under Robert Devereux during the Nine Years War in Ireland .|
|1599 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1047/48 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1591/92 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1004/05 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2142/43 (southern Buddhism); 2141/42 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||961/962 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3932/33 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1007/08 (turn of the year 23/24 July)|
|Jewish calendar||5359/60 (September 19-20)|
|Coptic calendar||1315/16 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1909/10 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1910/11 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1655/56 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Nine Years War
- April: Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex , Lord Lieutenant of Ireland , arrives in Dublin with a large English army during the Nine Years War , but for the time being avoids a direct confrontation with the Irish troops of Hugh O'Neill . Instead, he goes on forays into the province of Munster . On May 25th, he begins the siege of Cahir Castle , which ends after five days with the capture of the castle.
- August 15 : The Irish rebels win the Battle of Curlew Pass . After this victory there has been an increased rate of deserters of Irish soldiers in the ranks of the English army. A little later Devereux concludes an armistice with Hugh O'Neill against the will of the English government of Elizabeth I.
- On September 24 Robert Devereux Ireland leaves and reached on 28 September London. After an interrogation by the Privy Council , he is placed under house arrest for ten months.
Other events in Europe
- October 28 : Michael the Brave , Prince of Wallachia , wins as an ally of the Habsburgs during the Langen Turkish war in Şelimbăr a victory against the Ottoman Empire allied Andrei Bathory , who briefly the country's sovereignty over Transylvania from his cousin Sigismund Báthory took over. Subsequently, he unites Transylvania with Wallachia - against the will of the Habsburg allies.
- The Swedish Reichstag sets King Sigismund III. Wasa off. His successor - initially as imperial administrator - is Charles IX. , which was only crowned in 1607 after some discussions.
- With the Gera house contract , the succession in the Mark Brandenburg and in the Franconian areas of the Hohenzollern is regulated binding.
- With English support, Shah Abbas I reformed the Persian army.
- The Burmese capital, Pegu , is captured and sacked by Arakan's troops and Portuguese mercenaries. In the following 14 years, Burma remained without a single sovereignty.
Voyages of discovery
- The Dutchman Dirck Gerritz Pomp reportedly discovered the South Shetland Islands as the first country in the southern polar region.
- March 22nd : Freudenstadt is founded by Duke Friedrich I of Württemberg as a planned royal seat .
- December 25th : Portuguese found the city of Natal in Brazil , which was built around the Forte dos Reis Magos , which was built in the previous year .
- Duke Heinrich Julius of Braunschweig and Lüneburg , Prince of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , used the so-called Mückentaler as a means of propaganda .
- In Innsbruck is Grassmayr bell foundry founded.
science and technology
- Federico Baldissera Bartolomeo Cornaro founds the Academia dei Ricovrati together with 25 scholars, including Galileo Galilei , in his home in Venice . Based on the model of the Platonic Academy , the educational institution, inspired by Renaissance humanism , wants to bring together outstanding personalities from society, art, natural sciences and humanities for a fruitful exchange.
- Peter Lowe founds the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow with royal approval .
- Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio paints the martyrdom of St. Matthew . The early Baroque work was commissioned by the church for the Contarelli Chapel of the Church of San Luigi dei Francesi in Rome . The work and the two other paintings in the Contarelli Chapel caused a sensation when they were unveiled and contributed to Caravaggio receiving numerous lucrative commissions over the next few years.
Music and theater
- to the October 15 : The by William Shakespeare rival theater company the Lord Chamberlain's Men , the piece lead The Life of Sir John Oldcastle by Anthony Munday and Michael Drayton the first time. The play is a reaction to Shakespeare's drama Henry IV , in which the historical John Oldcastle appears alienated as the character Falstaff , who is characterized by his addiction to drink and eat.
- The Globe Theater and Fortune Playhouse in London are built.
- William Shakespeare writes the comedy Much Ado About Nothing .
- Philipp Nicolai publishes the book Joy Mirror of Eternal Life , which includes the hymn Wachet, calls us the voice in the appendix .
- around 1599: William Shakespeare's drama Heinrich V has its world premiere. The very nationalistic piece contains, among other things, the famous St. Crispins Day speech .
- September 11 : The patrician Beatrice Cenci is executed together with her stepmother Lucrezia and her brother Giacomo for inciting the murder of their father after Pope Clement VIII refused a pardon despite the intervention of numerous high-ranking personalities.
- February 22nd : After almost a year in office, Garcia de Loaysa Giron , Archbishop of Toledo, dies . Under the influence of the Spanish First Minister Francisco Gómez de Sandoval y Rojas , Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas is appointed as his successor.
- June 13 : Heinrich V. von Knöringen succeeds Johann Otto von Gemmingen, who died the previous year, as Bishop of Augsburg .
- June 20 to 26 : At the Synod of Diamper , convened by the Catholic Archbishop Aleixo de Menezes in Udayampur in today's Indian state of Kerala , resolutions are passed on the complete classification of the Thomas Christians, who have lived in South India since apostolic times, under the Latin rite of the Catholic Church . The Synod or its decisions are never confirmed by Rome.
- November 7 : With the mediation of the Dutch States General concluded coming in Emden concordats between Count Enno III. and the East Frisian estates recognized the reformed as equal alongside the Lutheran creed in East Frisia .
- Order General Claudio Acquaviva issues the Ratio Studiorum , which regulates the teaching system in the Jesuit order.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 26th : Heinrich Rantzau the Younger , grandson of the governor Heinrich, known from his trip to the Orient († 1674 )
- January 30 : Hans Georg von Schleinitz , German administrative officer and occasional poet († 1666 )
- February 12 : Friedrich , Duke of Saxony-Altenburg and Duke of Jülich-Kleve-Berg († 1625 )
- February 13 : Fabio Chigi, as Alexander VII Pope of the Catholic Church († 1667 )
- February 21 : Giovanni Battista Vanni , Italian painter and etcher († 1660 )
- June 6 : Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez , Spanish painter († 1660 )
- July 7th : Johann Zeisold , German physicist († 1667 )
Second half of the year
- July 22nd : Hans Conrad Gyger , Swiss cartographer and engineer († 1674 )
- July 23 : Stephan Hansen Stephanius , Danish philologist and historian († 1650 )
- July 27 : Albrecht , Duke of Saxony-Eisenach († 1644 )
- August 16 : Diego López de Pacheco Cabrera y Bobadilla , Viceroy of New Spain and Viceroy of Navarre († 1653 )
- August 27 : Francisco López de Zúñiga y Meneses , Spanish officer and governor of Chile († 1655 )
- September 2 : David Auerbach , German theologian († 1647 )
- September 11 : Gottfried Cundisius , German Lutheran theologian († 1651 )
- September 20 : Christian von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , general in the Thirty Years War († 1626 )
- September 25 : Francesco Borromini , Italian builder († 1667 )
- October 11 : Abraham de Fabert , French general and military engineer, Marshal of France († 1662 )
- October 15 : Cornelis de Graeff , regent and mayor of Amsterdam († 1664 )
- November 11th : Octavio Piccolomini , a general of Wallenstein during the Thirty Years War and the commander of his bodyguard († 1656 )
- November 15 : Werner Rolfinck , German doctor, natural scientist and botanist († 1673 )
- November 30th : Andrea Sacchi , Italian painter († 1661 )
- November: Edward Reynolds , Bishop of Norwich († 1676 )
- December 11 : Pieter Codde , Dutch painter († 1678 )
- December 12 : Johannes Hornschuch , German philologist and educator († 1663 )
- December 28 : Gabriel Bucelinus , German Benedictine, humanist and polymath († 1681 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Pedro Abaunza , Spanish scholar († 1649 )
- Giacinto Cornacchioli , Italian composer, singer and organist († 1673 )
- Lion Gardiner , English officer († 1663 )
- Prasat Thong , King of the Siamese Kingdom of Ayutthaya († 1656 )
First half of the year
- January 13 : Edmund Spenser , English poet and contemporary of William Shakespeare (* 1552 )
- January 21 : Anton , Count of Holstein-Schaumburg and Bishop of Minden (* 1549 )
- March 1 : Edzard II , Count of East Friesland (* 1532 )
- March 9th : Detlev von Ahlefeldt , gentleman on Osterrade and Haseldorf
- March 17th : Gaspard de Schomberg , Electoral Saxon officer in French service (* 1540 )
- April 10 : Gabrielle d'Estrées , the mistress of Henry IV of France (* 1570 )
- April 28 : Josias Marcus , German legal scholar and civil servant (* 1524 )
- June 2 : Philipp V of Hanau-Lichtenberg , Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg (* 1541 )
- June 5 : Josua Maaler , Swiss pastor and lexicographer (* 1529 )
- June 21 : Bernhard IV. Von Angelach-Angelach , German Imperial Knight (* 1532 )
Second half of the year
- August 3 : Elisabeth Strupp , victim of the witch persecution in Gelnhausen
- August 10 : Johann Münch , German legal scholar (* 1536 )
- August 22nd : Luca Marenzio , Italian composer (* 1554 )
- September 1 : Cornelis de Houtman , Dutch navigator (* 1565 )
- September 11th : Beatrice Cenci , Roman patrician (* 1577 )
- October 18 : Daniel Adam z Veleslavína , Bohemian writer, historian and publisher (* 1546 )
- October 31 : Andreas Báthory , Bishop of Warmia and Prince of Transylvania (* 1563 )
- December: Thomas Byng , English lawyer (* before 1552)
Exact date of death unknown
- Wendel Dietterlin , German painter, master builder and building theorist (* around 1550 )
- Margaretha von der Marck-Arenberg , Countess of Arenberg (* 1527 )
- Bartholomäus Ringwaldt , German poet and Lutheran theologian (* 1532 )