|Elizabeth I of England dies childless.|
|Maria Stuart's son James VI. of Scotland becomes King of England as James I.||
Tokugawa Ieyasu founds
the Tokugawa shogunate.
The Edo period in Japan begins.
|1603 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1051/52 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1595/96 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1008/09 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2146/47 (southern Buddhism); 2145/46 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||965/966 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3936/37 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1011/12 (turn of the year 10/11 June)|
|Jewish calendar||5363/64 (September 5-6)|
|Coptic calendar||1319/20 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1913/14 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1914/15 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1659/60 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- March 24th : Scotland's King James VI. The House of Stuart became James I and King of England and Ireland after Queen Elizabeth I died childless. In order to consolidate the fragile personal union, he proclaimed the term Great Britain, previously only used geographically, as a political issue.
- Husum was granted city rights on April 20th .
- Late summer: Ambrosio Spinola arrives with troops to reinforce the attacking Spaniards during the siege of Ostend in the Eighty Years War .
- October 25 : Construction of the Fuentes fortress begins near Colico in Lombardy and will last until June 11, 1604 .
- December 22nd : With Ahmed I. , Mehmed III takes over after the death of his father . for the first time a minor sultan took power in the Ottoman Empire . He ended the so-called women's rule by locking up his grandmother Safiye , who had previously led the reign, in a harem, but did not follow the Ottoman tradition of murdering direct competitors for the throne like his brother Mustafa .
After defeating his fiercest adversary Ishida Mitsunari in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 , Tokugawa Ieyasu can be awarded the title of Shogun by the Tennō . This is the beginning of the Tokugawa shogunate. This period of Japanese history, also known as the Edo period, lasts more than 200 years and includes the longest period of peace in the modern world.
Other events in Asia
- Naresuan , King of the Siamese Kingdom of Ayutthaya , wins suzerainty over Cambodia in another Siamese-Cambodian war by elevating a puppet king to the Cambodian throne with Reachea IV .
- March 11th : The Free Imperial City of Augsburg founds a pawn shop that temporarily helps people in need of money in exchange for pledging valuable belongings .
science and technology
- In Rome, the Accademia dei Lincei , the first private institution for the promotion of the natural sciences, is founded by the noble Federico Cesi and his friends Anastasio de Fillis , Francesco Stelluti and Johannes van Heeck .
- Johann Bayer publishes the Uranometria in Augsburg , the first star atlas to cover the entire celestial sphere. Since the telescope has not yet been invented, the atlas only contains stars that are visible to the naked eye . In Uranometria , Bayer introduces a system for designating stars with Greek and Latin letters, the Bayer designation still used today .
- The Jesuits are printing the groundbreaking Japanese - Portuguese dictionary Vocabulario da Lingoa de Iapam in Nagasaki . It comprises 32,293 headwords, which are transliterated in Latin letters and arranged alphabetically according to the Portuguese conventions of the time. Regional differences between the Kyūshū area and the region around Kyōto are also taken into account, as are differences between colloquial and written language. Women's language, children's language, vulgar forms and Buddhist terms are also marked as such.
- The Pontifical Academy of Sciences is founded.
- The tax collector Miguel de Cervantes is in prison for misappropriating state funds and begins there with the novel El ingenioso hidalgo Don Quixote de la Mancha , which appears in 1605 .
- Geneva introduces Cé qu'è lainô , in which the Escalade de Genève is sung, as an unofficial anthem .
- As part of the Frankfurt Autumn Fair , 24 rabbis and heads of Jewish communities meet to discuss cooperation across Germany. The meeting is later denigrated as the Frankfurt rabbinical conspiracy.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- January 30 : David Denicke , German lawyer and hymn poet († 1680 )
- February 12 : Friedrich Wilhelm II , Duke of Saxony-Altenburg († 1669 )
- March 2 : Pietro Novelli , Sicilian painter († 1647 )
- March 21 : Hans Friedrich von Knoch , member of the Fruit Bringing Society († 1660 )
- April 19 : Michel Le Tellier , French statesman († 1685 )
- June 20 : Margareta Brahe , Swedish countess and princess of Hessen-Homburg († 1669 )
- August 9 : Johannes Coccejus , Protestant theologian, one of the main representatives of federal theology († 1669 )
- August 15 : Jacob Tappe , German physician and professor of medicine at the University of Helmstedt († 1680 )
- August 16 : Adam Olearius , German writer and diplomat († 1671 )
- August 17 : Lennart Torstensson , Swedish field marshal, imperial councilor and governor general († 1651 )
- November 10 : Fasilides , Emperor of Ethiopia († 1667 )
- November 19 : Nicolaus Jarre , Hamburg mayor and lawyer († 1678 )
- December 7th : Joachim von der Marwitz , court official and soldier († 1662 )
- December 13 : António Luís de Meneses, 1st Marquês de Marialva , one of the most important generals of the Portuguese Restauraçao († 1675 )
Exact date of birth unknown
First half of the year
- Hendrick Aerts , Flemish painter and draftsman (* between 1565 and 1575) January:
- February 7th : Bartholomäus Sastrow , German writer (* 1520 )
- February 7th : Hermann Wilken , German humanist and mathematician (* 1522 )
- February 23 : Andrea Cesalpino , Italian philosopher, botanist and physiologist (* 1519 )
- March 1 : Hartmann Pistoris , legal scholar and Privy Councilor of the Saxon Electors (* 1543 )
- March 17 : Andreas Schato , German mathematician, physicist and doctor (* 1539 )
- March 24th : Elizabeth I , English queen from the Tudor dynasty (* 1533 )
- March 30th : Heinrich von Reuschenberg , from 1577 until his death commander of the Teutonic Order Alden Biesen (* 1528 )
- April 4 : Aegidius Hunnius the Elder , German Lutheran theologian (* 1550 )
- April 8 : Valentinus Otho , German mathematician (* around 1548 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : Philippe de Monte , composer of the 16th century (* 1521 )
- August 27 : Petrus Wesenbeck , Flemish lawyer (* 1546 )
- September 1 : Barnim X. , Duke of Pomerania-Stettin (* 1549 )
- September 9 : George Carey, 2nd Baron Hunsdon , English nobleman and patron of the theater (* 1548 )
- November 12th : Johann VII. , Count of Oldenburg (* 1540 )
- December 8th : Hans Wolf von Schönberg , electoral Saxon politician (* 1539 )
- December 10 : William Gilbert , physician (since 1601 at the court of Elizabeth I) and naturalist (* 1544 )
- December 22nd : Mehmed III. , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1566 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Solomon Abenaes , Marran businessman and diplomat (* around 1520 )
- Ahmad al-Mansur , 5th Sultan of the Saadians in Morocco
- Giulio Cesare Barbetta , Italian lutenist and composer (* 1540 )
- Hieronymus the Younger Hrobschitzky von Hrobschitz , Bohemian nobleman (* before 1556 )
- Grace O'Malley , Irish pirate (* 1530 )
- François Viète , French lawyer and "hobby mathematician" (* 1540 )
- Christopher Lee: 1603: A Turning point in British History - London: Review, 2003 - ISBN 0-7472-3408-6