|Johann Friedrich I of Saxony is outlawed .||Georgius Agricola publishes the manual of mineralogy .|
|Schmalkaldic War begins.|
|1546 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||994/995 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2089/90 (southern Buddhism); 2088/89 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||908/909 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3879/80 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||952/953 (turn of the year March 3rd / 4th)|
|Jewish calendar||5306/07 (August 27-28)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1856/57 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1857/58 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1602/03 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- From June: A Reichstag is held in Regensburg , at which Emperor Charles V seeks allies against the Protestant Schmalkaldic League . At this Reichstag, Karl V met Barbara Blomberg , with whom he had a brief but stormy romance.
- June 7th: Charles V signs a contract with Pope Paul III. On the same day he also signed a contract with Duke Wilhelm IV of Bavaria , according to which Bavaria would remain formally neutral in the event of a war, but would provide assembly points, food and ammunition for the imperial army. In return, Wilhelm IV received the vague promise of territorial gains and the Palatine electoral dignity.
- June 19: Charles V signs a treaty with the Protestant Duke Moritz von Sachsen , head of the Albertine line of the Saxon dukes, whose lands have a high strategic value in a war against Electoral Saxony . The duke undertakes to be neutral and in return receives patronage over the Hochstifte Halberstadt and the Archdiocese of Magdeburg . A number of other Protestant princes such as Margrave Hans von Brandenburg-Küstrin , Duke Erich von Braunschweig and Margrave Albrecht Alcibiades von Brandenburg-Kulmbach can also be won over by the emperor.
- July 4th: Elector Johann Friedrich I of Saxony and Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse meet in Ichtershausen to counter Charles's preparations for war. You decide to wage a preventive war . Within a few days they put together an army of 16,000 men in the south of the Reich under the leadership of Sebastian Schertlin von Burtenbach . At the same time, more than 20,000 men were drawn together in the north, while Charles V only had around 1,000 men available at the beginning of the Schmalkaldic War .
- July 10th: The Schmalkaldic League under Sebastian Schertlin occupies Füssen .
- July 20: Charles V imposed on the Electors Johann Friedrich I of Saxony and Frederick II. Palatine and Landgrave Philip I of Hesse, the imperial ban .
- End of July: The two Protestant armies unite at Donauwörth .
- August 24th: The Protestant side tries to force the emperor, who is still in the process of collecting troops, to a decisive battle at the fortress of Ingolstadt , but he evades it.
- October 4th: The Kaiser again succeeds in avoiding a decisive battle near Nördlingen .
- Mid-October: Diseases break out in the imperial camp.
- End of October: Ferdinand I and his army commander Sebastian von Weitmühl invade Electoral Saxony from Bohemia and conquer Plauen . At the same time, Moritz von Sachsen, who has been promised the electoral dignity of Saxony, declares war on his Ernestine cousin. Large parts of the Electorate of Saxony are quickly conquered.
- November 1st: Sebastian von Weitmühl defeats Protestant opponents in the Battle of Oelsnitz .
- November 16: After disputes with Philip of Hesse, who first wants to defeat the imperial army, Johann Friedrich I of Saxony withdraws his troops from the Schmalkaldic army and returns to Saxony, with the emperor suddenly having the upper hand in the south of the empire .
- Christmas: Ulrich von Württemberg and Elector Friedrich von der Pfalz bow to the imperial superiority and sign contracts that commit them to neutrality and high monetary payments.
- End of the year: The isolated Upper German imperial cities capitulate to the emperor and sometimes suffer severe humiliations.
science and technology
- Georgius Agricola publishes the manual on mineralogy De natura fossilium .
- Georgius Agricola wrote De veteribus et novis metallis in Chemnitz .
- Girolamo Fracastoro publishes his main work De Contagione et contagiosis morbis et eorum curatione, libri tres , in which he scientifically substantiates his theory of infection by seminaria morbi (germs).
- The Herzog-Albrechts-Schule in Rastenburg is founded by the Prussian Duke Albrecht as a Latin school .
Religion and society
The Regensburg Religious Discussion will take place in Regensburg from January 27th to March 10th . As this was only called up by Emperor Charles V to divert attention from his war preparations against the Schmalkaldic League , and the side of the Reformation loses its spiritual leader with the death of Martin Luther on February 18, the conversation is, as expected, unsuccessful.
- 1545/1546: The first outbreak of Cocolitztli , a hemorrhagic fever , kills at least 800,000 people in Mexico.
Date of birth saved
- January 27: Joachim Friedrich , Elector of Brandenburg († 1608)
- February 1: Heinrich Petreus , German lawyer and humanist († 1615)
- February 14: Johannes Pistorius the Younger (Niddanus), German doctor, historian, Catholic theologian and politician († 1608)
- March 13: Johann Wolfgang Freymann , German lawyer and Imperial Vice Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire († 1610)
- March 21: Bartholomäus Spranger , Flemish painter († 1611)
- March 27: Johannes Piscator , Alsatian Reformed theologian and Bible translator († 1625)
- May 5: Petrus Wesenbeck , Flemish lawyer († 1603)
- June 24: Robert Parsons , English Jesuit and politician († 1610)
- June 29th: Dorothea of Denmark , Duchess of Braunschweig-Lüneburg († 1617)
- July 4th: Murad III. , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire († 1595)
- August 31: Daniel Adam z Veleslavína , Bohemian writer, historian and publisher († 1599)
- October 7th: Dietrich von Fürstenberg , Prince-Bishop of Paderborn († 1618)
- December 14: Tycho Brahe , Danish astronomer († 1601)
Exact date of birth unknown
- June: Claud Hamilton, 1st Lord Paisley , Scottish nobleman († 1621)
- Peder Aagesen , Danish philologist († 1591)
- Adam II , Chancellor Colonel of Bohemia and Castle Count of Prague († 1596)
- Joachim a Burck , German composer († 1610)
- Veronica Franco , poet of the Italian Renaissance and courtesan († 1591)
- Katharina Kepler , Württemberg citizen, mother of Johannes Kepler and victim of the witch hunt († 1622)
- Urban Pierius , German Protestant theologian († 1616)
Born around 1546
- around 1546/1547: Johann Fischart , German writer († 1591)
Date of death secured
- January 11th: Ernst I, the confessor , Prince of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (* 1497)
- January 31: Gaudenzio Ferrari , Italian painter (* around 1477/78)
- February 18: Martin Luther , German reformer (* 1483)
- March 1: George Wishart , Scottish reformer and martyr (* 1513)
- April 3: Mikuláš Konáč z Hodiškova , Czech printer, publisher, translator and writer
- April 7th: Friedrich Myconius , German preacher and reformer (* 1490)
- May 17 (presumably): Bartholomew VI. Welser , Augsburg patrician and conquistador (* 1512)
- May 29: David Beaton , Scottish Cardinal (* 1494)
- July 4th: Pietro Bonomo , humanist, politician and bishop of Trieste and Vienna (* 1458)
- July 4th: Khair ad-Din Barbarossa , Ottoman corsair in the western Mediterranean, ruler of Algiers, Kapudan Pascha (* 1467)
- July 16: Anne Askew , English Protestant martyr (* 1521)
- August 1st: Peter Faber , French clergyman, one of the companions of Ignatius of Loyola and co-founder of the Jesuits (* 1506)
- August 1st: Erasmus Ritter , German-Swiss theologian and reformer (* around 1481)
- August 3: Antonio da Sangallo the Younger , Italian architect and fortress builder (* 1484)
- August 10: William Thynne , English courtier and editor (* around 1500)
- September 3: Petru Rareș , Voivode of the Principality of Moldova (* 1483)
- September 17th: Juan de Carvajal , Spanish conquistador and founder of the city of El Tocuyo (* 1509 or 1510)
- October 5: Jorge Robledo , Spanish conquistador (* around 1500)
- October 6: Pierre Leclerc and companions, French evangelical martyrs
- October 14: Johann Magenbuch , German physician and personal physician (* 1487)
- October 23: Peter Flötner , German master builder, sculptor, goldsmith and silversmith, graphic artist, medalist and picture carver (* around 1490)
- November 1: Giulio Romano , Italian painter, architect and builder (* 1499)
Exact date of death unknown
- Camillo Boccaccino , Italian painter (* 1501)
- Sibylla Rehlinger , Augsburg citizen, wife of Jakob Fugger and Konrad Rehlinger the Elder. Ä. (* around 1480)
- Jan z Koszyczek , Polish translator (* before 1490)
- Mirabai , Indian mystic and poet (* around 1498)