|coat of arms||Germany map|
|County :||Vogtland district|
|Height :||412 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||102.11 km 2|
|Residents:||64,597 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||633 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||08523, 08525, 08527, 08529, 08541 , 08547|
|Primaries :||03741, 037439|
|License plate :||V, AE, OVL, PL, RC|
|Community key :||14 5 23 320|
|LOCODE :||DE PLU|
|City structure:||5 urban areas with 39 districts|
City administration address :
|Unterer Graben 1
|Lord Mayor :||Ralf Oberdorfer ( FDP , but elected as an independent candidate)|
|Location of the city of Plauen in the Vogtland district|
The large district town of Plauen is an upper center in the southwest of the Free State of Saxony and the district town of the Vogtlandkreis . The largest city in the Saxon Vogtland and fifth largest city in the Free State is considered to be architecturally attractive. It was replaced by the Plauen lace designated embroidery known.
Plauen is first mentioned in a document in 1122. In the Middle Ages, the city became a trading center, from the 18th century an important location for the Saxon fabric and textile industry , which was accompanied by a considerable increase in population. From the 1920s onwards, the industrial structure of the city was more strongly shaped by manufacturing in mechanical engineering. Plauen was severely hit by bombing raids in 1945, but mostly rebuilt. Much of the Plauen center is characterized by urban, metropolitan development from the 19th century. The town's landmarks are the old town hall with its renaissance gable and the art clock as well as the Johanniskirche . The Friedensbrücke is one of the largest stone arches in the world in Plauen and the Elstertalbrücke is the second largest brick bridge in the world on the north-eastern outskirts . There are also numerous other architectural and cultural monuments in the city.
Plauen lies in the hill country of the Central Vogtland . The urban area is therefore characterized by the typical, mostly wooded hilltops, also called Pöhle. It extends over around 102 km² (as of December 2002). In the north-south direction, the simplified diamond-shaped floor plan extends to around 16 km and in the east-west direction to around 12 km.
Plauen is located in the valley and on the banks of the White Elster . In the area of the confluence of the Syra the valley widens to a basin with the city center. The White Elster flows from the southwest through the village of Straßberg into the original Plauen city area. Around the city center, it swings to the north, flows through the Chrieschwitz district and then forms the eastern border of the city area. She divides it into two roughly equal areas.
While the original urban area, i.e. the inner city, is a dense urban residential or mixed area, the localities that were incorporated from 1994 to 1999 are particularly characterized by the high proportion (55%) of agricultural land . This is the highest value in comparison with the four next largest cities in Saxony. Plauen is the only one of these cities to have a purely rural outskirts. Plauen is criss-crossed by many green spaces; especially in the north and south there are extensive forest areas. The forest share is 18%, after Dresden with 21%, the second largest of the large Saxon cities.
The hilly surrounding area is covered in roughly equal proportions by fields, meadows and forests. The two large reservoirs Pöhl (northeast) and Pirk (south) , which are also used as recreational areas, are located a short distance from the city .
Geologically, Plauen lies in the Vogtland Mulde (Vogtland Synklinorium ). Most of the city is in the main hollow , the Kauschwitz district in a foothill of the Mehltheuerer Kulmmulde . The main hollow is strongly structured by numerous diabase tops , the Kulm hollow appears rather even.
The urban area is geologically extremely complex. The many different rocks are assigned to several formations of the Paleozoic Era . The structure was influenced mainly in the time of the Variski mountain formation . Different rock layers are shifted against each other , discarded and eroded .
The wide Kerbsohlental of the Elster divides the city into a north and a south part. The northern part rises relatively steeply in the city center, starting from the Elster sole. A diabase ridge lifts out there, which can be seen as a steep slope at the level of the former castle . The area then changes into rather flatter formations, which mainly consist of various clay and alum schists from the Ordovician , Silurian and Devonian . Due to a broad fault , these shale sequences are demarcated from the diabase rocks adjoining to the west and northwest. The disturbance extends from the Friedensbrücke over the Bärenstein-Osthang, the Rähnisberg to the Karolastraße and then runs northeast to the Pietzschebach . It appears as a zone of strongly decomposed diabase and slate, while the areas to the west of the fault (Haselbrunn, Neundorf, Straßberg) are characterized by various diabase rocks such as tuffs , breccias and conglomerates .
The southern part of the city is characterized by slate of the Ordovician and Devonian, which stretch as a wide strip from Reusa to Thiergarten. In the far south is the diabase area of the Kemmler and the Black Wood . In the east and south suburbs there are still some gravel deposits that are considered to be young river deposits of the White Elster.
The Vogtland and thus Plauen are located in one of the most seismically active areas in Germany. The epicentres of the swarm quake are mostly located in the vicinity of geological faults. In most cases, however, the intensity is below three on the Richter scale , which means that the tremors are barely perceived.
In Plauen and Vogtland, the climate of the warm, temperate, humid west wind zone of Central Europe with changeable weather prevails . Compared to regions further west of Germany, continental influences (warmer summers, colder winters) can be observed. Due to the influence of the surrounding low mountain ranges, the weather in the Vogtland is less wind and less precipitation than in other regions of Germany with a comparable altitude. The average air temperature in Plauen is 7.5 ° C, with the warmest months being July and August with average temperatures of around 16 ° C. In the Plauen area there are an average of 26 to 30 summer days (≥ 25 ° C) per year with an average sunshine duration of 1450 to 1500 hours per year. The average annual rainfall in Plauen is 582 millimeters. This represents a minimum in the Vogtland, due to the fact that the city lies in the lee of the upstream low mountain range, the air accumulates in the Western Ore Mountains and the clouds there rain down. Snowfalls are normal from November to April, although a blanket of snow does not always form. It rarely snows in October or even in May. In Plauen, south-westerly to southerly wind directions are predominant, whereby so-called " Bohemian winds ", i.e. cold air outflows from the Bohemian Basin , can occur in the cold season . The average wind speed is around 3 to 4 m / s.
With over 102 square kilometers, the city has a similar urban area as Paris with around 105 square kilometers. Plauen consists of 39 districts in 23 districts , which are divided into the five urban areas center , north , east , south and west . Each urban area consists of up to eleven districts. The districts that were incorporated into Plauen in 1996 and 1999 are also localities according to the Saxon municipal code . The localities were introduced by the main statute of the city of Plauen and each have a local council elected by the population , which has between five and nine members depending on the number of inhabitants. The chairman of the local council is the mayor . A local administration was also set up in some of the localities.
The five urban areas with their districts and their numbers are listed below
- Old town (101), Bahnhofsvorstadt (102), Dobenau (103), Neustadt (104), Obere Aue (105), Schloßberg (106)
- Hammertorvorstadt (201), Haselbrunn (202), Preißelpöhl (203), Reissig (204), Reissiger Vorstadt (205), Reissigwald with Lochhaus (206), Jößnitz a (207), Steinsdorf b (208), Kauschwitz a (209) , Zwoschwitz c (210), Röttis b (211)
- Alt Chrieschwitz (301), Chrieschwitz (302), Großfriesen a (303), Kleinfriesen (304), Reusa with Sorga (305), Reichenbacher Vorstadt (306), Tauschwitz (307)
- Hofer Vorstadt (401), Meßbach (402), Oberlosa a (403), Ostvorstadt (404), Reinsdorf (405), Stöckigt (406), Südvorstadt (407), Thiergarten (408), Unterlosa (409)
- Bärenstein (501), Neundorfer Vorstadt (502), Neundorf settlement (503), Syratal (504), Neundorf a (505), Straßberg a (506)
Plauen borders on eight municipalities. Seven of them belong to the Vogtlandkreis in Saxony and one to the Greiz district in Thuringia . In detail, these are (clockwise, starting with the Thuringian municipality in the north): Greiz , Pöhl , Neuensalz , Theuma , Tirpersdorf , Oelsnitz / Vogtl. , Weischlitz and Rosenbach / Vogtl.
Archaeological finds indicate that there were settlements on the Plauen territory as early as the Bronze Age . The barrows of Plauen-Chrieschwitz, in the Reissiger Forest and in the area of Reinsdorf testify to a population that buried their dead in burial mounds. These finds come from a local group of the Lausitz culture with close connections to Bohemia, the Main region and Thuringia. The settlement can be traced back to the middle of the last millennium BC. Prove. With the discovery of a grave from the Latène period (around 420 BC) in the area of Ruppertsgrün-Liebau, the evidence of settlement in the Plauen-Oelsnitz area suddenly breaks off. No evidence of a Germanic settlement in the Vogtland has yet been found.
Finds of Roman coins from the second century AD show that the Plauen area was important as a transit area. A Slavic settlement can only be proven by some finds for the period shortly before 1000, although the settlement of the Slavs is suspected to have been around 800. Late Slavic sherds were discovered in Plauen-Kleinfriesen, which, due to encrustation, suggest that there was a Pechsiederei there. The Slavic names of places, fields and waters in the region are regarded as further evidence of Slavic settlement. The floor plan based on the block floor principle is also typical for Slavic settlement areas. The name of the city Plauen is also of Slavic origin. He comes from Plavna what as much as Schwemmplatz , Floessplatz means and probably derives from the situation in the flood plain of Elsteraue.
Foundation and Middle Ages
The city was the first time in 1122 as Vicus Plawe in the consecration deed of St. John's Church in documents mentioned. In the document, Bishop Dietrich I von Naumburg confirmed the church, which was built by Count Adalbert von Everstein (in other sources also Eberstein) and equipped with a hoof of land in the village of Chrieschwitz, a piece of forest and half the yield from the Elstermühle. The bishop appointed the priest Thomas as pastor and transferred to the church the tithe of the approximately 20 square miles large Dobnagau, to which he was entitled until then . The city belonged to the diocese of Naumburg-Zeitz and was the seat of an archdeaconate .
In 1214 the Teutonic Order founded a branch in Plauen, the German House , to which in 1224 Vogt Heinrich the Middle of Weida gave the St. John's Church as a gift. In this deed of donation, “de Plawe: Conradus urbanus” (urbanus = city dweller) is named as a witness, the earliest evidence that Plauen had received city rights . A special certificate for the granting of town charter has not been received. On May 29, 1244, a personal Vogt von Plauen is attested for the first time , Heinrich II. Von Plauen , who probably also began building Plauen Castle . This document mentions both the stone bridge and some courtyards on the left bank of the Syra (beginnings of the new town). In 1263 the new town was first mentioned. The oldest original document kept in the city archives is dated May 25, 1278. With her, Conrad von Everstein Kunigunde, the wife of Bailiff Heinrich von Plauen, owned the village and half of the forest in Straßberg and gave her the right to do so after death to dispose of her husband at will. On June 25, 1279, the mint of the bailiffs was established, which bailiff Heinrich the Elder sold on March 11, 1306 to the rural people and the merchants of Plauen for 600 marks of silver. In 1328 Count Hermann von Everstein renounced all fiefdoms in the Dobe area. This ended the story of the Eversteiners in Vogtland.
On August 9, 1329, a mayor and sworn citizens were recorded in Plauen for the first time. The oldest seal of the citizens (sigillum civium in Plawe) also dates from the same year . Emperor Karl IV declared the rule of Plauen a hereditary fiefdom of the Bohemian crown in 1356. In 1430 the Hussites besieged the city under the leadership of Andreas Prokop . They took the castle, destroyed it and killed 170 people. They then burned the city down, killing another 500 to 900 people. When the city was rebuilt, the old city and the new city were united. In 1438, Elector Friedrich the Meek occupied the city. However, on imperial orders it was returned to Burgrave Heinrich I , who moved in again in 1439. The successor Burgrave Heinrich II went down in history as a tyrant. It was in 1466 by King George of Podebrady with the outlawed occupied. On February 10 of the same year, Duke Albrecht , the king's son-in-law, who was entrusted with the enforcement of the Eight, took the town and rule of Plauen, which was the first time Plauen came under Saxon rule. In 1482 Burgrave Heinrich III renounced . through the contracts of Brüx finally to his claims on Plauen in favor of the Wettiner Ernst and Albrecht.
Early modern age
When the Wettin lands were divided, Plauen fell to the Ernestine side . As a result, the Reformation gained a foothold in the Vogtland relatively early. From 1521 the last commander of the German House, Georg Eulner, worked in the Reformation spirit. Together with the Dominican Georg Raute, he preached in St. John's Church according to the teachings of Martin Luther . The Reformation was introduced by Raute and Eulner in Plauen in 1524 and in the entire Saxon Vogtland by 1529. After that, Plauen was a predominantly Protestant city for many centuries and became the seat of a superintendent , which was retained even after the transition to the Electorate of Saxony . Two church visits in 1529 and 1533 regulated the final introduction of the Reformation. Georg Eulner became the first superintendent in Plauen. In 1540 Plauen was persecuted by witches . Jacob Schultes got into a witch trial . In the summer of 1546, after the outbreak of the Schmalkaldic War , the city was fortified and occupied with loyal followers of the electorate. The city council turned to Duke Moritz von Sachsen with a request for protection, which was granted on condition of homage .
In 1547, King Ferdinand of Bohemia enfeoffed the grandson of the once expelled tyrant Heinrich II again with the city and rule of Plauen. Since then he has been allowed to call himself Burgrave Heinrich IV . In 1548 he was appointed imperial prince at the Augsburg Reichstag . On May 15 of the same year, the city burned down almost completely. It was triggered by a shot that a drunk citizen had fired in the middle of the city. The town hall, the church, the castle counts and the parish and school buildings burned down. In 1550 the town hall was rebuilt and in 1556 the reconstruction of the Johanniskirche was completed. After the death of Henry IV, his sons Henry V and Henry VI pledged . ownership to Elector August von Sachsen , who finally acquired the area in 1563.
In 1600 the city council issued the first veil regulation . The veil lords were recognized as a guild. This should strengthen the new industry of cotton knitting. Veils are fine cotton fabrics that are used as headscarves and neck scarves, ruffles and turbans. In 1602 Plauen rose to become the district town of the Voigtlaendischen Creisses . It was the 13th district town of the electorate. The new district comprised the offices of Plauen , Pausa and Voigtsberg with the cities of Adorf, Elsterberg, Gefell, Mühltroff, Neukirchen, Oelsnitz, Pausa and Schöneck.
On August 13, 1632, Field Marshal Holk took Plauen in the Thirty Years' War . Although the city surrendered, it was sacked. On September 12th General Gallas followed and on October 12th of the same year Wallenstein arrived with the main army in Plauen, after whose departure the city was set on fire. In 1634 about half of the population in Plauen died of the plague. In a town fire in 1635, most of the upper town with the church and the parish and school buildings burned down. 1656, after the death of Elector Johann Georg I , his fourth son, Duke Moritz von Sachsen-Zeitz, received Plauen and the Vogtland. He handed over the German House to the city in 1667 and had the castle rebuilt from 1670 to 1675, which had been destroyed in 1548. In 1681 Georg Samuel Dörffel published his work on comet orbits, and in 1697 the first Fahrpost from Dresden and Zwickau to Nuremberg began its service.
18th and 19th centuries
In 1702, as the founder of the Plauen white goods industry , Johann Friedrich Schildt built a factory in which cotton weaving could be carried out on a larger scale. This was followed by a calico factory in 1753 . When Charles XII. occupied Saxony during the Great Northern War , Swedish troops were billeted in Plauen from 1706 to 1707. In 1718 Duke Moritz Wilhelm died and Plauen fell back to Electoral Saxony, that is to say to August the Strong . Therefore, in 1725, a Saxon postal mileage column was made for the bridge gate. During the Seven Years' War the various warring parties took turns occupying Plauen. In 1758 the city council was forced at gunpoint to take the oath of allegiance to the Prussian King Friedrich II . In 1786, the city wall between the Straßberger Tor and the Nonnenturm was removed to make room for houses in the growing city.
The Bavarian Army , the Württemberg Army , the Prussian Army , the Grande Armée , the Saxon Army and the Imperial Russian Army moved through Plauen between 1806 and 1815. They were fed or plundered by the townspeople. In 1812 Napoleon Bonaparte camped in Plauen on the Russian campaign. In 1813 refugees from the “great army” came to the city. After the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig , many wounded were taken care of in the Gottesackerkirche , where a hospital had been set up. Many soldiers and many city dwellers died of typhus . Just a few days after the Battle of Nations, the Kingdom of Saxony, together with the Reussian principalities and the Duchy of Altenburg, became the Russian General Government of Saxony for about a year . Plauen received a garrison of 500–600 Cossacks and Bashkirs at this time .
The factories built in 1702 and 1753 were followed by more. In 1829 master weaver Schönherr set up a loom for bobbinet (a kind of tulle), followed in 1834 by a jacquard loom and a Swiss finish . On February 2, 1832, a new city ordinance came into force, with which the newly elected members of the city council and the city court were introduced on November 4. At the same time, the mayor Ernst Gottschald , the city council and the larger citizens' committee took up their offices. In 1833, when gymnastics was banned , Otto Leonhard Heubner founded the first gymnastics garden on the Schlossberg in Plauen and in 1840 the general municipal gymnastics facility. Friedrich Ludwig Jahn's gymnastics movement spread rapidly from Plauen to all of Saxony. In 1834 a main tax office was opened in Plauen. In 1835, the Vogtland District and the Erzgebirge District were merged to form the Zwickau District Directorate. With this, Plauen lost its status as a district town and was only the seat of the administrative authority of Vogtland . To expand the city, the Straßberger and Neundorfer Tor were demolished in 1837. On the night of September 9-10, 1844, a city fire destroyed a large part of the city center (107 residential buildings and 199 side and back buildings). In the course of the rebuilding, the remains of the Dominican monastery were torn down. Only the name Klostermarkt still reminds of it. In November 1848, opened Saxon-Bavarian Railway , the railway Plauen-Hof . On April 16, 1851, after the Göltzsch and Elstertal bridges had been completed, the route to Reichenbach (Vogtl) and on via Werdau to Dresden followed . In 1857 the first embroidery machines were installed in Plauen. The Aktien-Brauverein was founded on October 23 of the same year . On August 31, 1860 the city hospital was inaugurated and in 1863 the first mechanical cotton goods weaving mill started operations. Mechanization progressed very quickly, as can be seen in the following table:
|year||Number of establishments||Number of machines|
The production of English tulle curtains began between 1871 and 1874 . On November 30, 1874, the Plauen – Eger railway was opened and the upper station was rebuilt and expanded. The Elstertal Railway opened on September 8, 1875 . In 1880, a working group led by the businessman Theodor Bickel succeeded in producing machine-embroidered tulle lace without an underlay for the first time. The product, initially called Saxon lace , was first launched on the market in Paris. The lace, now known as Plauen lace ( Plauen-laces in English , dentelles de Plauen in French ), soon gained a worldwide reputation. In the following three years, as many embroidery machines (2258) were installed as in the 24 years before (since the first installation in 1857). The machine industry also experienced an upswing. Gottlieb Hornbogen's machine factory delivered its 100th embroidery machine in 1881, followed by the 200th in 1882. Hermann Dietrich's (later VOMAG ) factory also produced the 100th machine in 1882. In 1883 the first shuttle embroidery machine or steam embroidery machine went into operation, which achieved a six to seven-fold increase in production compared to the previous machines. The export could be increased significantly, so that on August 17, 1887 the USA opened its own consulate in Plauen.
On December 5, 1889, the new hospital was opened at its current location in Reichenbacher Strasse. In 1894 the Plauen tram went into operation . In 1899 rotary machine construction began in what was then Vogtland Machine Factory AG . The etched tip , introduced in 1883 , only saw increased sales from around 1888. In 1900, the top manufacturers in Plauen received the Grand Prix at the Paris World Exhibition . This boosted exports and the city of Plauen continued to grow very quickly (see population development).
In 1893 the only Protestant congregation in town, the St. Johannis congregation, was divided into five independent congregations . Catholics returned to the city in the 19th century . This led to the foundation of the parish Herz Jesu, which built its church in 1901 . Initially, the city's Catholics, like all Catholics in what was then the Kingdom of Saxony, belonged to the Apostolic Vicariate based in Dresden , which had been the responsible administrative district since 1743, succeeding the diocese of Meissen , which was dissolved during the Reformation . From this administrative district, the Diocese of Meißen emerged again in 1921, since 1980 Diocese of Dresden-Meißen , which today belongs to the ecclesiastical province of Berlin ( Archdiocese of Berlin ). Plauen became the seat of a deanery , which also included parishes outside Plauen.
1900 to 1918
In 1904, Plauen had more than 100,000 inhabitants and, after doubling the number of inhabitants, had become a major city within ten years . In 1907 Plauen received the status of an exempt ( district-free ) city.
After the population peaked at 128,014 in 1912, it declined due to the crisis in the textile industry that left many of the city's residents unemployed and emigrated. With the outbreak of World War I , lace production continued to decline. The industry could only be converted to war production to a limited extent, so that there was no improvement either.
Around 3,000 soldiers from Plauen were killed in the First World War, and around 1,700 were taken prisoners of war .
On July 19, 1918, near the König-Georg-Kaserne (today the administrative center) , an explosion occurred in a cartridge manufacturing facility in which cartridge bags were made for the army, in which 292 people died. In the factory, which was an AEG incandescent lamp factory before the outbreak of war , a fire broke out shortly before 4:30 p.m. in the lower room, in which the powder was weighed and sewn into bags. The fire spread so quickly that the explosion could not be prevented. A cause was never determined. Almost all women worked in the factory, 163 of whom died. 177 injured were rescued; 129 of them died a little later. Most of the victims were buried on July 24, 1918 in a mass grave in the main cemetery. The mass grave and a memorial still exist.
Weimar Republic, National Socialism and World War II
After the First World War, the population increased again, but the pre-war level was never reached again.
In October 1921, one of the first local groups of the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) outside of Bavaria was established in Plauen . The Hitler Youth (HJ) also quickly organized itself in Plauen. Kurt Gruber from Plauen was their first Reichsführer. According to the entry in the district office, Plauen was founded on January 1, 1929, seat community of the Hitler Youth Movement. V. With that the leadership of the Hitler Youth passed to Plauen. With the subordination of the HJ to the SA , the headquarters were moved from Plauen to Munich in 1931. Plauen's importance was thus downgraded to a Großgau.
The world economic crisis of 1929 hit the export-oriented Plauen economy particularly hard. This was particularly noticeable in the unemployment rate, at times the highest in Germany. As a result, the NSDAP, which promised radical changes to the people, gained great popularity in Plauen. Between 1924 and 1933 the headquarters of the NSDAP Gauleitung was in Plauen. Plauen was also one of the first German cities to give Adolf Hitler and Paul von Hindenburg honorary citizenship. Alfons Hitzler was NSDAP district leader in Plauen for 20 years.
The synagogue of the city, inaugurated in 1930 and built in Bauhaus style , was opened during the Reichspogromnacht on 9/10. Destroyed by an arson attack in November 1938 and never rebuilt afterwards. Most of the Jewish citizens left the city; the rest were later deported and murdered. Some residents are remembered with stumbling blocks that have been laid in Plauen since 2009.
Three subcamps of the Flossenbürg concentration camp were located in Plauen between 1944 and 1945: Plauen subcamp (cotton spinning mill), Plauen subcamp (industrial plants), Plauen subcamp (Dr. Th. Horn).
|date||Bombers (number and type)||Attack group||Tons of explosives||Fatalities|
|September 12, 1944||30 B-17||8th Air Force||≈ 82.5||130|
|January 16, 1945||36 B-17||8th Air Force||≈ 97.2||132|
|February 23, 1945||110 B-17||8th Air Force||≈ 325||387|
|March 3, 1945||11 B-17||8th Air Force||≈ 27.5||21st|
|March 5, 1945||24 B-17||8th Air Force||≈ 59||74|
|March 17, 1945||125 B-17||8th Air Force||≈ 350.9||52|
|March 19, 1945||436 B-17||8th Air Force||≈ 1103.4||394|
|March 21, 1945||107 B-17||8th Air Force||≈ 312.3||43|
|March 26, 1945||269 B-17||8th Air Force||≈ 734.2||45|
|April 4, 1945||8 mosquitos||RAF||≈ 7.3||5|
|April 5, 1945||151 B-24||8th Air Force||≈ 348.4||85|
|April 8, 1945||86 B-17||8th Air Force||≈ 258.3||60|
|April 9, 1945||37 mosquitos||RAF||≈ 68.5||40|
|April 10, 1945||307 Lancasters ; 8 mosquitos||RAF||≈ 1965||> 890|
|total||≈ 5739.5||> 2358|
→ Main article : Air raids on Plauen
During the Second World War, Plauen was spared from attacks for a long time, but was badly destroyed towards the end of the war. The first major air raid by the US Air Force (USAAF) took place on September 12, 1944 , followed by several USAAF and RAF bombings from January to April 1945 . The city experienced the most momentous and last of a total of 14 air raids on April 10th. That night alone, around 900 people were killed in attacks by British bombers. 1965 tons of explosives destroyed 164 hectares of the urban area. After reviewing British documents that were secret until 2009, earlier information (table) for the night attack of April 10, 1945 was corrected: 304 Lancaster bombers, 6 Mosquito high-speed bombers, 1,168 tons of bombs on April 10 and a total of 4,925 tons dropped on Plauen. Overall, the air raids in Plauen claimed at least 2,340 lives (this number is too low: after the main attack on April 10, 1945, only reported Plauen citizens were counted as fatalities). The stated targets of the air raids were the Obere Bahnhof, whereby the entire suburb of the station, the infrastructure and the industrial facilities of VOMAG were destroyed. However, there were sometimes large deviations between the intended drop targets and the areas actually hit. This finding is mainly based on the fact that the degree of destruction of cultural sites was 80%, of living space 78%, of commercial buildings 70%, of administrative facilities 55% and of the transport network 48%. 91% of the gas network (150 km of pipelines) and around 200 kilometers of the water network were taken out of service. Urban supply networks and urban traffic came to a complete standstill as a result of the attacks. Repair costs of 4.5 million Reichsmarks were incurred. Due to the destruction of important infrastructure such as the station building and the Syratal Viaduct , rail traffic collapsed. Automobile traffic was also severely hindered until the partly buried roads were cleared. The Plauen tram was able to resume operation after an eight-month break and the restoration of the track system, while rail traffic was only possible on a single track for the next few years. About 75% of the city was destroyed by the attacks. There were 12,600 bomb craters in the city center. With a bomb load of 185.4 t / km² Plauen was one of the most heavily destroyed cities in Germany (more than e.g. Dresden with about 60%).
On April 16, 1945 Plauen was occupied without a fight by the 347th US Infantry Regiment advancing from the west. During the American occupation, dismantling took place, mainly of cutting-edge technology (e.g. VOMAG precision boring mills), construction documents were confiscated. The most capable skilled workers and engineers were brought into the American occupation zone. The Americans tried to rebuild a functioning civil administration as quickly as possible, resorting to specialists who had been dismissed after 1933. According to the agreements of the Yalta Conference , the Americans withdrew from West Saxony on June 30, 1945, and from July 1 the Soviets took possession of the rest of the zone of occupation assigned to them .
SBZ and GDR times
During the Soviet occupation , many industrial facilities were dismantled as reparations and brought to the Soviet Union. From 1946 the expropriation and nationalization of the large companies began. There are state-owned enterprises founded and the land reform carried out.
1950 began to counteract the housing shortage caused by the severe destruction. In order to create new living space quickly and in a cost-saving manner, the new residential buildings were built from the 1960s on in the panel construction, which was considered unsightly but popular due to the central heating . The Chrieschwitz district , the Mammen area and the area around the upper station are particularly characterized by this type of construction.
After the war, the first Plauen lace festival took place in 1955 , which is one of the city's cultural highlights every year. In 1974 the 750th anniversary of the city of Plauen was celebrated. Although there is no longer a document about the granting of city rights, another document documents that Plauen was designated as a city as early as 1224. Accordingly, the appointment to the city must have been made before 1224. In this way, the city anniversary could be combined with 25 years of the GDR , which the government of the time attached great importance to.
The location around 25 kilometers north of the inner-German border was one of the reasons that Plauen's development continued to stagnate after 1945. The number of residents decreased continuously. Plauen housed a strong garrison of the Soviet Army on the front line of the Cold War , as well as facilities of the GDR border troops such as the officers' college . In Plauen there were a few large companies like Plamag that were also successful abroad. However, the city was unable to regain its former economic importance during the GDR era.
The turning point and peaceful revolution in Plauen
In the local elections on May 7, 1989, more election observers took part, mainly from those around the church. Obvious election frauds were documented and submissions made . However, this did not change the behavior of the leadership. When, on the night of October 4th and 5th, 1989, trains carrying embassy refugees from Prague drove through Plauen towards Hof for the second time , several people tried to jump up. The train station and the adjacent tracks were cordoned off over a large area.
On October 5th, the Plauen New Forum was supposed to be founded in the Markuskirche , which was still forbidden at that time. However, since word of this had got around and a large crowd appeared, in which one suspected Stasi employees, a peace prayer was spontaneously scheduled, which had to be repeated because of the crowd. On the 40th anniversary of the republic on October 7, 1989, typed notes and word of mouth were used to call for a demonstration in the city center. The Stasi knew about it, but completely underestimated the situation. Around 3 p.m., thousands of people gathered on Theaterplatz and Otto-Grotewohl-Platz (tunnel) without knowing what was going to happen. The police tried to use water cannons (in the absence of their own vehicles, those of the volunteer fire brigade were used) and a helicopter to break up the crowd and clear the area; but she did not succeed. At around 4:15 p.m., a demonstration march formed, which initially moved in the direction of Bahnhofstrasse and then returned to the town hall at around 5:30 p.m. Banners with slogans such as “We need reforms”, “For reforms and freedom of travel against mass exodus - above all peace” or “freedom of travel - freedom of expression - freedom of the press” were carried along. There were shouts in front of the town hall demanding that the mayor Norbert Martin come out to talk to him. Thanks to the level-headed commitment of Superintendent Thomas Küttler , who mediated between the town hall / police and demonstrators, the demonstration remained peaceful and slowly broke up with the cry “We'll be back” at around 6 p.m. after it had been decided to demonstrate again the following Saturday , and there should also be talks between Plauen's citizens and the mayor. From this point on, demonstrations took place in Plauen every Saturday until the first free elections on March 18, 1990. The Saturday demonstrations, which mostly took the same route past the Stasi headquarters and the SED district office, also included people from the surrounding area and some delegations from the twin town of Hof. "It was the first time that the citizens of the GDR came together without" instructions from above "and expressed their united will against the system in the GDR". (Rolf Schwanitz) “Plauen was the first East German city that expressed a united will to turn around; it was the only one in which the East German upheaval was a matter of the masses from the start. ”(John Connelly). On October 12, 1989, the first scheduled talks between the mayor of the city and 25 Plauen citizens took place. The local council led by Superintendent Küttler was later also referred to as the Group of 20 - based on the Dresden Group of 20 .
On December 15, 1989, 10,000 employees in Plauen stopped working for two hours to stand up for German unity. That was the biggest strike in this development phase in the GDR.
In view of the pioneering role that Plauen played during the fall of the Berlin Wall, October 7th as a communal day of remembrance became Democracy Day. explained. In addition, on October 7, 2010 the so-called Wende monument , designed by Peter Luban, was inaugurated diagonally across from the New Town Hall. The construction costs of 60,000 euros were financed entirely by donations.
The further development since 1991
After the municipal gallery eoplauen was opened with an Erich-Ohser exhibition on October 1, 1993 , the eo-Plauen-Gesellschaft e. V. founded. Willi Daume was elected as its first president . From September 5 to 7, 1997, the Day of the Saxons took place in Plauen with 380,000 visitors. After a referendum in 1999, a shopping center, the Stadt-Galerie , was built in the city center in 2001 . The Lohmühlenanlage, a green area, was built on. In the course of this construction work, the central tram stop tunnel was completely renewed and partially relocated. Critics complain that the building of the city gallery devalued the previous shopping street, Bahnhofstrasse, and that since then many shops on Bahnhofstrasse have either moved to the city gallery or have had to close. In 2002 the city received a first prize for the “integrated urban development program” (InSEK) from the Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Housing. In 2003 and 2008 the city was named municipality of the year .
Plauen fought intensely against plans by the Saxon Ministry of the Interior to take the city away from the city as part of the district reform , which it had had since 1907. On April 22, 2008, the Saxon Constitutional Court rejected the injunction requested by the City of Plauen to suspend the district reform. As a result, Plauen was reintegrated into the Vogtland district as a district town on August 1, 2008.
On March 1, 2010, Plauen joined the Mayors for Peace initiative , an international non-governmental organization that is primarily committed to nuclear disarmament. The city representatives also want to promote this initiative to the partner cities. At the city council meeting on May 27, 2010, it was decided to join the Council of European Municipalities and Regions . As part of the celebrations for the Day of German Unity, Mayor Oberdorfer received the Unity Prize (special prize from the jury) from the Federal Agency for Civic Education on October 3, 2011 on behalf of the city of Plauen . The reason given was: "With the special prize of the jury for the city of Plauen, the jury wants to remember the civil courage of the local population, who on October 7, 1989, the national holiday of the GDR, did not let the Stasi, the people's police and water cannons prevent them. to demonstrate for an end to the SED dictatorship. In the public eye, the people of Plauen were overshadowed by Leipzig and Berlin, but they marked the turning point in the dramatic autumn of the revolution of 1989. “ On November 7, 2011, the city received the European Energy Award .
|date||Municipality / district|
|January 1, 1899||Haselbrunn|
|January 2, 1900||Chrieschwitz|
|July 1, 1903||Kleinfriesen , Reusa, Sorga , Tauschwitz|
|January 1, 1949||Reinsdorf|
|July 1, 1950||Oberlosa , Stöckigt , Thiergarten , Unterlosa|
|January 1, 1994||Messbach|
|January 1, 1996||Large friezes|
|January 1, 1999||Jößnitz , Neundorf , Straßberg , Kauschwitz|
The chronicles tell of several incorporations and outsourcing of surrounding communities and districts . The city bought land in good times and sold it when it needed money. It was not until the 20th century that communities and districts were finally incorporated.
Chrieschwitz was mentioned in a document as the first of the incorporations . Chrieschwitz also appeared in the document in which Plauen was first mentioned. The Johanniskirche was endowed with a "Hufe Land im Dorfe Chrieschwitz". In 1589, the city council of Plauen bought the Chrieschwitz manor. In order to pay off the debts that had accumulated during the Thirty Years' War, the heavily damaged Chrieschwitz manor was sold to Christian Winkelmann in 1635 for 5000 guilders . On June 14, 1899, the council of Chrieschwitz decided to incorporate the village into the town of Plauen. On September 7, 1899, the Plauen city council agreed. The incorporation came into force on January 2, 1900 with the transfer of the assets to the city of Plauen.
On March 14, 1611, the city council bought the Haselbrunn estate from the bankruptcy of the electoral locksmith Nocolas Wenigel for 1,050 guilders. The Rehnsberg (Rähnisberg), the Heidenreich, the Erbholz as well as Kembler ( Kemmler ) and Glockenberg were bought for a further 1,800 guilders . On August 21, 1613, the council was able to purchase the remaining Haselbrunn properties from the bankruptcy estate for 2500 guilders. The Haselbrunn Vorwerk was sold until 1829 to pay the town's war debts. On September 6, 1898, the city council unanimously decided to incorporate Haselbrunn. This came into force on January 1, 1899.
In 1589 the town council of Plauen bought the former Reusa works from Christoph Abraham von Raab. In 1627, the city had to sell the Vorwerk for 12,000 guilders to Christian von Winkelmann after epidemics, price increases and a decline in the population had made money scarce. On June 11, 1901, the manor with 337 hectares of land was bought again for 725,000 marks. On October 16, 1902, the Reusas local council unanimously passed the resolution to apply to the Plauen city council for the incorporation of the local community. This unanimously decided on April 7, 1903, to incorporate the community with Reusa (including the manor), Kleinfriesen , Sorga and Tauschwitz by July 1.
1467 Plauen City Council bought the deserted village Reißig and extended it to a small farm. In 1829, the Reißig, which had meanwhile become a manor, had to be sold (together with Haselbrunn) in order to pay off the town's war debts. In 1939 Reissig was incorporated.
In 1578 the city council leased the manor Reinsdorf from the elector. On January 24, 1614, it was finally bought for 15,000 guilders, after having acquired the two associated mills in 1602. 21 years later, in 1635, the town of Reinsdorf sold to Joachim von Reibold in order to be able to pay the debts of the Thirty Years' War. In 1949 Reinsdorf was incorporated.
1,950 were top and Unterlosa , stöckigt and Thiergarten incorporated. In the course of the district reform , Messbach followed in 1994 and Großfriesen in 1996 . The last incorporation so far took place in 1999. Since then, Kauschwitz (with Zwoschwitz), Neundorf , Straßberg and Jößnitz (with Röttis , Steinsdorf and Oberjößnitz) belong to Plauen.
The number of inhabitants exceeded the limit of 100,000 in 1904, making Plauen a major city . In 1912 the population reached its all-time high of 129,000. With the First World War and the Great Depression , the industrial importance Plauens and gradually the population decline. With the division of Germany after the Second World War , Plauen was on the western border of the Soviet occupation zone and the GDR . As a result, among other things, the population decreased for decades.
On December 31, 2015, the official population for Plauen was 65,201 according to an update by the State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices). For the years 2014 and 2015, for the first time in a long time, an increase in population compared to the respective previous year was recorded.
The unemployment rate in the Plauen employment agency is 5.6% (as of December 2017), making it the second lowest in Saxony.
The vast majority of the people of Plauen are non-denominational; about twelve to thirteen percent of the population belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Saxony . The five parishes (Johannis, Luther, Paulus, Markus, and Michaelis parishes) belong to the Plauen church district in the Zwickau region. The seat of the superintendent Matthias Bartsch is also located in Plauen .
There has been a Roman Catholic parish in Plauen since 1892 . It belongs to the diocese of Dresden-Meißen and is looked after by a parish team led by Dean Heinz-Claus Bahmann. Of the 2,500 believers who belong to the Plauen parish, a large number are immigrants from other regions of Germany or from Eastern Europe.
In Plauen, in addition to the Protestant regional church and the Roman Catholic Church, there are other churches, communities and religions with different characteristics and orientations:
Supporters of the United Methodist Church met for the first time in Plauen in 1869 , at that time still illegally. The church, built at the end of the 19th century, was destroyed in a bomb attack in 1945. Today's Church of the Redeemer was built between 1952 and 1954. It is considered to be the first new building in Plauen after the Second World War. The community has about 450 members.
The Evangelical Lutheran Matthew Congregation of the old confessional independent Evangelical Lutheran Church (SELK) was founded in Lengenfeld between 1880 and 1890. At that time it still belonged to the Evangelical Lutheran Free Church (ELFK) . From 1922 to 1999 the community hall was in the Preißelpöhl district. In 1999 the church and the community center in the Haselbrunn district were inaugurated. In 2004 this Lutheran congregation left the ELFK and joined the SELK almost completely by resolution of the municipality assembly. With her transfer to the church district of Saxony-Thuringia, she belongs to the independent Evangelical Lutheran Church. In the summer of 2011 a bell tower was inaugurated, which holds the smallest bell from the former peal of the Luther Church .
The Adventist Church was founded in 1902 and in 1949 acquired the property on which the Plauen synagogue stood before the Second World War. A new building was inaugurated in 1972.
Opposite the main cemetery in the Reusa district is the community center of the New Apostolic Church (NAK) , which was inaugurated in 1996. The parish has about 470 parishioners. In 1921, today's Apostolic Community split off from the NAK. The members of the Plauen congregation do not have their own church and use the rooms of the Adventist congregation for their services.
The community center of the Evangelical Free Church has been located in Lindenstrasse since 1997 . It was mentioned for the first time in 1890 and, as is customary in the Brethren congregations, it is directed not by a pastor but by congregation elders. In the Federation of Evangelical Free Churches , the Brethren Movement is united with the Baptists . They have a parish hall on Eugen-Fritzsch-Straße, which was inaugurated in 1974. Pastor Daniel Papp is currently taking care of the church. The community is involved in various social projects, such as the Blue Cross .
The Pentecostal Church has only existed in Plauen since 1996 , and it now meets on Jößnitzer Strasse. The services are led by Pastor Martin Breite. The foundation of the church goes back to the churches in Zobes and Hof and to the Swedish missionary Christer Birgersson.
The municipality of of Rudolf Steiner founded Christian Community is located since 1997 in the Henry Street. The parish is currently being looked after by Pastor Karin Fleischer from Chemnitz. Shortly after the movement was founded in 1922, the first members gathered in Plauen. The efforts to found a Waldorf kindergarten after the fall of the Wall failed.
The Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses, built in 1998, is located on Hammerstrasse . The building is used by the Plauen and Oelsnitz assemblies (communities). In the Saxon Vogtland about 950 witnesses live in 13 assemblies, which represents a high density in relation to the population.
In 1908 the Plauen Mormon Congregation (officially: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) was founded. Between 1988 and 1990 a community center was built in the Chrieschwitz district. The temple responsible for Plauen , in which, for example, the baptism of the dead is performed, is located in Freiberg .
Non-Christian believers also gather in Plauen. In 2009 the only mosque room in the Vogtland was set up in a former restaurant on Dobenaustraße. Mohammed Hamidi heads the Muslim community as an imam . So far the community has mainly consisted of migrants from traditionally Islamic countries.
A small group of Baha'i meet near the Upper Railway Station . Officially, however, it is not yet a separate community.
Until the pogrom night in 1938, there was a synagogue on Senefelderstrasse at the corner of Engelstrasse. It was built from 1928 to 1930 in the New Objectivity style according to plans by the architect Fritz Landauer . Since the destruction of the synagogue and the persecution and extermination of the Jews in the Third Reich, there has been no Jewish community in Plauen.
City Councilor and Mayor
In the 13th century there was a college under an "officiatus" at the head of the city. From 1329 mayors and councilors can be proven. There was a "sitting" and a "resting" council. The number of mayors and councilors varied several times. Since 1882 the city leaders have held the title of Lord Mayor and the first paid city councilor the title of mayor . During the time of National Socialism , the mayor was appointed by the NSDAP and immediately after the Second World War the Soviet occupying power formed the city council; the city council was elected by the people. The first Soviet city commandant in Plauen was Lieutenant Colonel Komarow. After reunification , the body known as the city council was freely elected again. There was initially a special chairman of the city council. Today it is the Lord Mayor who was initially elected by the city council. Since 1994 the mayor has been directly elected by the people.
After the current Lord Mayor Ralf Oberdorfer was confirmed in his office in the elections on June 24, 2007 with a clear majority of 87.1% (with three opposing candidates), he only prevailed in a runoff election in 2014. On July 6, 2014, he was re-elected with 53.7%. In the first ballot on June 15, 2014, it had only achieved 40.1%.
→ See also: List of the mayors of Plauen
The city council has 42 members since the 2009 election. In the course of the district reform in 2008, the size of the city parliament was adjusted and reduced from 48 seats to 42. The last election took place on May 26, 2019. The local elections from 1994 to 2019 had the following results:
|Parties and constituencies||2019||2014||2009||2004||1999||1994|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||23.7||11||35.4||16||27.9||12||33.3||17th||36.4||18th||35.9||19th|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||20.0||9||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|The left||The left||14.6||6th||20.4||9||23.3||10||28.4||14th||21.9||11||15.5||8th|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||14.0||6th||19.0||8th||17.2||8th||15.3||7th||23.6||12||22.5||12|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||9.9||4th||7.3||3||17.0||7th||13.1||5||6.1||3||8.5||3|
|B'90 / Greens||Alliance 90 / The Greens||8.6||3||5.9||2||6.6||3||4.5||2||4.6||2||10.3||5|
|III. path||The III. path||3.8||1||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|NPD||National Democratic Party of Germany||-||-||4.6||2||2.9||1||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Pirates||Pirate Party Germany||-||-||1.6||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|DSU||German Social Union||-||-||-||-||1.1||-||3.9||2||3.6||1||0.2||-|
|Voter turnout in%||58.2||44.4||38.1||36.1||47.9||65.1|
- Up to and including 2004 PDS
- 1994 and 1999 FWP = Free Voters Plauen; 2009 and 2014 Plauen Initiative
On October 13, 2005, the first youth parliament in Plauen (JUPP) was elected by high school students and comprised 30 members from the secondary schools in Plauen. On April 4, 2007, around 4,800 Plauen schoolchildren elected the second youth parliament, which consisted of 17 members. The third election to this body took place on October 6, 2009. 3794 young people entitled to vote were able to choose the now 35 MPs from 44 candidates. The fourth youth parliament was elected on January 19, 2012 and again had 30 members. Almost 4,000 children and young people between the ages of 14 and 25 were eligible to vote. Parliament played a key role in the federal program, Diversity Is Good, in the Plauen / Vogtland funding area by electing the members of the Monitoring Committee responsible for Plauen and sending a representative. The main task of the JUPP was to represent the interests of children and young people in the Plauen city council and its committees. The youth parliament had the right to speak there and could introduce motions. The annual budget was 3,000 euros. The youth parliament was dissolved on December 31, 2016 and was not filled due to the insufficient number of applicants for a new election.
Coat of arms, seals and city colors
The coat of arms of the city of Plauen goes back to the seal, which was first mentioned in 1329. It shows two red stylized dreizinnige silver towers with pointed roofs and two superposed, with gothic tracery decorated black window openings, connected by a silver wall with a Gothic arch, covered with a triangular black heart shield, in an upright golden lion , the heart shield placed a gold helmet with green peacock feathers , smooth at the front and mirrored at the back. Plauen has had the current form of the city arms since January 12, 1939.
The seal of 1329 mentioned above shows a shield with the uncrowned lion, raised to the right, between two towers, which are provided with two ogival window openings one on top of the other and each with three jagged walls, the tail of which ends in several partial tails; A stinging helmet hovers over the label, with four mirrored peacock feathers on the right (in the heraldic sense) and four smooth peacock feathers on the left. The inscription reads: + SIGILLVM • CIVIVM • IN • PLAWE .
Since 1899 Plauen had to use the “house colors” of the Wettins , so the city colors were gold (yellow) at the top and blue at the bottom. The Plauen city archivist Dr. Ernst Pietsch dealt intensively with the Plauen city coat of arms and the city colors from 1926 to 1939. On January 12, 1939, the colors were finally (again) adjusted to the coat of arms colors, as an old law of coat of arms art reads the colors of the coat of arms in such a way that they put the color of the coat of arms in the corresponding flag , above the color of the coat of arms , below that of the field . Therefore, the city flag now appears gold (yellow) at the top and black (covered with the coat of arms) at the bottom.
|The Plauen city partnerships|
|court||Germany ( Bavaria )||1987|
|Wins||Germany ( North Rhine-Westphalia )||1990|
|Town twinning of Jößnitz (district)|
|Heilsbronn||Germany ( Bavaria )|
|dissolved town twinning of Plauen|
Plauen has maintained partnerships with various cities in Germany and abroad since 1962. It is noteworthy that at the time of the East-West conflict, partnerships were concluded with the cities of Lens and Hof , which were part of what was then the "Western Bloc", with which the relationship was politically undercooled. The city of Plauen supports encounters within the framework of city partnerships through grants to clubs, associations or school classes .
In 1962 the first town twinning agreement was signed with the Czech city of Aš . Since then, the two cities have been working together on a cultural, sporting, economic and political level. The cooperation within the Euregio Egrensis and the Festival Middle Europe is particularly close . In 2012 it turned out that the city administration did not have any official documents for the start of the town twinning.
A town partnership with Steyr in Austria has existed since 1970, which connects the two towns in particular in the cultural, sporting and tourist areas. The partnership has the status of an “informal permanent cooperation”.
In 1987, after long efforts by the city of Hof, a special kind of city partnership was agreed. An exchange between two cities with different political systems took place in the immediate vicinity of the inner-German border. Until the fall of the Wall, the exchange could only take place within the framework of annual agreements. Since then there have been a variety of joint events and projects such as the joint airfield have emerged.
The first contacts with the city of Siegen were made a few weeks after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The focus of the agreement signed on August 3, 1990 was on supporting the establishment of the administration and structural development of the city of Plauen under German aspects. The partnership has now been expanded to include almost all areas of social life.
On September 25, 2005, a partnership agreement between the city of Plauen and the Hungarian city of Cegléd was signed. This was followed by the signing of the contract for a town twinning between Plauen and the Polish town of Pabianice on November 19, 2005. Partnerships in the cultural but also in the economic field are sought.
In April 2005, a Letter of Intent was signed with the Lithuanian city of Šiauliai , in which both cities declared their intention to establish a twin city partnership. Since then, various meetings of delegations from the two cities have taken place to strengthen cooperation. In the city council meeting on May 27, 2010 it was decided to establish an official town twinning with Šiauliai. The contract was signed on September 10, 2010 in Šiauliai.
A city partnership with the French city of Lens was dissolved in 2005.
Culture and sights
The Singakademie Plauen e. V. is a mixed adult choir that is closely associated with the theater orchestra. The singing community was founded in 1948 and later renamed the concert choir , before the current association was founded in 1972 by music director Eckehard Rösler. The Singakademie supports the music theater z. B. as an additional opera choir , but also provides motets , folk songs and choral symphonies.
The Parktheater Plauen was opened in 1964. It is located in the middle of the Plauen city park. There are performances by the Plauen-Zwickau Theater and concerts by artists from various musical styles. Appearances by comedians are also an integral part of the program. In the past, the main events for the Plauen lace festival also took place on the grounds of the Parktheater.
The Vogtlandmuseum Plauen is located in three listed former residential and commercial buildings in Nobelstrasse. The museum has collections on the history of the Vogtland and the city of Plauen. There are exhibits on prehistory and early history as well as on art and cultural history . The semi-detached houses number 9 and 11 were built from 1787 to 1789 by the cotton merchant Johann Gottfried Baumgärtel in Louis-Seize and Empire style. The ballroom is particularly noteworthy. It takes up the entire width of the building on the first floor. The twelve months are depicted in naturalistic stucco reliefs in twelve tall rectangles along the wall. House number 13 was built by the cotton merchant Johann Christian Kanz between 1797 and 1799 in the Empire style. In 1920 the city acquired the houses and set up a city and regional history museum. In July 1923 the Vogtland District Museum was opened in houses number 9 and 11. A garden wing was destroyed by a bomb during World War II. On November 17, 1946, after extensive repairs, the museum was reopened with an exhibition in honor of Erich Knauf . After the war, house number 13 was added to the museum. The Vogtlandmuseum Plauen looks after two branches, one in the Jewish cemetery on Pausaer Straße with an exhibition on the history of the Jews in Plauen in the former celebration hall and an exhibition on the life and work of the draftsman and illustrator Hermann Vogel in the Hermann Vogel House in Krebes , his former home.
In the Plauen Lace Museum in the Old Town Hall, the history of Plauen lace has been presented since 1884. Both old machines for lace production and exhibits made of lace ( dresses , blankets and accessories ) are shown. The lace museum is unique in this form in Germany.
In the show embroidery Plauen in the district Reusa the development of high-tech industry is shown. For this purpose, historical machines were installed in a factory owner's house with an adjoining single-storey factory building. Demonstrations take place on large and small embroidery machines. A studio can also be visited. Annually changing special exhibitions complete the offer.
The alum mine Ewiges Leben is run by the Vogtland Miners' Association of Plauen e. V. operated. On a walkable length of about 650 meters you can explore the corridors of the alum mine under an expert guide . Various exhibitions can be visited. The association also operates the Air Protection Museum in Plauen am Schlossberg and the Zollkeller on Neundorfer Straße.
Other museums are the Plauener Druckstube and the Sparkasse Museum. Changing exhibitions take place in the city archive in the town hall.
The municipal gallery eoplauen was opened on October 1st, 1993. In a partnership, the city of Plauen, the twin town Siegen , the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the Salamander company renovated the house at Bahnhofstrasse 36. The city of Plauen was given the first two floors rent-free for 25 years in order to set up a city gallery. Since June 11, 2004, part of the eoplauen estate , which was shown in a permanent exhibition, was located there. At the end of September 2010 the Städtische Galerie eoplauen, the Erich Ohser - eoplauen Foundation and the eoplauen Society moved together into the Erich-Ohser-Haus in Nobelstrasse 7, next to the Vogtland Museum .
The gallery in the Malzhaus is run by the Kunstverein Plauen-Vogtland e. V. operated. It was opened in September 1995 and offers space for exhibitions of various kinds as well as readings, concerts and other events. The Art Association Plauen-Vogtland e. V. was founded in 1990 and thus resumed the tradition of the art association founded in 1897, which was interrupted by the time of National Socialism and the GDR.
The Forum K gallery is located on Bahnhofstrasse and is run by Forum Kunst / Plauen e. V. operated. The association, founded in 2004, also organizes the art Afrika exhibition series , which shows contemporary African art .
Other cultural institutions
The Plauen Festival Hall is located on the site that has been used as the city's festival area for over 120 years. There were essentially two previous buildings, some of which were on the site at the same time. On the one hand, the Centralhalle was completed in 1888 . This timber structure was expanded in 1896 and implemented in 1911/12. It was used as an event location until 1945. After the war , the hall was demolished and the wood was burned. The first festival hall was built next to the Central Hall in 1925 and continued to be used after the war. In 1983 it had to be closed due to serious construction defects. The demolition took place in 1985. Construction of the new festival hall began on May 30, 1986. It was completed in September 1989 and inaugurated on Republic Day on October 7, 1989. Shortly after the fall of the Wall , usage fell sharply, but increased again in 1992. From 2005 onwards, the building was converted and comprehensively renovated. On August 30, 2007, the festival hall was able to reopen as an event center. The hall offers up to 3500 seats in various halls for concerts, trade fairs and conferences.
The Vogtland Stadium in the northern Haselbrunn district is primarily the home ground of the upper division football club VFC Plauen . But it is also used as an athletics stadium. Further events will be held on the area belonging to the stadium.
In the city park, not far from the city center, the Parktheater Plauen has been located since 1964 . With around 5,000 standing and 2,000 seats, it is a unique event site in the region. There are stalls and various other supply facilities on the immediately adjacent site.
Old Town Hall
The old town hall was mentioned for the first time in 1382, but since mayors and sworn citizens are documented as early as 1329, it was probably built earlier. The town hall has been rebuilt several times. Between 1503 and 1508 a late Gothic building with arched curtain windows was built. The town hall was also badly damaged in the city fire of 1548, whereby the north wing with the citizens' hall was preserved, but the south gable burned down. The reconstruction was started in the same year, whereby the still existing Renaissance gable was placed on the late Gothic substructure . The art clock in the gable was also installed in 1548 by the Hof master Georg Puhkaw. “Two lions strike the quarter hour, two men move when the hour strikes. One of them raises his right arm with each stroke, his hand holding a stick. The other calls out the hour, which is indicated by the fact that his large beard moves up and down as if he were opening his mouth. The clock has two dials, the larger of which is intended for the hour and the smaller for the minute hand. A ball rotates between the lions to show the phase of the moon . There is a sundial under the dials. The coat of arms under the sundial with the spa shield and the ducal-Saxon coat of arms in the left field, the overall coat of arms of Electoral Saxony in the middle and Gothic tracery in the right field was originally inserted into the part of the former stairwell that was broken off in 1825. ”(Ernst Pietsch). In another renovation in 1825, the upper part of the bay window above the staircase was removed. In 1912, in the course of the new construction of the new town hall, the old town hall was rebuilt again, whereby today's double free staircase was built in a modeled renaissance style, which leads to the ballroom of the registry office . This extension and the changes to the south gable were the subject of controversy due to the strong opposition on the part of Cornelius Gurlitt to the renovation plans initiated by Goette. The clock is a replica of the art clock from 1548. The original gear train can be viewed in the Vogtland Museum. The roof of the old town hall was badly damaged in an air raid in 1945 and the masonry was partially torn up. In 1950 the restoration took place with renewal of the painted ceiling beams, in 1970 the renewal of the south gable and the art clock. In December 2008 the artificial clock was dismantled and a tarpaulin with a picture of the clock was attached in front of the gable. In the following years, the clock was restored based on a template from 1922. At the end of October 2010 the clock was finished and was reinstalled in its original place. The facade was finally restored within a few weeks in spring 2011. The original color scheme was restored, the Saxon coat of arms on the gable was restored and the lighting for the Christmas market was renewed.
The old market was only up to the mid-19th century market , it received its present name to him by the newly created Klostermarkt to distinguish. In the old market there used to be two pipe boxes of the city water pipe made from hollowed out tree trunks. The weekly and annual markets took place there. Every now and then there was an execution there. In the last few years the adjacent houses have been renovated or rebuilt. The market square itself has also been renewed and the König-Albert-Brunnen by the artist Norbert Marten has been on the market since November 13, 2007 . It was erected to replace an equestrian statue of King Albert that was removed after the war. In addition to the weekly market, various themed markets take place on the Altmarkt. It is also used for various events, for example the Plauen lace festival or the Christmas market.
Bear stone tower
Today's Bärenstein Tower was inaugurated on July 6, 1997 on Saxon Day. The Bärenstein tower on which it stands has its name and is the second highest mountain in Plauen at 432 meters. There was a tower at this point before. In February 1906, the non-profit association decided to build a lookout tower there. The association had laid out footpaths on the mountain and planted trees since 1884. The stone tower was inaugurated on June 17, 1906. On January 16, 1945, it was badly damaged in a bombing raid, so in March of the same year it was decided to blow up the remains. In 1995 the Rotary Club Plauen started an initiative to build a new tower and announced an architecture competition in which 15 architects and engineering offices took part. The foundation stone was laid on October 2nd, 1996 and the topping-out ceremony was held on June 17th, 1997. The new tower consists of a steel structure made of prefabricated segments. It has a height of 35 meters; There is an accessible platform at a height of 24.3 meters. The tower was largely financed from donations. The names of the donors are recorded on a board inside the tower and on the individual steps.
At 507 meters, the Kemmler is the second highest point in Plauen. There is a Bismarckian column on the extinct volcano . On March 5, 1899, the Pan-German Association placed an advertisement in the newspaper, in which it suggested the construction of a Bismarckian column. On May 25 of the same year, a Bismarck Tower Committee was formed. After visiting several hilltops, a vote was taken on the construction site. With 41 to 35 votes, the election fell on May 13, 1900 on the Kemmler. The building site was provided free of charge by the city of Plauen. As early as 1883, a lookout tower was built on the Kemmler by the Bergschlossgesellschaft , which had to give way to the new building. The material of the old tower was partly reused for the new building. The foundation stone was laid on April 1, 1902, and the inauguration was celebrated on August 31 of the same year. The design of the 18.25 meter high tower came from the architect Wilhelm Kreis and was called Götterdämmerung . The outer material is granite from a quarry in Schreiersgrün , the inner masonry consists of fruit slate from Theuma and Tirpersdorf . At a height of 13 meters there is a viewing platform that can be reached via 65 stone and 13 iron steps. The total costs amounted to 31,000 marks and were raised exclusively through donations. A fire bowl was later attached, which was replaced by a protective roof with an antenna mast between 1972 and 1973. The complete renovation of the tower failed twice (1994 and 2002) because of the high costs. During an emergency renovation in 1995, the antenna system was removed again. On March 26, 1910, an accommodation house was built next to the tower, which was demolished after 1945.
On the site of today's Malzhauses who built counts of Everstein in 1200 as a castle southeast corner of the city wall. As the successor to the Eversteiners, the Weida bailiffs moved into the new castle on the Hradschin in 1238. The old castle , as the Everstein facility was called since then, lost its importance. In 1430 it burned down during a Hussite attack. After ownership had changed several times, the city's magistrate acquired the site in 1590 and used it as a building and storage yard. After a devastating city fire in 1635, the burned down house was not rebuilt. It was not until 1720 that the Plauen citizens began planning to build a new malt house on the foundation walls of the old castle. Between 1727 and 1730 the malt house was built with four floors and leased to frequently changing maltsters. In 1844 a brewery was built next to the Malzhaus as a replacement for the Herrenbrauhaus , which burned down in the town fire that year and was located on the site of today's town hall tower. In 1897 the brewery and malt house were closed and the malt house was converted into a warehouse and residential building. In 1899 the city wanted to demolish the malt house, which was prevented by local associations and Plauen citizens. Between 1906 and 1907 the old brewery was demolished and the workshop and residential building erected, which stands out with its half-timbered gable . During the Second World War, the basement rooms were used as an air raid shelter; at the end of the war the attics were damaged by bombs. In 1960 the malt house was poorly repaired after it had been taken over by VEB building management. It was then used as a storage room for various GDR companies. In October 1989 a citizens' initiative was founded to renovate the malt house. Between 1990 and 1998 the brewery and malt house were extensively reconstructed by the city of Plauen. During this time, a modern connecting wing with an elevator was installed between the two buildings. Since 1994 the Malzhaus e. V. Leaseholder of the property, who expanded it into a cultural center with a gallery, nostalgic cinema and open-air stage. The Plauen Folk Autumn takes place every year in the Malzhaus, where the Iron Eversteiner is awarded.
new town hall
The New Town Hall was built between 1912 and 1922. Due to the rapid growth of the city since the 1880s, a new administration building was required. In the year construction began, Plauen had its highest population of 128,014. Since the new building was to be carried out on a large scale, several buildings in what was then Schustergasse (no longer existing parallel street to Unteren Graben), Marktstraße, Herrenstraße and what was then Bahnstraße were bought and demolished between 1889 and 1906. After an architectural competition in 1908 did not produce any satisfactory solutions, in 1910 the city building authority was commissioned to work out a plan. Finally, city planning officer Wilhelm Goette submitted a draft that also took into account ideas from the competition. After the council and city council had given their approval, the excavation work for the new building began in October 1912. The foundation stone was laid a year later and the shell of the first section had been completed by summer 1914. In autumn 1916, the outdoor work was completed despite the war . In 1921 the eight shops in Marktstrasse were occupied and in the same year the city council met for the first time in the new meeting rooms. In 1922 the New Town Hall was finally completed. On the side facing the Altmarkt, a flight of stairs was attached to the east side of the old building. At the upper end is a statue of Heinrich the Elder von Plauen , which was made in shell limestone in 1923 based on a design by the Dresden sculptor Selmar Werner . The town hall was badly damaged in the Second World War . The front side (to the Lower Graben) was rebuilt in modern forms using steel and glass and inaugurated in 1976. The glass facade had to be renovated due to its ailing condition. Three basic variants came into question. Either the conversion of the existing facade, whereby the existing steel construction would have been preserved and reinforced and all facade parts would have had to be renewed. The second option was a replica of the old facade that was destroyed in the war and the third option was to rebuild the facade. The costs for the three variants ranged between the lower single-digit and upper single-digit to lower double-digit million range. On May 8, 2012 the city council decided that an architectural competition for a new building should be advertised. 65 architectural firms applied, of which 30 were accepted. On December 7, 2012, the jury awarded three second prizes. After revising the suggestions, the expert jury decided on February 26th for the design by RKW Architektur + Städtebau Leipzig and recommended that the city implement it. The award committee is expected to make a final decision in May 2013. Construction could start at the beginning of 2015 after the employees of the district authorities, who are still in the town hall, have moved to the new district office.
The nuns tower was probably built around 1200 and first mentioned in 1382 as a tower in Nonnengasse . The name Nonnenturm , which first appeared in a document in 1563 , comes from a monastery of the Sisters of the Third Rule of the Penance of St. Dominic , which was nearby until the Reformation , although strictly speaking the members of this order are not Nuns acted. The tower is the only remaining corner tower of the old city fortifications. It formed the northern border of the old town and used to appear much more massive, as it reached with its bastion into the valley floor of the Syra and had a height of about 30 meters. Today's road is about ten meters above the creek bed. The tower was badly damaged in the air raids in 1945 and rebuilt in the 1950s. In 1962 the bastion was demolished as the road was widened. After the fall of the Wall, the area around the tower, which is now a café, was rebuilt.
The Weisbachsche house was named after the family of entrepreneurs Weisbach, which owns the building for many years was located. It was built between 1777 and 1778 by the calico printer Johann August Neumeister as a residential and manufacturing building in the late Baroque style. Neumeister had been recruited from Plauen cotton merchants in 1754 years. In the following years he built up a calico printing factory in Plauen. In 1794 Neumeister went to Zwickau and the merchant Ernst Wilhelm Conrad Gössel took over the calico printing manufacture. In 1808 he expanded the calico printing plant to include a mechanical cotton spinning mill. In 1814 he is said to have set up twenty weaving machines that were operated “by mechanical art”. In 1834 the Chemnitz manufacturer Carl Wilhelm Weisbach leased the cotton mill. Around 1840 he had a steam engine installed in Bleichstrasse 12 , which drove the spinning machines and later also the twisting machines. In the years 1850 to 1900, the entire Bleichstrasse 1–13 complex was transferred to the Weisbach entrepreneurial family. The Weisbach house was damaged to moderate severity by bombs in 1945. It is discussed whether the building should be used for a planned top center.
Town houses from the early days
With the rapid increase in the urban population towards the end of the 19th century, the need for living space also increased enormously, so that numerous residential buildings were built around the turn of the century. The elaborate facade design facing the street is characteristic, while the interiors and the rear have been designed to be more functional in order to meet the demand for inexpensive, yet representative living space.
The houses at Lessingstrasse 9 and 11 represent a small architectural peculiarity. In 1906/1907 the two houses were built by the contractors Knüpfer and Gärtner, their facades are almost identical, but they deliberately differ in individual details such as B. the girl's head in the gable . The facades represent a particularly successful symbiosis of both directions of Art Nouveau: There are both floral, curved elements, e.g. B. in the gable, below the window ledges on the 1st floor and in the cartouches in the side risalit , as well as geometric, abstract shapes, z. B. the pilaster strips on the side risalit and the stylized scrollwork on the gable crown. The individual facade surfaces are clearly structured and separated from one another. However, they are linked to one another through the multiple use or variation of ornaments, e.g. B. the same motifs below the lower window ledges on the 1st floor both in the area of the risalit and in the area of the clinker brick facade.
Further sights are the ruins of Plauen Castle , which was used as a prison until 2007 and which is now to be expanded into an educational center. Furthermore, the castle in the village of Jößnitz, the approximately 18-hectare city park, the little Pfortengässchen next to the Johanniskirche and the weavers' houses on the Elster .
In addition to the town hall tower and the 507 meter high Kemmler as a scenic reference point, the Johanniskirche, which rises above the city, is one of the landmarks of the city of Plauen.
The Johanniskirche (dedicated to John the Baptist) was consecrated in 1122 by the Naumburg Bishop Dietrich on the orders of Emperor Heinrich V. The certificate of consecration is also the first written mention of the city. The construction goes back to Count Adalbert von Everstein, who had the church built not far from his castle (today's Malzhaus). Around 1230 the originally Romanesque basilica was expanded to a three-aisled basilica with a transept. After a devastating city fire in 1548, the nave had to be rebuilt. Therefore, it was converted into a late Gothic hall church. The two tower domes were added around 1644. After the Second World War, in which the south tower, the roof structure and the interior fittings were damaged by an air raid on April 10, 1945, it was rebuilt from 1951 to 1959. After the fall of the Wall, there was another extensive renovation. In October 2012 it was found that the church bells were damaged and must be shut down immediately. Next to the Johanniskirche is the Komturhof of the Teutonic Order , which - destroyed in the bombing - was rebuilt from 2004 to 2008 to such an extent that it could be used in the summer. In October 2008 a support association was founded, which is committed to the further expansion of the building.
The Luther Church is the second oldest church in Plauen and one of the oldest baroque central churches in Saxony. The foundation stone was laid on August 24, 1693. The consecration took place on December 10, 1722. Right next to the church was the cemetery (Gottesacker), which was laid out in 1548, which is why it was called Gottesackerkirche for a long time. For the 400th birthday of the reformer Martin Luther , the church was named Luther Church in 1883. The church was used as a cemetery church before it became a parish church on April 8, 1893 with the foundation of the Luther congregation. The roof of the church was damaged in the bombing raids in 1945 and was repaired immediately after the war. Inside there is a late Gothic winged altar by an Erfurt master (made around 1495), who stood for a long time in the St. Thomas Church in Leipzig. In the fall of 1989, innumerable candles were burning in front of the church's side portal. These were parked there by the demonstrators of the Saturday demonstrations, as the door is opposite the main portal of the town hall. The church was renovated from 2009 to 2011. Among other things, the roof was renewed and the bells replaced.
The Markuskirche in the Haselbrunn district was built in the neo-Byzantine style. The foundation stone was laid on April 22, 1911. The church was built on the Morgenberg, which was partially removed for this purpose. The topping-out ceremony was celebrated on March 18, 1912 , and the church was consecrated on December 7, 1912. The church survived the Second World War almost undamaged. Due to the decreasing number of parishioners, a false ceiling was put in between 1963 and 1975, creating an upper church hall and a winter church on the ground floor . In the spring of 1989, the working group Rethinking Through Reflection was founded in the church , whose members can be seen as pioneers of the peaceful turnaround in Plauen in the autumn of that year. In recent years, the upper church hall has been extensively renovated, whereby the old painting was exposed again in accordance with monument protection requirements.
The foundation stone of the Pauluskirche was laid on June 17, 1895. It was built as the third church in the rapidly growing city of Plauen. The topping-out ceremony was celebrated on August 26, 1896 and the church was consecrated on November 29, 1897. After the church in the suburb of the station survived the Second World War almost unscathed, it was heavily damaged in the penultimate (thirteenth) air raid on April 10, 1945. The spire and roof of the nave were destroyed, as were all the windows and the organ. Reconstruction began in 1946 and in 1957 the church was consecrated for the second time.
The Catholic Herz-Jesu-Kirche was built in 1901/1902 as a three-aisled basilica in the neo-Romanesque style made of light ashlar and red brick according to plans by the Leipzig architect Julius Zeißig . It was consecrated in 1905. The tower is 48 meters high. The formerly elaborate interior painting and the stained glass windows were destroyed in the Second World War. After the war the church was renovated several times. The last extensive renovation took place in 2008. In 2003, a photovoltaic system was installed on the southern roof of the central nave .
After a long struggle, the foundation stone for the Reconciliation Church in the Chrieschwitzer Hang district was laid in 1993 . The church was consecrated on March 20, 1994. A stone slab from the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem was let into the large window of the church . The church consists of two independent, contrasting structures. It is mainly made of solid reinforced concrete and clad with cast stone. The church belongs to the Michaelis parish, which still maintains a parish center in Reusa.
In the urban area of Plauen there are still the Evangelical-Methodist Church of the Redeemer and the Evangelical-Lutheran Stephanuskirche Oberlosa and in the localities the village church Jößnitz , the village church Steinsdorf and the chapel Kauschwitz .
The youngest church building is the St. Matthew Church of the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church (SELK) in the Haselbrunn district. The parish previously had its parish rooms on Schumannstrasse. The church was consecrated for the Reformation Festival in 1999 and the bell tower in 2011.
When it comes to bridges, Plauen has some superlatives to offer. There you will find the largest stone arch bridge in the world and the oldest bridge in Saxony. The second largest brick bridge in the world is located on the border with Jocketa.
The old Elsterbrücke was first mentioned in 1244 as Pons lapideus (stone bridge). This makes it the oldest bridge in Saxony. This is where two of the oldest trading routes from Nuremberg ( Frankenstrasse on the B 173 ) and Augsburg met and crossed the White Elster together . The bridge belonged to the old town fortifications of Plauen and crosses the Elster and Mühlgraben with a length of 75 and a width of seven meters. It consists of six stone arches and used to have two towers at the ends. Around 1860 these bridge towers with the post mile column in front of the bridge gate were demolished. In 1888 the bridge was re-consecrated after a reconstruction in which it was reinforced with steel struts and was given the name König-Albert-Brücke . On November 15, 1894, the tram line , which initially ran over the bridge on a single track, opened. From November 28, 1903, the tram ran on two tracks. In the last weeks of the Second World War, the south side of the bridge was badly damaged by a bomb. After the war it was rebuilt and renamed the Dr.-Wilhelm-Kültz- Brücke . After tram traffic had increased dramatically, a new bridge was built over the Elster in the 1970s just a few meters upstream, which was opened to traffic in November 1973 under the name Neue Elsterbrücke . After the reconstruction in 1984, it was only released as a pedestrian bridge. In 1986 a replica of the Saxon post distance column , not true to the original made of Rochlitz porphyry and without distance information, was set up at the southern end of the bridge, which is intended to remind of the importance of the bridge for trade. Extensive renovation work took place between 2006 and 2007 and was completed with the consecration on August 15, 2007. The post mile column, which was destroyed in an accident at the end of 2010, was rebuilt using the coat of arms - now with reconstructed distance information - and erected in October 2011.
The Elstertalbrücke is the second largest brick bridge in the world after the Göltzschtalbrücke . It is located on the city limits of Plauen between the Jößnitz and Jocketa districts . Like its big sister, the bridge was built for the Saxon-Bavarian Railway as part of the construction of the railway . The foundation stone for the 279 meter long and 68 meter high bridge was laid on November 7, 1846. Several hundred workers were employed during the construction work, during which over twelve million bricks were used, before the bridge was opened on July 15, 1851. In the last days of the Second World War, on April 16, 1945, the middle pillar was blown up by German Wehrmacht soldiers. After the war, a temporary steel pillar was installed and the line could be used again from February 4, 1946. The bridge was completely restored by October 1950. The Elstertalbrücke crosses the Elstertal, in which the Elstertalbahn runs next to the Weißen Elster and has two floors. The lower level consists of five pillars and two large arches, the upper level of nine pillars and six large arches. Four pillars are connected to two double pillars. While the train traffic between Reichenbach and Plauen runs on the upper floor, there is a pedestrian crossing on the first floor, which is integrated into the hiking trail network. At the foot of the bridge is the Barthmühle train station .
The Friedensbrücke (also Syratalviadukt ) is the largest quarry stone arch bridge in the world with a span of 90 meters. The bridge has a length of 133, a width of 18 and a height of 18 meters. It spans the Syra and a local road; The federal highway 92 leads over them . After there had been plans for the construction of a bridge over the Syratal since the 1870s, an architectural competition was announced in 1901, in which 23 designs were received. The Liebold & Co. company prevailed with a stone arch bridge, which initially provided for three arches. In order not to impair the traffic in the valley, the design was revised again so that only one arch was provided. On March 26, 1903, work began on the shaft for the abutments. Between August 1 and September 28, 1903, the falsework for the main arch was erected, and on October 15 of the same year work began on building the arch. This work was completed on November 26th. In 1904 the construction of the side arch began, as did the front and wing walls and the staircase. In 1905 the railings were installed; the falsework was removed. On August 24, 1905, the bridge was in the presence of King Friedrich August III. consecrated in his name. At the same time, the tram route across the bridge was opened. Maintenance work was carried out several times between 1907 and 1938. In the final weeks of World War II, the bridge was badly damaged in an air raid. The repairs from 1946 onwards were severely hampered by the scarce resources in building materials, but the construction work on the bridge was completed in 1949. During the reconstruction, the tram tracks were dismantled. In 1984 and between 2001 and 2004 the bridge was renovated. After the bridge was renamed Friedrich-Ebert- Brücke on November 7, 1945 , it has been called Friedensbrücke since November 29, 1973 .
As the last remnant of the Vogtland machine factory VOMAG , which was destroyed at the end of the Second World War, there is an armored bridge made of solid steel in the southwestern outskirts. The building is a listed building and is open to pedestrians. The bullet holes that can still be seen are a special feature of the bridge.
Other bridges, some of them historical, over the Weisse Elster are the Dürerbrücke , near the lower train station , the Gösselbrücke , over which the federal highway 92 runs, the Schwarze Steg , which is only open to pedestrians , the Stresemannbrücke , over which the four-lane federal highway 173 runs, as well as the Friesenbrücke in Altchrieschwitz.
The district heating plant in Hammerstrasse has a 171.7 meter high chimney, which is the tallest structure in Plauen.
82 clubs with 9,395 members are organized in the Plauen City Sports Association (status 2007). The best known are AC Atlas Plauen , who is successful in the first division of weightlifting , VFC Plauen , who plays in the Oberliga Nordost soccer league , SVV Plauen, who plays in the German Water Polo League , who plays in the Oberliga basketball league Saxony playing Homesquad Plauen e. V., the Vogtland cycling club (VRV) with several national championship titles and the athletics and triathlon club (LATV) Plauen.
The Plauener Spitzenfest e. V. organizes the annual city festival. The industry association Plauener Spitzen und Embroidery e. V. works in various fields to promote the Plauen lace . Other well-known clubs are NaturFreunde Plauen e. V. the Kunstverein Plauen-Vogtland e. V. the Diakonisches Werk - Stadtmission Plauen , Die Kinderinsel Vogtland e. V. the literary association Goethekreis e. V. and the German Child Protection Association Plauen e. V.
The largest city festival is the Plauen lace festival . It was first celebrated in 1955. It was originally initiated to give new impetus to the national structure . It should also be used as an advertisement for the Plauen lace. The festival took place annually until 1959. Since the 2nd Workers' Festival took place in the Karl-Marx-Stadt district in 1960 and thus also in Plauen and the Parktheater was built from 1961 to 1963, the event was suspended in these years. From 1964 to 1968 a top festival was celebrated every year. In 1969 there was another interruption due to the workers' festival. The lace festival has been held once a year since 1970. In 2009 the 50th anniversary was celebrated with a week of festivities.
Two other city festivals take place in spring and autumn. The Plauen Spring and the Plauen Autumn offer a mixture of stage programs and market activity. The Vogtlandradmarathon is an annual cycling event that has been held in summer since 2000. In late summer, the Sternquell brewery organizes a brewery festival on the brewery premises in Neuensalz. During Advent, the Plauen Christmas market takes place on the old and monastery market and the adjacent streets .
Together with the eoplauen society , the city of Plauen has been awarding the eoplauen prize on a regular basis since 1995 .
Memorial sites and graves
- In the main cemetery above the crematorium there is a grave field (B and C) for soldiers who died in Plauen during the First and Second World Wars . There are open spaces between the relatively few preserved tombstones. A stele bears the inscription: "To the victims of both wars".
- In the main cemetery, in the middle above the crematorium, is the very inconspicuous mass grave with victims of the air raids on Plauen (grave area D according to the plan of the cemetery). There are no individual tombstones and no names of the dead. The memorial at the upper edge of the grave field bears the inscription: "OUR DEAD MAHNEN. BAN WAR. 1944-1945". This only shows indirectly that the bomb victims are meant and are here.
- A “grave and memorial for the (292) victims of the explosion on July 19, 1918” (grave field A) in a Plauen cartouche factory is located on the left above the crematorium.
In Plauen and the districts that are part of the city today, there are still many war memorials, some of which have been dedicated in their dedication, despite the extensive removals after the end of the Second World War.
- Memorial stone next to the Luther Church in the Dobenau district in honor of 930 Russian soldiers who died in the Battle of Leipzig or who later succumbed to their injuries.
- War memorial in honor of the soldiers who fell in World War I at Cemetery I in the Reissiger suburb .
- War memorial in honor of the soldiers who fell in World War I on Hauptstrasse in the district of Straßberg .
- Memorial ensemble for the soldiers who died in the First and Second World War Am Anger in the Neundorf district .
- War memorial in honor of the soldiers who fell in World War I An den Teichen in the district of Zwoschwitz .
- War memorial in honor of the soldiers who died in the First and Second World War on Zwoschwitzer Strasse in the Kauschwitz district .
- War memorial in honor of the soldiers who fell in World War I and the victims of war and violence in the years 1939–1945 on the Windberg in the Großfriesen district .
- War memorial in honor of the soldiers who died in World War I on Taltitzer Strasse in the Meßbach district .
- War memorial in honor of the soldiers who fell in World War I on the street Um die Teiche in the Thiergarten district .
- War memorial in honor of the soldiers who fell in World War I on Möschwitzer Strasse in the Chrieschwitz district .
- War memorial in honor of the soldiers who died in World War I and II on Bahnhofstrasse in the Jößnitz district .
- In Plauen there are still several memorials in memory of the Jewish community and the victims of fascism . In the ceremony hall of the Jewish cemetery on Oberjößnitzer Weg, which was set up in 1987 to document the history of the city's Jews, there are memorial plaques on the history of the Jewish community and the victims of the Shoah , which were installed as early as 1948. In 1988 a bronze plaque was attached to the Seventh-day Adventist community hall on Senefelder Strasse / corner Engelstrasse, to commemorate the community center with synagogue built on this site in 1930 , which was destroyed in the November pogrom in 1938 . The artists Petra Pfeuffer and Dietmar Ohme designed the memorial stone, inaugurated in 1993, at the Evangelical-Methodist Church of the Redeemer in the street of German unity / corner of Gottschaldstraße to commemorate the Jewish families crammed into the "Jewish houses" of the district before their deportation to the extermination camps. In 1996, a memorial plaque was placed on his last house at Krausenstrasse 2 to commemorate the last head of the Israelite religious community, Isidor Goldberg , who was murdered in Auschwitz concentration camp . Some street names in the city also remember him and other Jewish citizens. Since 1988, there has been another memorial stone in memory of Jewish life in Plauen at Cemetery I on Jößnitzer Straße.
- In 1950, a memorial for all victims of fascism was erected in Plauen's main cemetery on Kleinfriesener Strasse . Victims of various origins and countries are buried there.
- At the staircase to the upper station there is a memorial plaque to the Reichsbahner and resistance fighter Paul Dittmann , who died in 1942 as a result of the prison sentence. A memorial stone for the worker Willy Thoß, who was murdered by SA men in 1932, stands on the manor facility in the Thiergarten district . A similar plaque for the workers' athletes Martin Groh and Kurt Hommel who were shot in 1931 at Komthurhof / corner of Hofwiesenstrasse was secured by the cultural office in 1996 due to construction work.
- The eoplauen society and a street name are reminiscent of the draftsman eoplauen , who evaded his impending execution by suicide in 1944, as well as his friend, the editor Erich Knauf . In contrast, the memory of the communist Rudolf Hallmeyer was removed from public space after 1990. The memorial in the holding cells of the former police prison in the basement of the town hall on Herrenstrasse no longer exists either.
- Two memorial plaques on the Schlossberg commemorate the victims of political justice in the Soviet Zone / GDR and the young people who had to make their way to special Soviet camps from here in 1945 (and afterwards) and some of them never returned.
- The Wende monument in Plauen, a "Citizens ' Monument to the Peaceful Revolution 1989", was inaugurated in 2010. It is diagonally opposite the New Town Hall and is flanked by five steles, which symbolize the dates of particular importance in the GDR (1953, 1961, 1968, 1989, 1990).
- A " Path of the Peaceful Revolution 1989 " leads along significant places for this event in Plauen.
Grave field bomb victims 1944/45 (main cemetery)
Memorial to the bomb victims 1944/45 (main cemetery)
There are twelve primary schools in Plauen , of which the Karl Marx primary school is the largest in Saxony. There are also five high schools and two high schools in the city . At the Lessing-Gymnasium a mathematical-scientific profile and a linguistic profile are offered. In addition to the grammar school for grades 5 to 12, the Diesterweg-Gymnasium offers a Vogtlandkolleg for adult education. The Abitur can be obtained there either in the regular three-year school operation or part-time in evening classes. There is also a special needs school, the Käthe-Kollwitz-Schule .
The Plauen University of Cooperative Education was founded in 1999 and was included in the Saxon University of Cooperative Education Act in December 2006 as the seventh place to study. Since 2010 the qualifications Bachelor of Arts (health and social management) , Bachelor of Arts (trade and international management) and graduate engineer (BA) (technical management) can be achieved. In 2011, the food safety course was also started with a degree in industrial engineering (BA) or Bachelor of Science .
At the DIPLOMA Vogtland University of Applied Sciences Plauen , various bachelor's and master's degrees (business administration, commercial law, medical professions, early childhood education, graphic design) can be completed as part-time distance learning or face-to-face studies.
The vocational school center (BSZ) eoplauen for technology and design includes, in addition to the vocational school , the vocational school and the technical college , a vocational high school and a technical school . Textile, design and media training continues the tradition of the Plauen Art School . Training in twenty other professions in industry and craft rounds off the offer. The same types of schools, but in the areas of business and health, are available at the BSZ Anne Frank . The Business School of Gothaer Bildungsgesellschaft Gobi trains the state-certified business economist. Additional training to acquire the technical college entrance qualification can be completed either full-time or part-time while working. Various other vocational and vocational schools in different fields complete the educational offer.
The music school “Vogtland Conservatory 'Clara Wieck'” goes back to a music school founded in 1952, which in 1969 was given the name Clara Wieck .
The city has roads with a total length of 396 kilometers. The A 72 Hof - Chemnitz leads through the south-east of the city with the junctions Pirk , Plauen-Süd and Plauen-Ost. From the A 72 at the Hochfranken triangle, the A 93 leads south to Regensburg . The A 9 Munich - Berlin can be reached from Plauen after approx. 35 kilometers via the A 72 in a south-westerly direction at the Bavarian Vogtland triangle or in a north-westerly direction after approx. 32 kilometers via the B 282 at the Schleiz junction . The A 4 Dresden - Eisenach can be reached after approx. 80 kilometers on the A 72 in an easterly direction. The federal highways 92 and 173 run through the city . The B 173 connects Plauen with the neighboring cities of Zwickau and Hof , the B 92 with Gera and the Czech Republic . The B 169 begins at the Plauen industrial park near Neuensalz , as a junction from the B 173. It leads via Chemnitz to Cottbus . In Plauen-Kauschwitz, the B 282 branches off from the B 92 , leads to the Schleiz junction of the A 9 and, together with the B 92, forms part of the European route 49 .
The new “Plauen-Mitte” stop was opened on September 7, 2015 after a year-long construction and is located between the lower train station and the former Chrieschwitz stop. The latter was closed in 2006 due to safety deficiencies on a railway bridge. With the opening of the new stop, the lower station and the Plauen-Zellwolle stop were closed. With the construction of a new tram stop, it is a central connection point to local public transport.
The railway lines Leipzig – Hof (part of the Saxony-Franconia Magistrale ) and Plauen – Adorf – Cheb run through Plauen . The Elstertalbahn Gera - Greiz - Weischlitz runs via the Plauen Mitte stop and joins the Plauen - Cheb railway in Weischlitz.
From June 2001 Plauen was temporarily a station in the ICE network of Deutsche Bahn . Since the ICE route Nuremberg-Dresden was not fully electrified, the diesel- powered ICE TD was used, which was to prove its advantages on the winding route through the tilting technology . After frequent breakdowns, it was removed from the timetable in December 2002. A train set of the electrically operated brother of the ICE TD, the ICE T , was subsequently baptized with the name Plauen / Vogtland. The baptism took place in Reichenbach in Vogtland because of the lack of overhead lines . Locomotive-hauled IC trains or railcars of the 612 series repainted in IC colors ran as intercity trains for a while . Since then, Plauen has had no connection to the long-distance network of Deutsche Bahn. Between December 2006 and June 2016, the Franken-Sachsen-Express operated on the previous IC route as a regional express , which was operated by DB Regio on behalf of Deutsche Bahn . From June 2016, the route was taken over by the Mitteldeutsche Regiobahn , which operates the route with Coradia-Continental railcars .
Between 2012 and 2013 Plauen was connected to the railway's electrical network. This created the prerequisites for being able to integrate Plauen into the Central German S-Bahn network after the City Tunnel in Leipzig went into operation (the tunnel is not approved for diesel vehicles). The route from Herlasgrün to the upper station was electrified in 2012, with some road bridges over the railway on the route section being demolished due to insufficient height for overhead lines and having to be replaced if necessary. The continuation of the electrification up to Hof took place in 2013. At the 2013/14 timetable change, the electrified route between Reichenbach and Hof was officially put into operation.
Local public transport ( ÖPNV ) is served by five tram lines and four city bus lines operated by Plauener Straßenbahn GmbH as well as the regional bus routes operated by the Plauener bus company and other transport companies in the Vogtland transport association . 20 Tatra trams of the type KT4D-M and 6 Flexity low-floor trams run on the lines of the Plauen tram in the 37.6 kilometer-long rail network . The range is completed with 5 low-floor buses . On the Postplatz in the city center is the central tunnel stop, which is used by all lines and the name of which refers to the Syrabach "tunneled over" here . Six tracks are arranged there in a triangular shape. In 2007 three new city bus routes were set up; the existing line A was restructured. From 8:30 pm, five “night bus” lines will operate, replacing the tram and bus lines that run during the day. The so-called line 11 is a shared call taxi in the Neundorf area . On Sundays and public holidays, the regular taxi service replaces tram traffic between five and eight o'clock.
Plauen can be reached from the air via the Hof-Plauen airfield, which is about forty kilometers away in the Pirk district, southwest of the city of Hof. The Auerbach airfield , located about twenty kilometers to the east, is mainly used for aviation, but is also used for business flights. The nearest airports with international scheduled connections are Leipzig / Halle Airport, around 150 kilometers to the north, Dresden Airport 150 kilometers to the east, and Nuremberg Airport, around 160 kilometers to the south-west . Scheduled flights were discontinued at Leipzig-Altenburg Airport , about 80 kilometers away .
Pedestrian and bicycle traffic
Together with two other municipalities, Plauen was a model city for the “Pedestrian and Bicycle Friendly City” project of the Federal Environment Agency . The project, which was completed in 2004, mainly served to find ways of making cycling and pedestrian traffic more attractive by using inexpensive and unconventional means . As a result, a route network for cyclists consisting of 15 everyday routes and 4 tourist routes with corresponding cross connections was developed. These routes were equipped with appropriate signposts. Plauen is located on the Elster Cycle Path and the Vogtland Panorama Weg, among other places .
The city of Plauen is inextricably linked with the Plauen lace . The name is a registered trademark of the trade association Plauener Spitzen und Embroidery e. V. to which several manufacturers belong, including Modespitze Plauen GmbH . The companies in Plauen and the surrounding area make a wide variety of products from lace fabrics. The palette ranges from tablecloths and accessories to women's clothing and wedding dresses.
The roots of WEMA VOGTLAND Technology GmbH go back to VOMAG . As a mechanical engineering company for metal cutting, WEMA operates worldwide and produces machine tools for almost all major automobile manufacturers and their suppliers. Since August 2010 the company has also had a branch in the USA, in Belvidere .
The Plamag Plauen GmbH was located in the north of Plauen on the border of the district Kauschwitz and was one of the largest employers in the region. There were printing presses manufactured. After the insolvency of manroland Druckmaschinen AG , the plant was spun off as an independent company and has had its old name since February 2012. Negotiations are being made with various potential investors about the sale of the plant, which initially acted as a supplier to the Augsburg manroland plant, which was taken over by the Possehl Group . On December 19, 2012, the insolvency administrator announced that the plant would be closed for good. Since February 4, 2013, the 200,000 m² site has been marketed as the Plamag Plauen industrial park .
The Neoplan Omnibus GmbH Plauen went in 1991 from a factory for repair of Ikarus buses out. In 2010 around 700 people were employed there. After Neoplan was incorporated into MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG in 2008 , there were initially discussions in 2010 whether there should be massive job cuts in Plauen due to the relocation of parts of production to Poland. There were carried transitional body assembly and interior design of buses whose skeletons are manufactured in Poland. In the years 2011 to 2013, the plant should be expanded with around 20 million euros. After large parts of the production were relocated to Turkey in 2014, production in Plauen was discontinued. Instead, a so-called "bus modification center" is now being operated on the site. The customer-specific final production of the buses is carried out.
In the east of the city, near Neundorf, is the plant of vosla GmbH (VOgtländische SpezialLAmpen). Special lamps are made there. Originating from a Narva location, it has belonged to Philips Technologie GmbH since 1991 . In the summer of 2011, the production line for H4 lamps from Philips was relocated to Pabianice , Poland . This reduced the number of employees to around 300. Since September 2012, the company has been part of the Bavaria Industries Group .
The Plauen Stahl Technologie GmbH provides with about 130 employees, steel structures and bridges ago. The former VEB Stahlbau was taken over by Lentjes AG after reunification and sold to mg capital GmbH in 2001. Today's company was founded in 2003. She is active in bridge construction, among other things built the Elbe bridge Niederwartha and was involved in the renovation of the Fleher bridge . In addition, parts of the Hamburg trade fair and a trade fair hall of the Düsseldorf trade fair were built.
The Sachsendruck Plauen GmbH provides with about 80 employees (as of 2014) different print products here. In 1991 the former VEB was taken over by the Sebaldus Group and later by the schlott group . The company in the center of Plauen has been part of the Pinguin Group since 2016.
The Sternquell-Brauerei GmbH Plauen part of Brau Holding International and employs about 160 employees. The brewery has locations in the center of Plauen, near the Friedensbrücke , and in the Neuensalz industrial park. Ten different types of beer are brewed.
The Vogtlandmilch GmbH introduces the trademarks Vogtland pasture and Sachsenland ago dairy products and soft drinks. The company with around 120 employees is the only school milk filler in Saxony (milk number: SN 008). After the fall of the Wall , the company founded in 1928 as Vogtländische Milchhof AG went to Sachsenmilch AG ; the production, which had been spread over five factories until then, was concentrated in Plauen. In the course of the takeover of Sachsenmilch AG by the Müller Group in 1994, the shareholders, the producer group Milch Plauen and the Glauchau dairy cooperative, bought back the shares in Vogtlandmilch GmbH and have held them to this day.
The Plauen housing association (WbG for short) is the non-profit municipal housing association of the city of Plauen. The city of Plauen is the sole shareholder and has given it the responsibility to provide affordable living space to every citizen (public services of general interest ), to participate in urban development and the maintenance of functioning urban structures. The cooperative rents 7,738 apartments and 177 commercial units.
Plauen is the starting point for extensive hikes in the Vogtland . Several hiking and biking trails run through the city, for example the E3 long-distance hiking trail with the Eisenach – Budapest mountain hiking trail , the Vogtland Panorama Weg , the Elster Cycle Path and the Euregio Egrensis long-distance cycle path .
The Plauen Park Railway, inaugurated in 1959, is located on Hainstraße in the Syratal, near the Friedensbrücke . It is the only electrically operated park railway in Germany with public transport. Founded as a pioneer railway, it is now run by an association.
In the Elsteraue, near the Alte Elsterbrücke , the AREA241 Skateplaza is one of the largest skate parks in Germany. There are stairs of various heights, widths and degrees of difficulty. You can also prove your skill on numerous banks , ledges , rails and curbs .
The city's youth hostel has been located in the city center since 2007. For this purpose, the old fire station was converted into accommodation with 135 beds in 48 rooms. The original equipment, such as the sliding pole, was retained.
City tours can be booked at the tourist information office, during which the 64-meter-high town hall tower can also be climbed.
The regional radio station Vogtland Radio is based in Plauen-Haselbrunn. Since 1998 it has been broadcasting its own independent 24-hour radio program for the entire Vogtland in East Thuringia, West Saxony and Upper Franconia. The radio station MDR Sachsen also operates a regional studio in Plauen.
Two daily newspapers appear in Plauen , the Vogtland-Anzeiger in Plauen with a circulation of around 7,000 copies and a local edition of the Chemnitz Free Press with a circulation of around 16,000 copies.
The private online magazine Spitzenstadt.de has been reporting daily from the city since spring 2007 . It supplements the city's official website with the latest news from politics, business, sport and culture.
→ Main article: List of personalities from the city of Plauen
Plauen has been associated with numerous personalities since it was founded. There were both positive and negative examples in politics. With Heinrich the Elder and Heinrich Reuss von Plauen , the Lords of Plauen provided two Grand Masters of the Teutonic Order . During the Second World War, however , the Plauen factory owner Martin Mutschmann played an inglorious role as Gauleiter in Saxony. In 1989, Jörg Schneider wrote the appeal “Come to the demonstration on October 7th!” Since 2004, Frank Heidan, a member of the Group of 20 , the citizens' council for the 1989 autumn fall, has been sitting in the state parliament . The theologian and astronomer Georg Samuel Dörffel is outstanding in the scientific field . In his work Astronomical Observation of the Great Comet, which A. appeared in 1680 and 1681 years before Newton's theory of gravity , he demonstrated that comets move on parabolic orbits with the sun in their focus. In the field of sport, the Olympic champions Kurt Helbig (weightlifting), Angelika Bahmann (canoe slalom) and Kornelia Grummt-Ender (swimming) stood out. Plauen has also produced some creative artists, such as the church musician and composer Johannes Petzold , the actors Claudia Loerding and Stefan König , the cabaret artist Olaf Schubert and the worker photographer Walter Ballhause . Probably the most famous Plauen man is the cartoonist Erich Ohser . The creator of the father-and-son stories made the city famous by his stage name “eoplauen”. Born in Untergettengrün / Vogtland, he grew up in Plauen, went to school there and completed an apprenticeship as a locksmith in the last years of the First World War.
- Erich Keyser (Ed.): German city book. Urban History Handbook . Volume II Central Germany - On behalf of the Conference of the Regional History Commissions of Germany with the support of the German Municipal Association, Stuttgart 1941
- Rüdiger Flämig (Ed.): State art and technical school for the textile industry 1877/1945 . Sebald Sachsdruck Plauen, Plauen 1996.
- Gerhard Cheap : Pleißenland - Vogtland. The kingdom and the governors. Investigations into the ruling organization and state constitution during the Middle Ages under the aspect of periodization . Vogtland-Verlag, Plauen 2002, ISBN 3-928828-22-3 .
- Ulla Spörl: Plauen around 1900 . 2006, ISBN 3-00-019362-6 .
- Brigitte Unger, Werner Pöllmann u. a. (Ed.): The Vogtland Atlas. Regional atlas on nature, history, population, economy and culture of the Saxon Vogtland. 3. Edition. Verlag Klaus Gumnior, Chemnitz 2007, ISBN 978-3-937386-18-8 .
- Richard Steche : Plauen. In: Descriptive representation of the older architectural and art monuments of the Kingdom of Saxony. 11th booklet: Amtshauptmannschaft Plauen . CC Meinhold, Dresden 1888, p. 48.
- Detlef Manfred Müller: Erich Ohser - eoplauen (1903-1944) - the political draftsman. Approaching the existence of an artist in the 'Weimar Republic' and 'Third Reich'. Catalog essay. Vogtlandmuseum Plauen, Plauen 2004.
- Detlef Manfred Müller: Erich Ohser - eoplauen (1903–1944) - father and son & the Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung from 1934–1937. An idyll with a double bottom? Catalog book. Gallery eoplauen, Plauen 2009.
- Plauen and the middle Vogtland (= values of our homeland . Volume 44). 1st edition. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1986.
- Gerd Naumann: Plauen in the bombing war 1944/1945 . PG-Verlag, Plauen 2011. 2nd edition
- Manuel Fleischer: The interaction between the 10th Royal Saxon Infantry Regiment No. 134 and the city of Plauen. In: Robert Bohn , Michael Epkenhans (ed.): Garrison towns in the 19th and 20th centuries. A publication of the Institute for Schleswig-Holstein Contemporary and Regional History and the Center for Military History and Social Sciences of the Bundeswehr (= IZRG series of publications . Volume 16). Publishing house for regional history, Gütersloh 2015, ISBN 978-3-7395-1016-3 , p. 162 ff.
- Story part
- Hermann Fiedler: The city of Plauen in the Vogtlande . A historical sketch. Plauen, FE Neupert 1874.
- A. Neupert sen. (Ed.): Small Chronicle of the City of Plauen i. Vogtland from 1122 until the end of the 19th century . Commission publisher Rud. Neupert jr., Plauen 1908.
- A. Neupert sen. (Ed.): Small Chronicle of the City of Plauen i. Vogtland New Series 1901 to 1908 . Commission publisher Rud. Neupert jr., Plauen 1909.
- Department of Culture of the Council of the City of Plauen (Ed.): Plauen . A little city book. Issue 25 of the museum series. Plauen 1963.
- Walter Bachmann: The old Plauen . 2nd Edition. Vogtländischer Heimatverlag Neupert, Plauen 1994, ISBN 3-929039-43-5 .
- Wolfgang Benz: Flossenbürg . The Flossenbürg concentration camp and its satellite camps. Ed .: Barbara Distel. CH Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-56229-7 .
- Brigitte Unger (Ed.): The Vogtland Atlas . Regional atlas on nature, history, population, economy and culture of the Saxon Vogtland. 3. Edition. Gumnior, Chemnitz 2007, ISBN 978-3-937386-18-8 .
- Thomas Küttler: The turning point in Plauen . Ed .: Jean Curt Röder. Vogtländischer Heimatverlag Neupert, Plauen 1991, ISBN 3-929039-15-X .
- Rolf Schwanitz : Civil courage . The peaceful revolution in Plauen based on Stasi files as well as retrospectives on the events in autumn 1989. Ed .: Curt Röder. Vogtländischer Heimatverlag Neupert, Plauen 1998, ISBN 3-929039-65-6 .
- Detlef Manfred Müller: Erich Ohser - eoplauen (1903-1944) - the political draftsman. Approaching the existence of an artist in the 'Weimar Republic' and 'Third Reich'. Catalog essay. Vogtlandmuseum Plauen, Plauen 2004.
- Detlef Manfred Müller: Erich Ohser - eoplauen (1903–1944) - father and son & the Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung from 1934–1937. An idyll with a double bottom? Catalog book. Gallery eoplauen, Plauen 2009.
- Walter Bachmann: The old Plauen . 2nd Edition. Vogtländischer Heimatverlag Neupert, Plauen 1994, ISBN 3-929039-43-5 .
- Vogtlandmuseum Plauen (ed.): A walk through Alt-Plauen. 2., revised. and exp. Edition. (Museum series, issue 60). 1993, .
- Axel Reitel: Marvel at and look at Plauen. 1st edition. City of Plauen, Office for Economic Development. Plauen 1997, OCLC 316284737 .
- Literature about Plauen in the catalog of the German National Library
- Literature about Plauen in the Saxon Bibliography
- Web presence of the city of Plauen
- Plauen in the Digital Historical Directory of Saxony
- Population of the Free State of Saxony by municipalities on December 31, 2019 ( help on this ).
- Leaflet from the press office Figures Data Facts from April 10, 2007.
- Gerd Kramer: Land use Plauen in the Vogtland Atlas. P. 64 (see literature)
- Günter Freyer: The geological conditions of Plauen in Plauen-A small city book. Museum series issue 25, 1963, p. 9 ff.
- Uwe Lehmann: Epicentres and local magnitude of seismic events in southwest Saxony 1984–2000 in the Vogtland Atlas. P. 24 (see literature)
- The data for the normal period 1961–1990 can be downloaded from the website of the German Weather Service. Retrieved November 3, 2010 .
- Eberhard Freydank, German weather service Radebeul: The climate of the Vogtland in the Vogtland atlas. P. 28 (see literature)
- Official statistical report 2012 of the city of Plauen. (PDF; 5,340 kB) Retrieved on February 28, 2013 .
- Johannes Richter: Archaeological sites in the Vogtland Atlas. P. 36 (see literature)
- Manfred Wilde : The sorcery and witch trials in Kursachsen , Cologne, Weimar, Vienna 2003, pp. 557–559.
- Hans-Peter Franke: The plague 'letter to the woman of Plauen'. Studies on tradition and shape change (= studies on medieval plague literature, III, 2), Würzburg 1977 (= Würzburg medical historical research, 9)
- Horst Fröhlich : Plauen's way to the industrial city in Plauen-A small city book , Museum series issue 25, 1963, p. 70.
- Historikus Vogtland - Geschichtsmagazin, September - October 2007 edition (online version of the article here )
- Gerd Naumann: Plauen in the bombing war. In: Vogtland Atlas. P. 50 (see literature)
- Gerd Naumann: Plauen in the bombing war 1944/1945 . Plauen 2011, p. 140
- Rudolf Laser, Joachim Mensdorf and Johannes Richter: 1944/45 Plauen - A city is destroyed. Vogtländischer Heimatverlag Neupert 1995, ISBN 3-929039-44-3 .
- Gerd Naumann: Plauen in the bombing war 1944/45 . Plauen 2011.
- Photo documentation for the large demonstration on October 7, 1989 in Plauen. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 3, 2009 ; Retrieved June 27, 2009 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Civil courage. P. 359. (see above)
- John Connelly: Moment of Revolution: Plauen (Vogtland), October 7, 1989. In: German Politics & Society. No. 20, Summer 1990, pp. 71-89.
- Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk : The takeover: How East Germany became part of the Federal Republic. CH Beck, Munich 2019, p. 57.
- Bylaws for the introduction of “Democracy Day” as a day of remembrance (p. 16). (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 24, 2011 ; Retrieved February 26, 2009 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Official page on the Wende monument in Plauen. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 9, 2009 ; Retrieved June 27, 2009 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Bulletin (12/2008) of the city of Plauen on the award "Commune of the year 2008". (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 24, 2011 ; Retrieved January 23, 2009 .
- Decision of the constitutional court on the district reform 2008. (PDF; 119 kB) Retrieved on February 13, 2009 .
- Report on www.spitzenstadt.de about Plauen joining the "Mayors for Peace" initiative. Retrieved April 12, 2010 .
- Bulletin (06/2010) of the City of Plauen: Decision to join the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (Decision No. 10 / 10-4). (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 24, 2011 ; Retrieved July 20, 2010 .
- Press release from the Federal Agency for Civic Education on the 2011 uniform price. (PDF; 160 kB) Retrieved on October 15, 2012 .
- Bulletin (12/2011, p. 8) of the city of Plauen on the award of the EEA. (PDF; 15.6 MB) Retrieved October 15, 2012 .
- Municipalities 1994 and their changes since January 1, 1948 in the new federal states , Metzler-Poeschel publishing house, Stuttgart, 1995, ISBN 3-8246-0321-7 , publisher: Federal Statistical Office
- StBA: Changes in the municipalities, see 1996 and 1999
- Statistics from the Employment Agency. Retrieved January 5, 2018 .
- Bernd Appel: Every fourth Vogtlander is Lutheran . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . January 18, 2011, p. 11 .
- Bernd Appel: What the Pope says is binding . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . January 25, 2011, p. 10 .
- Bernd Appel: What once began with illegal meetings . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . February 22, 2011, p. 10 .
- Article on the history of the Matthew church on the church's website. Retrieved October 7, 2019 .
- Bernd Appel: Long closed church opens . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . February 1, 2011, p. 13 .
- Bernd Appel: Open doors and hearts found . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . March 15, 2011, p. 13 .
- Bernd Appel: Brethren congregation does not need a pastor . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . February 15, 2011, p. 10 .
- Bernd Appel: Evangelism is the most important task . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . April 5, 2011, p. 15 .
- Bernd Appel: After praise comes the time of prayer . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . March 22, 2011, p. 11 .
- Bernd Appel: Not limited by birth and death . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . April 19, 2011, p. 11 .
- Bernd Appel: Witnesses expect "paradise on earth" . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . April 12, 2011, p. 14 .
- Bernd Appel: Where the ancestors are also baptized . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . March 1, 2011, p. 10 .
- Bernd Appel: The Muslim faith rests on five pillars . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . April 26, 2011, p. 14 .
- Bernd Appel: The mind is God's gift . In: Free Press - Plauener Zeitung . March 29, 2011, p. 11 .
- Page of the TU Darmstadt on the Plauen synagogue. Retrieved February 8, 2012 .
- Result of the mayoral election 2014 on the website of the city of Plauen. Retrieved July 8, 2014 .
- Result of the election to the city council on May 26, 2019. Accessed on June 13, 2019 .
- Result of the election to the city council on May 25, 2014. Accessed on May 26, 2014 .
- Result of the election to the city council on June 7, 2009. Accessed on May 26, 2014 .
- Result of the election to the city council on June 13, 2004. Accessed on May 26, 2014 .
- Result of the election to the city council on June 13, 1999. Accessed on May 26, 2014 .
- Result of the election to the city council on June 12, 1994. Accessed on May 26, 2014 .
- Information on the election of the youth parliament on October 6, 2009 at www.spitzenstadt.de. Retrieved October 9, 2009 .
- Report in the Freie Presse on the election of the youth parliament on January 19, 2012. Accessed on February 1, 2014 (fee required).
- Bylaws of the youth parliament. (PDF; 29 kB) Retrieved October 15, 2012 .
- Plauen Youth Parliament. (No longer available online.) In: Jugendparlament Plauen. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010 ; accessed on January 12, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Spitzenstadt.de. Martin Reissmann, accessed on January 12, 2017 .
- Main statute of the city of Plauen of April 7, 2017 (§ 2). (PDF - 113 kB) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 2, 2017 ; accessed on May 23, 2017 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Report in the Freie Presse on missing documents on the town twinning with Asch. Retrieved February 8, 2012 .
- Page of the city of Steyr on town twinning
- ( page no longer available , search in web archives )
- ( page no longer available , search in web archives )
- Information sheet (10/2010) of the city of Plauen on the signed city partnership agreement with Šiauliai ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- Bulletin (10/2010) of the city of Plauen on the opening of the Erich-Ohser-Haus. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 24, 2011 ; Retrieved October 14, 2010 .
- Article in the Free Press on the dismantling of the art clock at the town hall. Retrieved November 3, 2010 .
- Article in the Vogtland-Anzeiger on the assembly of the art clock on the town hall after restoration. Retrieved November 3, 2010 .
- Bulletin (06/2011) of the city of Plauen on the restoration of the town hall facade. (PDF; 17.3 MB) Retrieved October 15, 2012 .
- Bulletin (01/2012, pp. 6-7) of the city of Plauen on the renovation of the glass facade of the New Town Hall. (PDF; 9.7 MB) Retrieved October 15, 2012 .
- Summary of the processes for the new construction of the town hall facade on the side of the city of Plauen. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on February 18, 2013 ; Retrieved March 22, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Article in the Free Press about the possible use of Weisbach's house as a top center. Retrieved February 8, 2012 .
- selk-plauen.de ( Memento of the original from February 27, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. History of the St. Matthew Community in Plauen, accessed on June 20, 2012.
- listed monuments of the city of Plauen 2009
- listed monuments of the city of Plauen 2009
- listed monuments of the city of Plauen 2009
- Wende monument . Leaflet from the tourist information office in Plauen
- Bulletin (09/2007) of the city of Plauen on the largest elementary school in Saxony. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved August 26, 2009 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Information sheet (12/2009) of the city of Plauen on the tenth anniversary of the Plauen University of Cooperative Education 2009. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on May 24, 2011 ; Retrieved November 3, 2010 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Page on the qualifications of the Plauen University of Cooperative Education. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 18, 2011 ; Retrieved November 3, 2010 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Information on the food safety course at the vocational academy. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on February 29, 2012 ; Retrieved February 8, 2012 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Statistics on the website of the city of Plauen. Retrieved October 27, 2014 .
- Information on the new Plauen-Mitte stop on the city page. Retrieved October 27, 2014 .
- Saxon-Bavarian city network (PDF; 326 kB)
- Announcement about the takeover of the Sachsenmagistrale by the MRB on mdr.de. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 27, 2016 ; accessed on September 27, 2016 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Report on the commissioning of the electrified Reichenbach-Hof line on spitzenstadt.de. Retrieved October 27, 2014 .
- Overview of the data for the Plauen tram on the company's website. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 7, 2014 ; accessed on October 27, 2014 .
- Fun in the city - on a shopping and adventure tour in the top city. (PDF) Tourist Information of the City of Plauen, January 2016, accessed on January 31, 2017 .
- UBA model project pedestrian and bicycle friendly city, 2001–2003
- page on bicycle traffic on the website of the city of Plauen. Retrieved October 27, 2014 .
- Article in the Financial Times Deutschland on the insolvency of manroland. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 27, 2011 ; Retrieved November 25, 2011 .
- Report in the Free Press from February 6, 2012 on the search for investors for Plamag. Retrieved February 8, 2012 .
- Article on the closure of Plamag in the Vogtlandanzeiger of December 20, 2012. Accessed on March 22, 2013 .
- Report on the marketing of the site on the Plamag Plauen industrial park site. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on April 13, 2013 ; Retrieved March 22, 2013 .
- Report on www.sachsen.de on maintaining the NEOPLAN location in Plauen. Retrieved October 19, 2010 .
- Report of December 6, 2011 in Vogtland-Anzeiger on the expansion of the Neoplan factory. Retrieved February 8, 2012 .
- Report of July 24, 2011 in Vogtland-Anzeiger on the removal of the H4 system and downsizing at Philips. Retrieved February 8, 2012 .
- Article in Vogtlandanzeiger about the restart of vosla GmbH. (PDF; 163 kB) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 1, 2014 ; Retrieved March 22, 2013 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Chemnitz District Court, HRB 589
- Edition of the "Vogtland-Anzeiger". Retrieved October 27, 2014 .
- Edition of the "Free Press". Retrieved October 27, 2014 .