Kurt Erich Ohser (born March 18, 1903 in Untergettengrün , Amtshauptmannschaft Oelsnitz ; † April 6, 1944 in Berlin ) was a German draftsman and caricaturist , who was particularly famous for his under the pseudonym e. o. plauen created comic strips around the characters father and son became famous.
When Erich Ohser was six years old in 1909, the family moved to Plauen . There he successfully completed an apprenticeship as a locksmith and then studied against the will of his parents from 1921 to 1926 in Leipzig at the State Academy for Graphic Arts and Book Industry . He also worked for the Neue Leipziger Zeitung , where he was introduced to Erich Kästner by his editor Erich Knauf . The friendship of the "three Erichs" began. After graduating, Ohser quickly became known as a book illustrator (including illustrating Kästner's volumes of poetry) and as a caricaturist (for example with the SPD newspaper Vorwärts ). In particular with his caricatures of Hitler and Goebbels , he drew the hatred of the National Socialists . Together with Kästner and the Hanoverian photographer Hein Gorny he went on trips to Paris , Moscow and Leningrad (where his rejection of communism developed). In 1930 he and his fellow student Marigard Bantzer married , their son Christian was born the following year († 2001).
The takeover of power by the NSDAP regime meant the end for the political illustrator Ohser. His application for admission to the Reich Press Chamber was rejected, which amounted to a professional ban. From then on, his wife had to take care of the family. At the end of 1934 Ohser applied to the Berliner Illustrirten Zeitung , which was looking for a comic - similar to Mickey Mouse - with a design by father and son . Ohser was not allowed to publish under his real name. He was only accepted after he had acquired the pseudonym e.o.plauen (his initials and the name of his hometown), and on the condition that he was not politically active. In December 1934 the first picture story of father and son came out, which then appeared weekly for three years in this respected and high-circulation magazine. The publisher also published three book editions, all of which were successful. After that, eoplauen alias Erich Ohser was allowed to continue working and in 1940 joined the weekly magazine Das Reich . There he became known as a cartoonist, with his Stalin caricatures being considered particularly successful. In the "Deutsche Zeichenfilm GmbH" founded by Goebbels in 1942, Ohser worked with Manfred Schmidt , the inventor of Nick Knatterton , on the 17-minute cartoon Poor Hansi , which was released in 1944. Content of the film: The canary Hansi escapes from his cage because he has fallen in love with a swallow flying by . But because the husband of the beloved reacts rather rudely and in view of the dangers that Hansi experiences outside the bars, he returns ruefully to his cage, where he is expected by a lady canary.
Ohser could not keep his aversion to the NSDAP regime to himself in the long run. A Denunziationsschrift over Ohser from its neighbors Bruno Schultz , a captain in the department Wehrmacht propaganda of the High Command of the Wehrmacht , was handed over on 22 February 1944 Goebbels. Ironically, a friend Erich Ohsers, in the wheel of Goebbels, for the disinformation competent the foreign office Schwarz van Berk active journalist Gerhart way , was tasked with checking the credibility of the witness Schultz and confirmed in a memorandum of 7 March 1944 " that the information contained in his note of February 22, 1944 corresponds to the facts ”. On March 28, 1944, Ohser and his friend Erich Knauf were arrested. The trial before the People's Court should be opened on April 6th by Roland Freisler . Ohser hanged himself the night before. Knauf was executed in May . Until 1968 the urn with Ohser's ashes was buried in Reichenbach an der Fils ; after that, according to Ohser's request, she was transferred to the family grave in Plauen.
Work and appreciation
The father-and-son picture stories are Ohser's best-known works to this day. They are about a father and his little son who struggle with the problems of everyday life and sometimes also have great adventures. They quickly became popular and are known in many countries around the world - probably also because the majority of them do not require text.
On October 1, 1993, the eoplauen gallery was opened in Plauen, a joint project of the city of Plauen and its twin city Siegen , the state of North Rhine-Westphalia and Salamander AG . Since 1995 the city of Plauen has been awarding the eoplauen prize together with the eoplauen society in his memory . The Erich Ohser House was inaugurated in Plauen on September 24, 2010 .
The father-and-son monument by the sculptor Erik Seidel was first erected in 1995 in Plauener Bahnhofstrasse. Since 2010 it has been at its new location in front of the Erich-Ohser-Haus on Nobelstrasse.
In Plauen the vocational school center "BSZ eoplauen" is named after Erich Ohser.
In 1999 Erich Ohser was honored with a Berlin plaque at the house at Am Feldberg 3 in Berlin-Kaulsdorf , his last place of residence. In the Dudenstraße 10 was on 30 November 2013 at the house of printing a stumbling block laid for Erich Ohser.
In Berlin-Kaulsdorf , a street is called Ohserring.
A street in Bremen was also named after him, Ohserstraße.
Father and son : All's well that ends well , 1936
Democratic cornucopia . Caricature for Das Reich , 1943
- Father and son. All pranks and adventures (jewelry issue). Südverlag, Konstanz 2003, ISBN 978-3-87800-042-6 .
- Father and son. Volume 1. Südverlag, Konstanz 1999, ISBN 978-3-87800-001-3 .
- Father and son. Volume 2. Südverlag, Konstanz 2000, ISBN 978-3-87800-002-0 .
- Father and son. Volume 3. Südverlag, Konstanz 1999, ISBN 978-3-87800-003-7 .
- The most beautiful stories from father and son. Anthology. Ravensburger, Ravensburg 2004, ISBN 3-473-54240-7 .
- Father and son. The most beautiful stories. Anaconda Verlag, Cologne 2016, ISBN 978-3-7306-0333-8 .
- Erich Ohser / eoplauen. Political caricatures, drawings, illustrations and all picture stories “Father and Son” (complete edition). Südverlag, Konstanz 2000, ISBN 978-3-87800-037-2 (with bibliography).
- Erich Kästner: Heart on the waist. Drawings by Erich Ohser. Kurt Weller, Leipzig 1928. New edition: Atrium, Zurich 1985, ISBN 3-85535-905-9 .
- Erich Kästner: A man provides information. Drawings by Erich Ohser. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Berlin 1930. New edition: Atrium, Zurich 1985, ISBN 3-85535-907-5 .
- Erich Kästner: Singing between the chairs . Drawings by Erich Ohser. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Berlin 1932; New edition: Atrium, Zurich 1985, ISBN 3-85535-908-3 .
- Detlef Manfred Müller: Erich Ohser - eoplauen (1903-1944) - the political draftsman. Approaching the existence of an artist in the 'Weimar Republic' and 'Third Reich' . Catalog essay, Vogtlandmuseum Plauen, Plauen 2004.
- Detlef Manfred Müller: Erich Ohser - eoplauen (1903–1944) - father and son & the Berliner Illustrirte Zeitung from 1934–1937. An idyll with a double bottom? Catalog book, Galerie eoplauen, Plauen 2009.
- Dorothea Peters: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 19, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1999, ISBN 3-428-00200-8 , p. 496 f. ( ). In:
- Eva Züchner: The missing journalist. A German story . Berlin Verlag, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-8270-0896-1 , pp. 222-230.
- Elke Schulze: Erich Ohser alias eoplauen - A German artist's fate . 1st edition. Südverlag, Konstanz 2014, ISBN 978-3-87800-046-4 .
- Elke Schulze: Erich Ohser alias eo plauen. The work edition. Drawings, illustrations, caricatures, joke pictures and “father and son” picture stories. Südverlag, Konstanz 2017, ISBN 978-3-87800-103-4 .
- Literature by and about Erich Ohser in the catalog of the German National Library
- Erich Ohser-eoplauen Foundation / eoplauen Society
- Christian Schröder: How eoplauen danced out of line , in: Der Tagesspiegel , April 5, 2014.
- Sven Felix Kellerhoff : The draftsman eoplaen, betrayed by a "friend" . In: Die Welt , April 5, 2014.
- Klaus Hammer: Erich Ohser and the gestures of the moment . In: Das Blättchen , 21st vol., No. 1 from January 1, 2018
- Eva Züchner: The missing journalist. A German story . Berlin 2010, p. 227.
- Biography on eoplauen.de , accessed on August 6, 2015
- Vogtland-Anzeiger: New Plauener Löwel Foundation on the home straight , January 16, 2011, accessed on April 6, 2017
- Father and son stand in front of the Erich-Ohser-Haus . ( Memento of the original from December 31, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: Vogtland-Anzeiger , September 22, 2010, accessed on April 6, 2017
- spiegel.de: Review
- Google-Doodle: 115th birthday of Erich Ohser
- When the father of “Father & Son” was driven to his death , review by Andreas Platthaus of Elke Schulze's biography in FAZ Online from January 5, 2015, accessed January 19, 2015
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||plauen, eo|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German draftsman|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 18, 1903|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Untergettengrün, Vogtland|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 6, 1944|
|Place of death||Berlin|