Württemberg Army

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The army of the German state of Württemberg until 1918 is called the Württemberg Army . These are the troops that were maintained by Württemberg for national defense and as contingents of the Swabian Reichskreis / Reichsarmee , the Rhine Confederation , the German Confederation and the Reichsheer . In addition, there were subsidy regiments , especially in the 18th century , which were given to foreign powers to finance the regular army and to improve the duke's treasury in return for monetary payments. This practice has often been criticized as " soldier trafficking ". From 1807 to 1918 the Landjägerkorps was also part of the army as the state police , when the gendarmes were subordinate to the lower civil authorities in their normal duties.

Duchy of Württemberg until 1805

Military administration

In 1704 a council of wars was formed, which initially supported the duke and increasingly took over the military administration.

Vassal army

Until the 16th century, the duke offered his feudal people to military service if necessary. In the second regiment order (regiment in the original meaning " rule ") of the princely councilors, prelates, knights and the landscape established on June 14, 1498, of the 100 horses at court should be "sübentzig or eighty ... to be handled and shielded this principality lands and lüt serving ”. Field captains were also determined: “and so that the cyt of peace and war would be provided after all necessity. So we arrange gray [Graf] Wolffgangen von Fürstemberg lanfhoffmaistern gray addresses from sonnenberg and Dieterichen von wyler to houptleuten inß field ”.

In the second state order of April 10, 1515, the officials were instructed: "It should also be in everyone syn who and harnasch have and keep clean, and thus welcomed syn everyone to pull out".

On September 8th, 1519, for example, the duke issued an order to his compatriots, feudal and servants, to come to Stuttgart armed, and on January 31st, 1633 the feudal men were ordered, “... on March 11th, 1633, armed with horse and Man in Stuttgart to face ”.

After the Thirty Years' War the vassals were no longer called up.

Land militia

The Duchy of Württemberg stuck to the old principle of mobilizing all men capable of arms to defend the country until its end. In Württemberg, this system was called Landmiliz, also state committee or state defense, other German states also referred to it as state contingent or state selection.

The Württemberg state estates - they included knighthood, prelates and the landscape (= respectability of cities and offices) - had had considerable say in the matter since the Münsingen Treaty of 1492 and the Tübingen Treaty of July 8, 1514: Wars to save the country and people should be consulted and knowledge to wage other wars with the advice, knowledge and will of the Landtag. According to the old tradition, the duke was supposed to pay for supplies and equipment from the income of the chamber property, while the landscape "mit iren lyben" was involved by providing the men. So the duke was able to organize the land militia, but only actually use it with the consent of the estates.

According to the second state order of April 10, 1515 already mentioned above, in addition to the feudal people serving on horseback, every Württemberg citizen was required to serve as part of the state conscription . The country's squad became the pattern convened and exercises in the office cities, but otherwise it met only in case of imminent war. In the area of ​​the cities of Ebingen and Balingen , the locations at strategically important locations , Dobelsteige and on the Lochenpass, were determined in advance. Exercises took place on Sundays at target sites in the villages. Prizes could be won in competitions. The officials were repeatedly asked to determine "how many old and young servants, as the war has practiced and used, may be in each office" (on January 19, 1516) or how many horses and men on horseback or on foot in "his Ampts Stette, Dörffern or Hefen" (on August 14, 1521).

On March 13, 1614, the Duke issued a rescript, concerning the drafting and selection throughout the country, and armament . You can see from the documents that the selection was not only on paper, but at least at times teams were assigned to the land militia: On August 17, 1610, an advertisement was sent to the authorities ob der Staig , 40 men (20 musg., 20 spit) to send to Stuttgart for the “training for the necessary use of the defense” or on August 2, 1726 the general rescript regarding the prohibition of exercises with the land militia during the service .

The land militia was first called up at the beginning of the 17th century. In 1618 the landscape approved money for the purchase of a supply in all offices and cities in preparation for the state defense. At the beginning of the following year 1619 there was a general survey of the country selection with the result that over 10% of the 67,612 defensive men owned a musket .

By the state parliament decision of June 15, 1622 for the establishment of a general permanent state defense, four regiments (2 above the Staig, 2 below the Staig; this means the recruiting areas south and north of the Stuttgart Weinsteige ) with 3,000 men each in 10 companies to 300 men. At the same time, 1,000 fl ( guilders ) quarterly and 3 fl / person / month in the field were approved for payment in times of war .

The state parliament approval of March 23, 1623 approved 45,000 fl for a further ten months, but the duke had to deliver the food when the duke moved out, as well as 10,000 fl for the completion and maintenance of the moat . In March 1624, the militia abdicated and the officers were paid a waiting fee.

In the general tender, containing the order of the general state defense of November 9, 1626, a. Rules and behavior for the "Colonel Sampt his underholders high and other officirn, Capitaini, Beuelchshabern, and war men" including pay in the field for the "Regiment on foot Beniamin Büwingkhausen von Wallerod" and the three companies on horseback regulated.

With the Edict of Restitution of 1629 these troops were dissolved. But when Sweden entered the war, the omens changed again. Duke administrator Julius Friedrich allied himself with the King of Sweden Gustav Adolf and lifted the state defense again. In addition, he advertised two infantry regiments based on the Swedish model. 6000 rural people, under the command of Colonel Pleickhard von Helmstädt, came under Swedish command and from 1632 embarked on a military campaign to Oberschwaben, Baar , the Kinzigtal and Kraichgau , conquering Memmingen , Ravensburg , Wangen im Allgäu , Kempten , Offenburg and besieged Villingen (the siege was lifted after the battle of Nördlingen ).

Accordingly, 2 regiments were still operational for the battle of Nördlingen. Land regiments I (ob der Steig) and II (under der Steig) gathered under their commanders Melchior Linckh and Michael von Grien in August 1634 near Göppingen . There they came under the command of the Swedish Colonel Philipp von Liebenstein and finally arrived from there on August 25, 1634 in the Protestant camp. During the battle around 1000 Wuerttembergians took part in the storm of the Albuch , 2000 fought on the left Swedish wing in the Heselwald and 2000 were tasked with covering the train. The losses of the militia were devastating: "The good Württemberger farmers" were seen after the battle "in large numbers and scattered in their white double smocks and jackets ...". The ducal councilors noted in a letter dated 3/13. September 2000 dead in total. After the defeat at Nördlingen, the Württemberg units were dissolved.

Very soon after the end of the Thirty Years' War , a general rescript was issued on September 18, 1652 , concerning the state defense and selection on horseback and on foot for the regulation of the land militia. In 1655 the troops of the land militia (state committee) consisted of four regiments, which after the "order that and in what way the departure of the newly established regiments should be supplemented on horseback and on foot" of March 13, 1655 before the next visitation should be set up fully:

  • Leibregiment with eight companies on foot and five companies on horseback
  • Johann Friedrichs von Württemberg regiment with eight companies on foot and four companies on horseback
  • Repulsive regiment with eight companies on foot and five companies on horseback
  • Plum regiment with eight companies on foot and three companies on horseback

The infantry companies consisted of half pikemen and half musketeers

On September 30, 1663, the Württemberg feudal people were “with good armor, customary at that time, as it is part of the campaign and seriousness, also due to your class, and the number of horses well mounded, so you are at the service of the feudal feuds that we carry sake, to carry connected ”was called up, on September 12th all the tattered mayors , servants etc. with good horses and weapons ( carbine or fire pipe and pistol ). When the land committee was examined, 33,685 of the 58,376 male persons were compulsory military service between the ages of 17 and 55, of which around 9,000 were designated for service:

troops Strength
18 companies of horsemen and dragoons 1,690 men
yellow regiment 1,851 men
blue regiment 1,852 men
black regiment 1,800 men
red regiment 1,799 men

In addition, 104 feudal men of the duke had to provide 173 horsemen.

When Hereditary Prince Wilhelm Ludwig moved into Stuttgart on February 12, 1674 after his marriage in Darmstadt, all the troops of the Duchy were "in full strength to receive ... on the Feuerbacher Heide in order of battle and greeted him as he approached, arrived and continued with 3 volleys ". The land militia at that time was divided into

  • three regiments on horseback (the first 600 men, the other two 580 men)
  • four regiments on foot (1,000 men each)

In addition to the annual exercises and training of the companies, a main training took place every three years, during which the sample roles were corrected.

The land militia was partially mobilized in the Franco-Dutch War (1672–1679) and initially deployed on the borders of the duchy and in Heilbronn. After its end, the estates pushed for the land militia to be reduced. The Duke administrator Carl Friedrich von Württemberg reorganized this independently in 1677

  • a regiment on horseback (800 riders and 200 dragoons )
  • four regiments on foot 1st selection (four companies of 984 men each)
  • four regiments on foot 2nd selection (four companies of 819 men each)

The cavalry regiment and the regiments of the 1st selection should form a permanent defense militia. However, he was unable to come to an agreement with the estates about the organization and distribution of the costs.

In the Palatinate War of Succession , all Württemberg troops were out of the country. Therefore, with the consent of the estates, the land militia was called up. This land militia was converted into regular (= regulated) soldiers on May 14, 1691 (see below). The Duke administrator was captured by the French in autumn 1692 during a battle between Pforzheim and Ötigsheim. The “co-guardian” Duchess Magdalene Sybille then released 3,000 men from the forced and regulated land militia.

In 1733 the state defense system was reorganized. All men between the ages of 18 and 36 were obliged to serve in the land militia, but there were many exceptions. The chief bailiffs were obliged to be drafted before or on Georgi.

Under the threat of French troops in the First Coalition War (1792–1795), the land militia was mobilized for the last time in the duchy. On February 10, 1794, Duke Ludwig Eugen issued a general rescript regarding the re-establishment of a country militia : in each town, men aged 17 to 50 were to be divided into three groups (1st group from 17 to 30 years, 2nd group from 31 to 40 years, 3rd Rotte from 41 to 50 years), with the exception of school, church and court servants and the sick, and are called up to defend the country if necessary. The men had "partly in the official city, partly in the most appropriately located places of the office in the first 14 days daily, then they had grasped the most necessary, 3 days a week, but subsequently all Sundays and public holidays after church in the Weapons, panning and finally shooting ”. So from the 1st Rotte, where this was not sufficient also from the 2nd Rotte, a country militia of 14,000 men were mobilized and organized in brigades, each with two battalions of three companies. Brigade commanders should be staff officers, the battalion commanders captains and the company commanders premier lieutenants from the active troops There was a sergeant in every place, so that the militia men could exercise with the least amount of time. ... The team should be provided with the same caliber rifles, which are always to be kept in the town halls in specially equipped rifle chambers and only to be given for exercise and service. ”Received as payment

  • Brigade Commandant 75 to 83 fl and 1 horse ration
  • Captain 50 fl
  • Premier lieutenant 25 to 30 fl
  • Second lieutenant 8 fl 20 × ( cruiser )

The non-commissioned officers received monthly compensation only as compensation for missing time during the exercises, since otherwise they could carry out their civil business

  • Sergeant 2 fl
  • Corporal 1 fl
  • Private 50 ×
  • Tambour 30 ×

Militiamen only received "amusement" during exercises from the company upwards, at the first two meetings of the company 6 times each, at the first two meetings in the battalion 10 times each, but when marching out 12 times a day, 2 pounds of bread and free roof and Subject.

Were drawn up

Brigades Battalions
1st Brigade in Bönnigheim 1. Btl Lauffen aN , 2. Btl Güglingen , 3. Btl Vaihingen a. d. E.
2nd Brigade in Ludwigsburg 5. Btl Ludwigsburg, 10. Btl Weinsberg , 15. Btl Marbach a. N.
3rd Brigade in Tübingen 11. Btl Herrenberg , 12. Btl Tübingen, 14.Btl Urach
4th Brigade in Schorndorf 16. Btl Waiblingen , 17. Btl Schorndorf, 18. Btl Göppingen
5th Brigade in Calw 4. Btl Leonberg , 6th Btl Calw, 7th Btl Neuenbürg
6th Brigade in Freudenstadt 8. Btl Dornstetten , 9. Btl Hornberg , 13. Btl Balingen
Reserve Brigade in Stuttgart 19. Btl Kirchheim u. T. , 20. Btl Nürtingen

For the deployment of the land militia, a plan was drawn up to defend the country in three "lines of defense":

The land militia was no longer called up and deployed.

Conflict between the Duke and the Landtag over the financing of a standing army

The Peace of Westphalia gave the princes of the Holy Roman Empire the right to form standing armies ( jus armarum ). The size of one's own army not only demonstrated the power-political weight of a prince, because of the financial needs for his entertainment it also showed the economic power of the principality. Therefore, the princes endeavored to maintain as large a standing army as possible.

It was at the discretion of the Dukes, at his own expense advertising of mercenaries set up troops. Since they didn't have the money to do this, they tried again and again to convert the national contingent into standing troops. The Württemberg provincial estates resisted these attempts with the view that the state contingent was sufficient and productive, and that the common man could not go out with his body and, contrary to all custom, also spend money on recruiting mostly foreigners.

In the Franco-Dutch War in 1672, the Landtag initially considered the existing 180 men on foot and 86 riders of the bodyguard to be enough, but then granted money to recruit a further 20 men on foot and for the position in the Reichsheer for 100 horsemen and 200 men on foot . It was not until 1673, in view of the threat from France, that he approved 33,000 fl ( guilders ) for the recruitment of 300 riders and 1,000 infantry outside the district contingent: the u. a. Ducal regiment on foot.

In 1691, Duke administrator Carl Friedrich von Württemberg proposed to the state estates to convert the land militia into regular soldiers. They refused, pointing out that the previous facility was sufficient for the defense of the country, that more military would only encourage more zealous active participation in the war and thus incite the enemy to attack the duchy. Even without the consent, the duke administrator converted the troops with advertising and additional forced evictions. To cover the costs, a poll and family tax and the collection of the thirtieth part of the fruit and wine yield, the so-called "Trizesimen", were levied. However, these funds were insufficient to support the troops. After Carl Friedrich was captured by the French in 1692, the trimesters were no longer raised.

The dispute with the estates continued under Duke Eberhard Ludwig . The Landtag, which was convened in 1698, did not agree to the financing of the troops, which had been increased to almost 2,000 men (including 850 district contingents), and demanded their dismissal. The Duke then dissolved the state parliament. In order to finance the troops, he wrote out the Trizesisms again without the consent of the estates. The dispute over financing was not settled until 1724. Against the abolition of the tresesisms and the national selection (compulsory recruitment), the grand committee of the state parliament initially approved 360,000 fl (extraordinaryarii) annually on a trial basis to maintain the recruited troops and to dispute the district coordination (tax of the Swabian Empire to pay the standing army). This sum was retained under Eberhard Ludwig and his successors and increased to 460,000 fl in 1739. This finally secured the financing of the standing army in the Duchy of Württemberg.

The conflict between the duke and the state parliament regarding the necessary troop strengths and their procurement remained until the end of the duchy. Duke Carl Eugen strengthened the troops on his own initiative up to 15,000 men at times, mainly with the help of French subsidies, and collected the necessary funds unconstitutionally. The contrast to the landscape was finally ended by the "Hereditary Comparison of 1770", which set the Württemberg army back to the state of 1739.

Ducal household troops

As household troops in the duchy of Wurttemberg, the standing army of the Duchy were called to distinguish it from the militia or the Circle troops . The recruiting of the teams took place according to the time through advertising .

According to the custom of the time, the regiments were named after their respective owners . The same regiment thus had different names over time. (In the following illustration this is noted with "from" and the name in italics .)

1638 put Duke Eberhard III. of Württemberg as the first standing troop unit of the duchy a permanent one

  • Bodyguard ( guards ) on foot with a strength of 180 men. The strength decreased to 50 men in the following years, but was increased again to 400 men by 1673. It opened in 1673 with the 2nd armature of the Swabian Empire in the "Ducal Regiment on Foot".

In 1660 the lieutenant colonel and commander of the bodyguard on foot Herbert Balthasar von Klenk , Obervogt zu Göppingen, received the order to recruit 100 riders . These were from May 8, 1660 as

Württemberg had joined the Rhenish Alliance on October 25, 1660 , for which it had to provide 100 horsemen and 200 foot servants. In 1663 the duke therefore sent his standing troops, 100 horsemen (bodyguards on horseback) and 200 foot servants (bodyguards on foot), with the Alliance troops to Hungary . In the spring of 1664 these troops were reinforced by newly recruited 70 horsemen and 200 foot servants. The alliance and district troops returned in autumn 1664. When the district troops were "abdicated" (dismissed), the duke kept his contingent, which had been reduced due to absences, with the consent of the estates as domestic troops.

In the Franco-Dutch War, Duke Eberhard III campaigned. from 1673 new soldiers. Passed 1674

  • a ducal regiment on horseback with four companies and
  • a ducal regiment on foot with 1,000 men in five companies.
Both regiments were re-enlisted in the troops of the Swabian Empire in 1677. After the war, the recruited troops were to be released again at the request of the estates, but Duke Administrator Friedrich Carl von Württemberg-Winnental kept a company on horseback and four companies on foot, including the bodyguards.

When the Turks besieged Vienna in 1683 and the Reichstag raised the imperial army , Friedrich Carl immediately sent his domestic troops to Austria, where they joined the main army under the Duke of Lorraine on July 7 and took part in the liberation of Vienna. After that they were integrated into the troops of the Swabian Empire as the Württemberg contingent.

In 1691, Friedrich Carl von Württemberg-Winnental converted 6,000 men, some of whom were forcibly evacuated, into two regiments of regular troops:

From 1691 to 1698 the regiment was part of the Swabian Empire, was reduced to Ryswick after the peace and in 1701 converted into the Leib- Dragoon Regiment .
The regiment was also part of the Swabian Empire from 1691 to 1698, was also reduced and dissolved in December 1701. The most stately people were selected and an Esquadron Grenadiers were formed from them, the rest of the regiment was assigned to the Leib-Dragoon Regiment.

The subsidiary regiment "Regiment on foot Württemberg", which came back from Venice in 1689, was that from January 1689 to autumn 1689 in the Duchy of Württemberg

was then in the service of the emperor in 1691, then until 1698 in subsidies of the Swabian Empire as the "Yellow Regiment on Foot". After the Peace of Ryswick , the regiment was downsized and, as the Leib Grenadier Battalion von Horn, belonged to the regular Württemberg domestic troops.

The count, which began with the above regiment for the first time, was with the regiments converted from the land militia in 1691

  • Second (Red) regiment on foot and
  • Third (green) regiment on foot

continued. However, the additional taxes levied were not sufficient to support the troops. All three regiments were therefore immediately left as subsidies to the Swabian Empire until 1693.

At the beginning of the Spanish War of Succession in 1701 the ducal domestic troops were reorganized:

  • Leib-Dragoons Regiment, from 1730 1st Dragoons Regiment von Wittgenstein , from 1734 as Subsidienregiment 1st Dragoons Regiment Prinz Louis (see below)
  • Escadron Grenadiers à cheval made up of selected people from Carlin's Dragoon Regiment, from 1711 1st Escadron Garde Carabiniere , from 1734 first Escadron of the Cuirassier Regiment, Duchess Maria Auguste
  • Body u. Guard Grenadier Regiment,
formed from 1702 further by setting up six companies of body-Grenadier Battalion von Horn , from 1709 first Leibregiment , 1714 Guards Fusilier regiment , from 1734 as a regiment Prince Friederich in subsidies of the emperor (s. u.).

The first forerunner of the later war school was that from 1720

  • Cadetten or Cavaliers Corps, dissolved again in 1728.

The Alt-Württemberg regiment, set up in 1716 in subsidies of the emperor, became after his return in 1720

  • Leib-Infanterie-Regiment, from 1734 only one Leib-Battalion , from 1736 Leib-Infanterie-Regiment , divided in 1744.

Parts of the Leib-Infanterie-Regiment became 1734

  • Prince Alexander Regiment, still in 1734 Infantry Regiment Hereditary Prince of Württemberg , again in 1734 as Prince Alexander Regiment in Subsidien des Kaiser (see below).

Duke Eberhard Ludwig formed his own from the Wuerttemberg parts of the District Dragoon Regiment (ev.), Of whose six companies the Duchy of Wuerttemberg provided 3½ companies after the determination of 1732

  • Kreis-Dragoon-Regiment Württemberg, which from 1769 was run entirely as a domestic force. From 1776 Grenadier Regiment à cheval von Phull , the regiment was actually not mounted. From 1788 Grenadier Regiment à cheval von Harling .

Duke Eberhard Ludwig formed his own from the Württemberg parts of the 5th District Infantry Regiment (ev.), Of whose eleven companies the Duchy of Württemberg provided nine companies after the determination of 1732

  • District Infantry Regiment Württemberg. In addition to this name, it was also referred to from 1767 Infantry Regiment von Augé and Infantry Regiment von Stain , from 1786 Infantry Regiment von Sachsen-Coburg , from 1791 Infantry Regiment von Phull
The regiment was disbanded in 1798 through the reorganization of the infantry.

1734 was drawn up from national teams

  • Land regiment with two battalions, from 1735 the Remchingen infantry regiment with three battalions. The regiment was ceded to the emperor in 1739.

With the Escadron Garde du Corps and the Escadron Garde-Carabiniers as a tribe, it was also established in 1734

  • Cuirassier Regiment Duchess Maria Auguste, from 1741 Dragoon Regiment Duchess Maria Auguste
The two above mentioned escadrons were spun off again in 1739 and became independent as the new Garde du Corps. In 1742 the regiment was on

At first there was only artillery on the fortresses of the duchy . In 1736 the “best people” became the

  • Artillery company, increased to artillery battalion in 1758 , from 1774 Nicolai's artillery regiment .

The reign of Duke Carl Eugen, which lasted more than 50 years, is characterized by constantly reorganized, reclassified, leased and disbanded units. For him, the military was not a power factor, rather it served him to decorate his magnificent court (show maneuver) and to raise money (see below: Subsidy Agreement with France).

  • Prince Louis Infantry Regiment
The regiment was set up in 1744 from a battalion of the Leib-Infanterie-Regiment with recruitment. After the second battalion was handed over to the formation of the Spiznas regiment in 1752, it was reorganized. The regiment was disbanded in 1756.
  • Guards on foot, from 1757 Leib-Infanterie-Regiment von Werneck , from November 1757 Infanterie-Regiment von Werneck Werneck
was formed in 1744 from the 1st Battalion of the Leib Infantry Regiment when it was converted into the Prince Louis Regiment. In order to be able to meet the French demands from the subsidy contract in 1757, this guard was converted into a normal regiment with 4 grenadier and eight musketeer companies. In November 1757 the Grenadier Battalion was detached.
  • Escadron body hussars
1744 brought to full company strength from a few body hussars
  • Infantry regiment von Spiznas, from 1758 infantry regiment von Roman , from 1761 infantry regiment Prinz Friedrich Wilhelm , from 1762 infantry regiment von Gabelenz
1752 from the 2nd Battalion of the Prince Louis Regiment. In 1784 the regiment joined the Guard Legion as the 1st Guard Infantry Battalion.
  • Fusilier regiment, from 1756 Fusilier regiment von Truchseß , from 1759 vacant (without regiment owner ), from 1762 Fusilier regiment Prinz Friederich Wilhelm
Reorganized in 1752, dissolved in 1765
From 1760 the "Fusilier / Infantry Regiment von Röder ", which initially returned vacant to the domestic troops in 1759 (see Subsidien Regiments below). The regiment was disbanded in 1765.

In 1757 the grenadier companies were detached from the regiments and combined into their own battalions:

  • First Grenadier Battalion
from the grenadier companies of the Leib-Infanterie-Regiment. 1758 related to a new formation of the guard on foot.
  • Second Grenadier Battalion
from the grenadier companies of the regiments of Prince Louis and von Spiznas. The battalion was disbanded in August 1765.
  • Third Grenadier Battalion (1757–1765)
from the grenadier companies of the von Truchsess and von Röder regiments. The battalion was disbanded in August 1765.
All three grenadier battalions took part in the Seven Years' War under the leadership of the Duke .
  • Guards regiment on foot
Formed in 1758 from the first grenadier battalion and new acquisitions. Reduced to one battalion in 1765 and incorporated into the Guard Legion Infantry as the 2nd Battalion in 1788.
  • Leib-Grenadier-Regiment, from 1763 Herzogs-Grenadier-Battalion
Erected on foot from a battalion of the Guard in 1758, the regiment was increased to three battalions. After releasing two battalions in 1763 only battalion, dissolved in 1765.
  • House Grenadier Battalion
In June 1763 set up from another battalion of the Leib Grenadier Regiment as an independent battalion, disbanded in 1765.
1758 set up with four escadrons, including the previous escadron body hussars. In 1784 an escadron of the regiment was renamed the Hussar Guard of the Guard Legion, in 1787 it was spun off from the regiment, but in November 1791 reintegrated into the regiment as the only escadron actually mounted (50 men out of 250). The regiment itself was gradually reduced to this Escadron. With their division in 1798 to the newly established Garde du Corps or Chevaulegers , the regiment ended.
  • Escadron Grenadiers à cheval, from 1759 Regiment Leibgrenadiere à cheval , from 1765 Grenadier-Regiment à cheval v. Rothkirch
Established in 1758, after the establishment of three other escadrons regiments. In 1775 the regiment merged with the Kreis-Dragoon-Regiment Prince Friedrich Wilhelm, which is now called Grenadier-Regiment à cheval v. Phull got.
  • Dragoons Regiment von Röder, from 1762 Dragoons Regiment von Rothkirch
Erected in 1758 with four escadrons, disbanded in August 1765.
  • Garrison companies, from 1760 staff or garrison regiment , from 1765 again independent companies, from 1769 garrison regiment
Smaller units were constantly stationed in the fortresses of the duchy, most of which consisted of teams unfit for field service, which had been surrendered from the regiments. In 1759 they were organized under one command, from which the regiment was formed in December 1760. However, it was initially disbanded as part of the troop reduction in 1765, and in 1769 they were again combined in one regiment. From this time on, the respective governor or commandant of the Hohentwiel fortress was also the commandant of the regiment. From 1798 the units stationed in the fortresses were again directly subordinate to the respective commanders.
  • Police Corps
1759 set up for the war with two detachments on horseback and on foot. In 1765 the section on foot disappeared from the lists, and in 1768 that on horseback.
  • Infantry Regiment Prince Friedrich Wilhelm, from 1761 Infantry Regiment von Romann , 1761–1763 vacantes Regiment v. Romann , from 1763 Infantry Regiment v. Stain
Reorganized in 1759, incorporated into the Augé regiment = Kreis-Infanterie-Regiment in 1767.
Established in 1761, dissolved in April 1767.
  • Gendarme regiment on horseback
The regiment existed only from May 1, 1760 to August 31, 1765.
Original uniform of the Augé Grenadier Regiment
  • Grenadier Regiment von Augé, from 1764 Grenadier Regiment von Gabelenz , from 1786 Grenadier Regiment von Sachsen-Coburg , from 1788 Grenadier Regiment von Phull , from 1791 Grenadier Regiment von Nicolai
Formed in 1767 from the two grenadier companies of the Württemberg district infantry regiment and men from the grenadier battalions that were disbanded in 1765 and 1766. In 1792 the District Infantry Regiment Württemberg was replenished with parts of the regiment's crew, the rest of the regiment was disbanded in 1794.
  • Leib-Corps, from 1788 Leib-Escadron
Established in 1763 as a division of body hunters and body hussar corps, it was given this name in 1764. In 1776 the Leib-Corps formed the 1st Company of the Guard on Horseback, was merged with the 2nd Company to form the Leib-Escadron in 1788, and from 1788 to 1791 was an escadron of the Grenadier Regiment à cheval v. Harling and was disbanded in 1791, the team came to the Garde du Corps.
  • Guard noble
Established in 1775 as a noble guard formation
“Your commandant was the general of the cavalry and captain of all guards Count Joh. Franz von Czabelinsky ; Major General Count Aug. Ludw. v. Hohenlohe-Kirchberg and Major General Hartm. v. Chumb-Neuburg ; Cornet was Colonel Friedr. Wilh. Reinh. v. Joke life . Rittmeister or captains from the line served here as non-commissioned officers, and lieutenants from the line were ordered to serve the noble guardsmen. In the 1780s this guard disappeared from the lists. "
  • Infantry Battalion of Rieger, 1782 Infantry Regiment of Rieger , 1782 Infantry Regiment v. Scheler , from 1754 Infantry Regiment v. hill
Formed from the garrison in 1776 at Hohenasperg Fortress , in January 1794 the regiment's crew was transferred to the garrison regiment.
Set up in 1774 with two battalions, on December 1, 1775 divided between the other existing regiments.
  • Guard Grenadier Regiment
Set up in 1774 with two battalions, but on September 30, 1776 incorporated into the guard on foot.
  • Light Jäger Corps, from 1784 Dragoon Guard
Set up in June 1776 as a formation of mounted hunters with the designation. In the same year she was assigned as the 3rd Company of the Guard on Horseback, and in 1784 was added to the Guard Legion
  • Light Jäger-Guard / Jäger-Corps on horseback
Established in 1782, joined the Guard Legion in 1784.
  • Guard Legion
In 1784, Duke Carl Eugen began to set up a guard that was to consist of all three branches of service.
* Jäger-Garde-Grenadier-Compagnie, from 1794 Leibjäger-Corps
Erected in 1783.
* Guard Infantry Battalion
In September 1784 from the previous infantry regiment v. Gabelenz and the Jäger-Garde-Grenadier-Compagnie formed.
* Sniper Company
Repositioned in 1784.
* Hunter Guard
The previous hunter corps on horseback was transferred to the Legion in 1784.
* Escadron Hussar Guard
1784 a squadron from the hussar regiment v. Bouwinghausen
* Mounted artillery division
1784 from the artillery regiment
* Company Guard Dragoons
Set up in August 1786 as the third cavalry unit.
* Guard Infantry Battalion
In 1788 the previous guard joined the Guard Legion on foot.
When the Württemberg district contingent was set up in 1792, parts of the guard had to be called in to complete it. In 1794 all guards were dissolved.
  • Artillery Corps, from 1792 foot artillery company
Formed in 1790 from the mounted artillery company of the Guards Legion and the Arsenal watch team, from 1792 in subsidies of the Swabian Empire
  • Artillery Corps
Established in 1792 after the Duchy's only artillery company had marched out
In 1800 the artillery was enlarged and divided into
  • Bombardier-Compagnie, still 1800 first foot battery
  • Kanonier-Compagnie, from 1801 mounted battery
  • Depot company
  • Second foot battery from 1805
  • Infantry Regiment from Hill
1794 from the two infantry battalions of the Guard Legion.

The English Colonel Faucitt reported on the search for subsidiary troops about the condition of the ducal troops towards the end of the reign of Carl Eugen in a letter dated February 7, 1777 from Stuttgart to the English Minister Suffolk:

“His (Duke Carl Eugen) entire army consists of 1,690 men (officers and NCOs not included) . The cavalry is 410 men, the infantry 1060 and the artillery 220 men. An infantry regiment has an average of 240 men and a cavalry regiment 120 men! A large number of the soldiers are on leave. What is on the flags is the stiff, old and decrepit remnant of the last war. In order to prevent desertion, soldiers, whose time has long since expired, are not given their due wages. Their weapons are from the last war, they are of all calibers, worn out and worthless. Their field equipment and tents are of even poorer quality. The officer's tents are cut into pieces and shaped to serve at the Duke's rural festivals. ... What I saw in his arsenal in Ludwigsburg only strengthened my first unfavorable impressions. There I only found a fine artillery train, which we cannot use; the rifles of various calibers located there are old, their locks broken or out of order; the few tents are old, shabby remains from the last war. "

After the First Coalition War, the ducal troops were completely reformed in 1798:

  • Guard du Corps
from the "most respectable teams" of the Dragoon Regiment Württemberg and the Hussar Regiment von Bouwinghausen
  • Cavalry Regiment, from 1802 Chevauxlegers Regiment
formed from the rest of the two regiments mentioned above with two escadrons Chevauxlegers and the body hunter corps from the disbanded Guard Legion. In 1801 the Garde du Corps and Leibjäger Corps were spun off from the regiment and three more escadrons were set up. In 1805 the regiment was divided into
  • 1st or Leib-Chevauxlegers Regiment
  • 2nd Chevauxlegers Regiment
Württemberg. Musketeer from the Musketeer Battalion of Mylius. 1799
  • Musketeer Battalion von Mylius, from 1803 Musketeer Battalion Prince Paul
from the 1st Btl of the District Infantry Regiment with four companies.
  • Musketeer Battalion von Obernitz, from 1804 Musketeer Battalion von Lilienberg
from the 2nd Btl of the District Infantry Regiment with four companies.
  • Musketeer battalion von Seeger, from 1805 Musketeer battalion Duke Wilhelm
from the 1st Btl of the Huegel Infantry Regiment with four companies.
  • Musketeer Battalion von Beulwitz, from 1804 Musketeer Battalion v. Romig
with four companies.
  • Grenadier Battalion von Zobel, from 1802 Leib Grenadier Battalion
formed from the four grenadier companies of the previously existing infantry regiments
A fifth company was added to all battalions in 1800/1801, but this was given up in 1805 to form the light infantry battalions.
  • Scharffenstein foot hunter company, from 1800 hunter corps , from 1801 foot hunter battalion from Roman , from 1805 1st foot hunter battalion from Roman (black hunters)
1799 set up as a wing company of the Zobel Grenadier Battalion, independent with a second Jäger company in 1800, with four battalion companies in 1801, reinforced by another company in 1805. In September 1805 he gave up two companies to set up another battalion of foot hunters
  • 2nd Scharffenstein Foothunter Battalion
1805 from two companies of the Roman foot hunter battalion and another from the body grenadier battalion.
  • Hereditary Prince Infantry Battalion
Established in 1802 from the contingents of the district estates that had finally fallen to the Duchy of Württemberg as a result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803.
  • Neubronn Light Infantry Battalion
  • Scheler light infantry battalion
Both formed in 1805 from the fifth companies of three infantry battalions each.
erected in December 1805

Württemberg district contingents

As the largest imperial estate in the Swabian Empire , the duchy also had the largest contingent of troops . Since the district militia was considered an imperial matter, the estates always approved the funds required for this.

Especially Duke Eberhard Ludwig, who was also the district general field marshal from March 22, 1707, showed great interest in the district militia. "He tried to keep his contingent, which initially acted as a replacement and then as a supplement to the domestic troops, together in the district regiments of which he was the owner " (5th District Infantry Regiment (possibly) and District Dragoon Regiment (possibly )). In 1732 he formed two regiments of the house troops from these Württemberg contingents (see above).

The following table shows the strengths of the Württemberg contingents over time:

District Infantry Regiment Württemberg
= 5th District Infantry Regiment
Fitting on horseback on foot
1. Armature of the district
April 15, 1664
170 men
directly to the Alliance Corps of the Rhine Confederation
200 men = 1st company,
2nd regiment on foot
2. Armature of the circle
87 men in 1st Company
Ev. District regiment on horseback
194 men = 1st company
Ev. District regiment on foot
2nd armature of the district
May 16, 1673
174 men = 1st + 2nd company
Ev. District regiment on horseback
435 men = 1st - 3rd Company
Ev. District regiment on foot
3rd armature of the district
June 16, 1683
175 men = 1st + 2nd company,
2nd regiment on horseback
661 men = 1st - 3rd Company
2nd regiment on foot
additional troops
February 20, 1691
81 men = 1st Company of
Dragoon Squadron
195 men = 2nd Company
III. Regiment on foot
standing army
May 27th 1701
277 men = 1st, 2nd, 5th, 6th Company
Hereditary Prince Württemberg Regiment on horseback
1,363 men = 12 (of 13) companies of
Reischach's regiment on foot
District militia
November 20, 1714
158 men = 1st, 4th, 6th, 8th company
Kreis-Dragoon-Regiment (ev.)
836 men = 11 (of 13) companies
5th District Infantry Regiment (ev.)
District militia
August 11, 1732
134 men = 3 (of 6) companies
Kreis-Dragoon-Regiment (ev.)
655 men = 7 (of 9) companies
5th District Infantry Regiment (ev.)

Subsidiary regiments

The dukes gave the following regiments in subsidies .

  • "Regiment on foot Württemberg"
In 1687, Duke Administrator Friedrich Carl von Württemberg signed a contract with Venice for the establishment of a regiment for a period of 2 years. The regiment consisted of recruits from the Duchy of Württemberg and was
from 1687 to January 1689 in the service of the Republic of Venice
from January 1689 to autumn 1689 in the Duchy of Württemberg as "Leibregiment"
from autumn 1689 to 1691 in the service of the emperor ,
then until 1698 in subsidies of the Swabian Imperial Circle as "Yellow Regiment on Foot". 1693 teams were recruited to supplement.
After the Peace of Ryswick , the regiment was reduced and as a grenadier battalion belonged to the regular Württemberg house troops.
  • Prince Carl Rudolph Infantry Regiment
  • Pilssen Infantry Regiment
On November 20, 1687, Duke Administrator Friedrich Carl signed another contract with Venice for the provision of an additional 3,000 men, also for a period of 2 years. In order to be able to muster this team, he again concluded a contract with Prince Georg of Hesse on December 15, 1687 for the formation of a regiment of 1,000 men, so that only two regiments had to be recruited in Württemberg. Both regiments were disbanded after their return in April 1690, some of the men were dismissed and some were taken over into the body regiment.

Another regiment from Württemberg (but not a ducal subsidy regiment) was later in Venetian service again. "From archival files it emerges that in 1695 Venice repeatedly turned to Duke Friederich Karl von Württemberg (who was no longer in charge of the duchy) to provide a subsidy regiment. The duke took over the advertising and the position of the regiment. His eldest son, Karl Alexander, became head of it, and according to a contract (Condotta) the republic guaranteed a pension of 1000 Ducati annually. Because of the regimental chief's tender youth (Carl Alexander was not yet eleven years old), Colonel v. Rammmstedt Regimental Commandant, and later the latter was replaced by Colonel v. Roelli. The fate of the regiment is lost, only from the indictment files of the officers who served in the regiment, who stated that their income was reduced by Colonel Rammstedt, it can be seen that the regiment must have returned from Venetian service in 1698. "

  • First (yellow) regiment on foot from autumn 1689 to 1691 in subsidies of the emperor.

From 1698 to 1698 (after the Peace of Ryswick, the district stopped its payments), Duke administrator Friedrich Carl left the regular house troops for 155,000 florins a year (the duke had to take over wages, food, recruitment and remounting) to the Swabian Reichskreis:

  • Reiter Regiment v. Freudenberg
  • Dragoon Regiment v. Carlin
  • First (yellow) regiment on foot (1693 advertising patent to supplement), then as Leib-Grenadier-Battalion von Horn with the regular house troops
  • Second (Red) regiment on foot and
  • Third (green) regiment on foot
The latter two regiments were disbanded in 1698 and the men dismissed.

In 1688, Duke Administrator Friedrich Carl committed himself to recruiting 900 riders in three regiments for the Netherlands ( States General ). They promised him 60 “Rixdaler” for every man provided with gear and weapons, but without a horse. The regiments were handed over to the Netherlands, but apparently not paid. According to Stadlinger, this amount was still a point of contention during subsidy negotiations in 1802 (see below), which then caused the negotiations to fail.

With a subsidy contract of March 31, 1704, the Duke provided a corps of three foot regiments and a dragoon regiment with a total strength of 4,000 men for emperors and allies for the duration of the War of the Spanish Succession in the Netherlands against France. The Duke had to provide outfits, weapons, ammunition and the wagons required for bagging; the States General of the Netherlands paid 375,000 florins per year.

  • Leib-Dragoon Regiment
  • Regiment on foot from Sternenfels / Prince Heinrich Friedrich
  • Regiment on foot from Hermenn / von Leiningen
  • of the body and guard regiment only the 2nd battalion with three companies.
The troops were initially under the command of the sergeant-general and head of a regiment on foot from Sternenfels, on December 12, 1711 Lieutenant General Prince Heinrich Friedrich von Württemberg, who was in Dutch service, took command of the four regiments and at the same time became the owner of the Sternenfels regiment. The troops returned in March 1714.
Uniform of the Infantry Regiment Alt-Württemberg
  • "Infantry Regiment Alt Württemberg"
With a contract dated December 24, 1715, Duke Eberhard Ludwig von Württemberg undertook to provide the Kaiser with an infantry regiment. The regiment was made up of volunteers from the existing domestic troops and additionally recruited in Göppingen until March 18, 1716, mustered by the Duke on May 17, and on May 19 at Offenhausen (near today's Neu-Ulm ) to the Imperial Ober-Kriegs -Commissar handed over and sworn in on the emperor. Then the regiment moved on the Danube via Vienna to Hungary .
After the armistice with Turkey, the regiment marched from Belgrade on July 16, 1718 and reached Mantua on October 5 . From December 6, the march was continued from there to Naples , where it arrived on March 3, 1719. From there the regiment was transferred to Sicily and stayed there until the end of the rental. As of June 20, 1719 (date of the advertising patent for recruitment), replacements were advertised. On October 17, 1720 the return march began in Genoa , on November 20 the regiment was in the Bregenz / Konstanz / Radolfzell area .
On December 24, 1720, the regiment in Ehingen was returned to the Duke. This appointed it on December 31, 1720 to the "Leib-Infanterie-Regiment".
  • Prince Alexander Infantry Regiment
The regiment consisted of the body infantry regiment and came in 1734 in subsidies of the emperor. The regiment returned in 1736, but in 1737 it was again in imperial service in Freiburg as a garrison regiment until 1740. In the same year it was formally ceded to Prussia and taken over by the Prussian Colonel von Kalnein on May 2, 1740 in Lauffen aN .
In Prussia, the regiment was initially called "Braunschweig-Bevern zu Fuß" , with changing names. It capitulated in 1806.
The regular regiments also came in 1734
  • Regiment on foot Prinz Friedrich (previously Guard Fusilier Regiment)
  • Prince Louis Dragoon Regiment
in imperial subsidies. The first was ceded to the emperor in 1739, the second in 1736.
  • Prince Louis Infantry Regiment
from 1744 to 1748 in subsidies of the Swabian Empire.

In French service from 1752 to 1758

  • Prince Louis Infantry Regiment (already existing)
  • Spiznas Infantry Regiment (already existing)
  • Truchseß Fusilier Regiment (already existing)
  • Fusilier / infantry regiment von Röder (set up on June 5, 1754 with only six companies, but only with 57 newly recruited, the majority came from existing regiments; only in 1757 with two battalions.)
  • Werneck Infantry Regiment (from 1757)
The subsidy agreement of December 15, 1752 with France brought Duke Carl Eugen 130,000 florins once into his private box  , 387,000 florins annually in peace and 479,000 florins per year in war. It was income for him, which he could use freely and without the involvement of the state parliament could decide. On the other hand, he undertook to keep a total of 6,000 infantry ready in five regiments of two battalions each for a period of six years. However, he delayed the recruitment and formation of the regiments and spent the money on keeping his court.
After the outbreak of the Seven Years' War in 1756, France demanded that the agreed troops be ready for action and that they would march out within three months. At the same time, because of the Reich execution of King Friedrich II of Prussia , the Duke had to provide the Wuerttemberg contingent for the Swabian Imperial Circle with 1,372 men on foot and 111 horsemen. “The number of existing troops was not a full 3,000 men. There was a lack of everything, of people, of weapons, of equipment, but mainly of money, since the previously received French subsidies were otherwise spent and the estates refused to support the duke in a cause that he had done for himself. "
Carl Eugen responded to Herzog as an absolutist prince. Although he had refused the eviction by force only two years earlier, he ordered the eviction: “Authorized by the Duke, [the head of the war commission, Major Philipp Friedrich Rieger], under the protest of the countryside, first raised from the crowd of those regarding military service Nonprivileged, mainly peasants, [compulsorily] recruits, then he also included those exempted from military service such as clerks and craftsmen in his forced recruitment and the arrest-like recruitment of drunkards, of unsound, poorly reputed boys in general. The target strength of the contingent was reached. "

After the contract expired on December 15, 1758, Duke Carl Eugen concluded a follow-up contract for the provision of 12,000 men for a year due to the ongoing war and the continued lack of money.

  • The regular Württemberg "Dragoon Regiment Duchess Maria Auguste"
was sold to the King of Prussia in May 1742 . Since the regiment had only recently received a new mount, it was taken over and paid for. Most of the officers also entered Prussian service.
The light blue color of the adopted uniform probably gave the impetus for the introduction of this color to the Prussian dragoons.
The regiment in Prussia was named "Dragoon Regiment Württemberg" and existed there until November 7, 1806. The commanders continued to come from Württemberg until 1791.
  • In 1802, the Netherlands asked Duke Friedrich II for the provision of a further Subsidien-Regiment to three battalions. The Duke demanded
for each man provided 180 fl,
the battalion of the Cape Regiment still stationed on Java should count as one of the three battalions,
the backward advertising money of 54,000 "Rixdaler" from 1688 should be paid.
The negotiations then failed, especially because of the last demands.
  • In the Second Coalition War , Württemberg gave troops in English subsidies under the designation Reichs-Contingent-Zusatz-Corps (1800–1801):
Chevauxlegers Regiment
Foothunter Corps
Beulwitz Infantry Battalion
Seeger Infantry Battalion
Infantry battalion from Seckendorf
Artillery Department

Kingdom of Württemberg 1806-1814

Attack by Württemberg cavalry in the battle of La Rothière in 1814

During this time the wars with and against Napoleon determined the formation of troops. For the newly established Kingdom of Württemberg , this was the longest war period before the First World War: the losses suffered in the years of the coalition wars were put at 269 officers and around 26,500 soldiers. Almost three quarters of these losses occurred in the wars of 1812 and 1813.

Legal basis

After the military-Conskriptions Act of August 6, 1806 while all the male inhabitants were liable for military service , in practice, however, were dug especially poor and uneducated due to numerous exemptions. In addition, were conscripts by Einstein Rather be represented. The service period was eight years, with the cavalry ten years, but the soldiers were given leave of absence after a "basic training". On August 20, 1809, the conscription order was tightened by eliminating the exceptions.

By royal order of December 12, 1806, all officers from staff captain and staff officer received the personal nobility.

Military administration

In 1806, Duke Wilhelm, the king's brother, was appointed minister of war to the council of war . The War Department , however, remained until the mid-twenties only one firm of the Minister, the actual business of the military administration continued to be handled by the Military Council of the College. This was renamed the War Department in 1811 and was now subordinate to a President and Vice-President.

Land militia

From 1806 , the soldiers who had retired from active service were grouped into two groups in land battalions , which were intended for home defense. The first contingent included the retired infantrymen for a period of four years and the retired cavalrymen and artillerymen for three years. Then they were part of the second squad for two or three years.

In 1809 the land battalions of Stuttgart , Tübingen , Schorndorf , Heilbronn and Rottweil were mobilized during the campaign against Austria .

In the last months of 1813 the Landwehr was mobilized again and

  • eight land regiments each with 1,019 men (and eight horses) set up.
The regiments were not uniformed, wore a hand-width yellow armband with the battalion's name on it, and were armed only with an 8- shoe long pike (with a 6- inch iron point). In the “notice regarding the definitive organization of the Landsturm”, the task of this Landwehr was also mentioned: For the time being, the Landsturm team is used for police purposes, escorting transports and the like; all standing military except for the Royal Guards will have marched off on February 20 [to France in the alliance with Austria against Napoleon] . They were disbanded in the autumn of 1814, and some of the men were taken over into the normal regiments.

In January 1815 King Friedrich I issued a general ordinance to reorganize the Landsturm with a total strength of 112,000 men. It was divided into

  • five infantry divisions too
two or three brigades each
seven to ten battalions each
  • a cavalry division
two regiments.

When the troops returned in the same year, the Landsturm was disbanded and the officers returned to the regiments of the line.

In these ordinances, functional designations independent of the ranks appeared for the first time in Württemberg, such as company head, battalion chief, brigadier and divisional officer, probably because various function holders had no military rank.

Regular troops

When Duke Friedrich II assumed the royal dignity on January 1, 1806, the Württemberg troops consisted of only three cavalry regiments, eleven independent infantry battalions and three artillery companies. In addition there were the small guards and garrison units on the fortresses and the remnants of the Cape Regiment in Asia. Membership in the Confederation of the Rhine obliged the king to employ 12,000 men. Participation in the Napoleonic Wars and the Wars of Liberation repeatedly required the formation of new troops.

The recruitment of the teams was regulated by

  • the Military Conscription Act of August 6, 1806 with many exceptions,
  • the military conscription order of August 20, 1809, which no longer permitted any exceptions.

The battalions and regiments were initially named after their owners. A royal order of May 26, 1811 replaced the name of the regiment owner with continuous numbering: All line regiments of the cavalry and infantry, with the exception of the princes of the king. House bosses will no longer have the name of the proprietary, but will be named according to numbers as follows:


No. 1 Chevauxleger Regiment Duke Heinrich
No. 2 Leib-Chevauxleger Regiment
No. 3 Jäger-Regiment on Horseback Duke Louis
No. 4 Hunter Regiment on Horseback King
No. 5 Dragoon Regiment Crown Prince


No. 1 Infantry Regiment Prince Paul
No. 2 Infantry Regiment Duke Wilhelm
No. 3 before v. Phull
No. 4 previously from Franquemont
No. 5 Prince Friedrich
No. 6 Crown Prince
No. 7 previously from Koseritz
No. 8. previously from Scharfenstein
No. 9 previously from Etzorf

In 1812 the name Leib-Compagnie or Leib-Escadron was dropped.

In the 1812 campaign against Russia, the Württemberg troops deployed there were completely wiped out. On October 24, 1812, before the remnants of the Württemberg troops returned, the king ordered new units to be set up for immediate march into the field.

Although King Friedrich also switched to the Russia / Prussia / Austria side in 1813 , he reacted violently to the unauthorized change of the Normann Brigade to Austria on October 18, 1813 near Leipzig. The two cavalry regiments (Leib-Chevauxlegers Regiment No. 2, Jäger Regiment on Horseback No. 4 König) were to be dissolved. Due to the need for troops, this happened only partially, the regiments were renamed

Old name New name
Chevauxlegers Regiment No. 1 Leib-Cavalerie-Regiment No. 1 Prince Adam
Leib-Chevauxlegers Regiment No. 2 Hunter Regiment on Horseback No. 4 Prince Adam
Hunter regiment on horseback No. 3 Duke Louis Cavalry Regiment No. 2 Hunter Duke Louis
Hunter Regiment on Horseback No. 4 King Hunter Regiment on Horseback No. 5
Cavalry Regiment No. 5 Dragoons Crown Prince Cavalry Regiment No. 3 Dragoon Crown Prince

The troops in detail

When Duke Friedrich accepted the royal dignity on January 1, 1806, the entire Württemberg troops consisted of three cavalry regiments, eleven infantry battalions, three artillery batteries, the Garde du Corps and a body hunter squadron (they are detailed in the above Section listed under the house troops).

  • Light hunter regiment on horseback, from 1806 hunter regiment on horseback Prince Paul , from 1807 hunter regiment Duke Louis , from 1811 hunter regiment on horseback No. 3 Duke Louis , from 1813 cavalry regiment No. 2 hunter Duke Louis
  • Leib-Chevauxlegers-Regiment, from 1811 Leib-Chevauxlegers-Regiment No. 2 , from 1813 Jäger-Regiment No. 4 Prince Adam
established in 1806 from the former Chevauxlegers regiment
The regiment had belonged to the Normann Brigade. When he returned to Ludwigsburg on November 19, 1813, the commander was dismissed and the regiment was given the new name.
  • Guards on foot, from 1814 Guards regiment on foot
established in 1806 by renaming the Leib Grenadier Battalion
  • Jäger-Regiment König, from 1811 Jäger-Regiment on horseback No. 4 König
Reorganized in 1806 with three squadrons. In November 1813 the regiment was also disbanded and its escadrons were replaced by a new one
Reorganized in 1806.
The regiment was disbanded in 1816, two squadrons each came to the 2nd and 3rd cavalry regiment.
  • Infantry Regiment v. Schröder, from 1808 Infantry Regiment von Phull , from 1809 Infantry Regiment Prinz Paul , from 1811 Infantry Regiment Prinz Paul No. 1 , from 1813 Leib-Infantry Regiment No. 1
Established in 1806 when the Prince Paul Musketeer Battalion was enlarged
  • Franquemont Infantry Regiment, from 1811 Infantry Regiment No. 4
Established in 1806 when the Romig Musketeer Battalion was enlarged
  • 1st foothunter battalion from Hügel, from 1807 king
1806 by renaming the 1st Fußjäger Battalion from Roman Fußjäger-Bataillon König , from 1811 Fußjäger Battalion No. 1 König
  • Light Infantry Battalion from Brüsselle, from 1810 Light Infantry Battalion from Stockmayer
1806 by renaming the light infantry battalion
  • Infantry Regiment Prinz Friedrich, from 1811 Infantry Regiment Prinz Friedrich No. 5
The Musketeer Battalion of Lilienberg was enlarged by a company in 1807, but this was given up in the same year as a cadre of the 2nd Battalion of the new Fusilier Regiment von Neubronn (see below). In August 1808, a second battalion was set up for this purpose and both were combined into a regiment on September 3, 1808.
  • Infantry Regiment Duke Wilhelm, from 1811 Infantry Regiment No. 2 Duke Wilhelm
The Musketeer Battalion Herzog Wilhelm was also enlarged by a company in 1807, but this was given up in the same year as the cadre of the 2nd Battalion of the new Fusilier Regiment Kronprinz (see below). In April 1808 a second battalion was set up for this purpose and the two were combined to form a regiment in 1808.
  • Fusilier Regiment von Neubronn, from 1809 Fusilier Regiment von Koseritz , from 1811 Infantry Regiment No. 7 , from 1813 Infantry Regiment No. 8
On November 6, 1806 the garrison battalion was formed into a fusilier battalion from Etzdorff by drawing in recruits, from which after the formation of a second battalion from the 5th companies of the musketeer battalions from Lilienberg and von Seckendorff on May 15, 1807 the Regiment was set up.
Established in 1806 by a decree of December 29, 1806 for the construction of a building to accommodate the disabled.
Military personnel who had become incapacitated due to wounds, field strains or long periods of service were to be accommodated in it.
  • Crown Prince Infantry Regiment, from 1811 Infantry Regiment No. 6 Crown Prince
1807 by setting up a second battalion from the Kurprinz infantry battalion
  • Hünau light infantry battalion, still 1807 Wolff light infantry battalion , from 1812 Cornotte light infantry battalion, Kechler light infantry battalion still 1812
1807 by renaming the Neubronn Light Infantry Battalion
  • 2nd Neuffer foot hunter battalion, from 1811 foot hunter battalion No. 2
1808 by renaming the 2nd foot hunter battalion from Scharffenstein
Because of the heavy losses in the 1812 campaign against Russia, the two foot hunter battalions were merged to form the Jäger Battalion König on January 22, 1813 , and from 1813 regiment No. 9 light infantry König initially had only one battalion. The second battalion was formed in November 1813. From 1814 foot hunter regiment No. 9 König
  • Chevauxlegers Regiment Herzog Heinrich, from 1812 Chevauxlegers Regiment No. 1 Prince Adam , from 1813 Leib Cavallerie Regiment No. 1
1807 by renaming the Chevauxlegers regiment
  • Land Sniper Battalion
Set up in 1809 from forest and hunting candidates and from the depots of the light infantry and foot hunter battalions.
After the campaign was over, with the exception of a few cadres, the majority of the crew was again used in forest protection. From January 1814, these cadres were combined with the Land Regiment No. 2 (Hall), which from May 1814 onwards was called Land Sniper Regiment No. 11 and from 1815 Light Infantry Regiment No. 11 , but consisted of only one battalion.
  • Von Scharffenstein Infantry Regiment, from 1811 Infantry Regiment No. 8 , from 1813 Infantry Regiment No. 7
Set up in 1809 from the depot companies of the infantry regiments fighting against Austria
  • 3. Riding battery and three new batteries on foot
Reorganized in 1809
The artillery now consisted of a staff and 8 individual batteries.
On May 26, 1814, the artillery was reclassified into an artillery brigade with three battalions.
  • Lake Constance Lotille
In 1809 a floating association was set up in Württemberg for the first time.
  • Light Infantry Regiment No. 10
1813 from the two combined battalions of light infantry, initially with only one battalion, in December 1815 a second battalion was added.
The regiment was disbanded in 1817 and distributed to other regiments.
  • Garrison Regiment No. 12
1814 from the Land Battalion No. 1


The uniforms changed more often than the deployed units and, due to their diversity, cannot be described in detail here.


No details are known about the appearance of the original flags . The people of Württemberg were proud to have brought back all the flags from the campaign against Russia . The regiments newly established in 1812 received two new flags per battalion by decree of February 11, 1813. The old ( four "rose-red", probably faded ponceau-reds of the Infantry Regiment Duke Wilhelm No. 2, three "white", probably faded rose-red ones of the Infantry Regiment No. 4, three yellow ones of the Infantry Regiment Prince Paul No. 1 and two "Very old flags, of which the original color can no longer be recognized." ) Were given to the armory .

Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Confederation 1815–1870

The Kingdom of Württemberg provided parts of the 8th Army Corps in the armed forces , a total of 13,955 men (including 10,826 infantry, 1,994 cavalry and 1,145 artillery with 18 guns).

King Friedrich died on October 30, 1816. His successor King Wilhelm I , as Crown Prince, led the Württemberg contingent of the Alliance against Napoleon and, as King, also felt himself to be a soldier. In 1817 he carried out a thorough reorganization of the Württemberg army, whereby the point of combat effectiveness, not representation, played the main role. He was able to carry out these reforms because of the lack of provisions without regard to the structure of the armed forces. The reorganization concerned

  • new legal basis (see below),
  • new organizational structure of the reduced troops (see below),
  • new training regulations
  • New definition of uniforms and rank badges (The "Uniforms-Vorschrift" of 1818 showed in the definition of the "degree regulations by the epaulettes" that the awards (= rank badges) showed more the function (independent of the actual rank) than the actual rank (= Rank)).

From then on there were no longer any owners of regiments or companies. It was only through a decree by King Charles of December 19, 1864 that the earlier tradition was resumed and the names of some regiments expanded: at the same time, with the intention of reviving the previously established establishment of naming the cavalry and infantry regiments also in order to honor and reward excellent military services in a special way, I find myself moved to dispose of the following:

  1. For the lasting memory of my immortalized father, the King Wilhelm Majesty, the 3rd Cavalry Regiment and the 6th Infantry Regiment, which were named "Crown Prince" under the government of King Friedrich, are now to bear the name "King Wilhelm".
  2. I want to have given My Name to the 1st Cavalry Regiment and the 5th Infantry Regiment, and the 4th Cavalry Regiment and the 1st Infantry Regiment the name of My Wife, Queen Olga Majesty and Libden.
  3. Prince Friedrich von Württemberg, Royal Highness and Libden, became the owner of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment and the Minister of War, Lieutenant General v. Miller, graciously appointed holder of the 4th Infantry Regiment.

For these regiment owners, who only had an honorary function, the designation "chief of the regiment" or regiment chief became established.

After the defeat in the German War , Württemberg concluded an initially secret `` protection and defiance alliance '' with Prussia in 1867 and began reforming its army. General conscription with two years of service was introduced, and Prussian regulations and drill regulations were adopted.

Legal basis

According to the Federal War Constitution of the German Confederation , the Kingdom of Württemberg also had to provide troops to the federal army . According to § 1 of the "Closer Regulations" of 1821, each federal state had 1% of its federal register-based population as main contingent for the armed forces; In addition, in the event of war there was a replacement contingent, which was limited to a maximum of 1/2% of the population for each war year. Württemberg adhered to the demand of the German Confederation on paper, but only kept a third of the 21,000 soldiers in his contingent present and sent the remaining conscripts on indefinite leave after completing their elementary training : "§ 344 ... The soldiers are taken from the They are proposed to captains for leave, and it must be borne in mind that leave will be given first to those who lend their families a hand at work or who know how to gain some advantage on leave. Soldiers who have not been in the service long should only be given leave of absence if they have been properly exercised and instructed. ”Because the state parliament never approved enough funds for their maintenance. This only changed from 1860 onwards.

The recruitment of the teams was regulated by

  • Recruitment Act of February 17, 1815

Compulsory military service was enshrined in the constitution only enacted by the King on September 25, 1819: Ҥ 25 The obligation to defend the fatherland and the obligation to serve in arms are general; In the latter respect, there are no exceptions other than those established by federal acts and the existing laws. A law will specify the right to bear arms. "

  • Recruitment Act of 7 August 1819
  • Military Service Act of 1868
  • After 1870 the imperial laws came into force.

Military administration

From 1822 the war department was called the War Council and was directly subordinate to the War Minister. In 1829 the War Council was dissolved and the War Ministry became the sole competent central authority of the military administration.

Supreme command authority

Until 1817 the commanders of the regiments were directly subordinate to the king; in the event of war, a special general commander was appointed for each of the deploying troops. During the reorganization of the Württemberg military, the War Ministry became the highest command authority on April 22, 1817 . On July 19, 1849, a corps command was separated from the War Ministry and subordinated to it.

The troops in detail

Together with the contingents of the Grand Duchy of Baden , the Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt and, until 1830 (this year a reserve division was formed from the contingents of the small states), the Principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen , Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Liechtenstein , the Württemberg troops formed the VIII Army Corps of the armed forces .

The regiments of infantry and cavalry were all disbanded in 1817, reorganized, only numbered and their strengths redefined. Only the Honorary Invalid Corps remained unchanged.

The "cavalry" (then the official name) was divided into

  • Rider Division
  • 1st Cavalry Brigade
  • 1st Cavalry Regiment, from December 19, 1864 1st Cavalry Regiment King Karl , from August 1870 King Karl Uhlan Regiment , from October 2, 1871 1st Württemberg Uhlan Regiment King Karl , from December 18, 1871 1st Württemberg Uhlan Regiment King Karl No. 19 , from December 14, 1874 Uhlan Regiment "King Karl" (1st Württembergisches) No. 19
from the former Cavalry Regiment No. 3
from the earlier hunter regiment on horseback No. 3 Crown Prince
  • 2nd Cavalry Brigade
  • 2nd Cavalry Regiment, from December 19, 1864 2nd Cavalry Regiment Kronprinz Friedrich , from August 1870 2nd Dragoon Regiment , from October 2 , 1871 2nd Württemberg Dragoon Regiment , from December 18, 1871 2nd Württemberg Dragoon Regiment No. 26 , ex December 14, 1874 Dragoon Regiment "König" (2nd Württemberg) No. 26
from the former Cavalry Regiment No. 2 Jäger Duke Louis
  • 4th Cavalry Regiment, from December 19, 1864 4th Cavalry Regiment Queen Olga , from October 2, 1870 1st Dragoon Regiment Queen Olga , from December 18, 1871 1st Dragoon Regiment Queen Olga , from December 18 ' '1. Württemberg Dragoon Regiment Queen Olga No. 20 '', from December 14, 1874 Dragoon Regiment "Queen Olga" (1st Württemberg) No. 25
from the former Hunter Regiment No. 4 Prince Adam. It had been stationed in Alsace since 1813 and was not placed under the brigade until 1815 after its return.
In July 1849 the cavalry regiments were combined in a brigade, which was renamed into division (without brigades) on September 13, 1852.
There were also

The infantry was divided into

  • 1st division
  • 1st Brigade, Stuttgart location
  • 1st Infantry Regiment, from 1864 1st Infantry Regiment Queen Olga , from October 2, 1871 1st Württemberg Infantry Regiment (Grenadier Regiment) Queen Olga , from December 18, 1871 1st Württemberg Infantry Regiment (Grenadier Regiment ) Queen Olga No. 119 , from December 14, 1874 Grenadier Regiment "Queen Olga" (1st Württembergisches) No. 119
from the former Leib-Infanterie-Regiment No. 1 and the 1st Battalion (Grenadier-Bataillon) of the Guard Regiment on foot
from the former infantry regiment Prinz Friedrich No. 5
  • 2nd Brigade, locations 1817 Heilbronn, 1839 Stuttgart, 1849 Ulm
from the earlier Infantry Regiment No. 2 Duke Wilhelm
from the earlier Infantry Regiment No. 8
  • 2nd division
  • 3rd Brigade, Ludwigsburg site
  • 5th Infantry Regiment, from December 19, 1864 5th Infantry Regiment King Karl , from October 2, 1871 5th Württemberg Infantry Regiment (Grenadier Regiment) King Karl , from December 18, 1871 5th Württemberg Infantry Regiment ( Grenadier Regiment) King Karl No. 123 from December 14, 1874 Grenadier Regiment "King Karl" (5th Württembergisches) No. 123
from the former foothunter regiment No. 9 König
  • 6th Infantry Regiment, from 1864 6th Infantry Regiment King Wilhelm I , from October 2, 1871 6th Württemberg Infantry Regiment, King Wilhelm , from December 18, 1871 6th Württemberg Infantry Regiment, King Wilhelm No. 124 , from December 14, 1874 King Wilhelm Infantry Regiment (6th Württembergisches) No. 124 , from October 6, 1891 Infantry Regiment “King Wilhelm I” (6th Württembergisches) No. 124
from the earlier Infantry Regiment No. 6 Crown Prince
  • 4th Brigade, Ulm location
from the earlier Infantry Regiment No. 7 and four companies of the disbanded Infantry Regiment No. 10
from the former Infantry Regiment No. 4 and four companies of the disbanded Infantry Regiment No. 10

In the case of artillery , the designation artillery brigade was retained in 1817 , but the (field) artillery intended for use was structured as

  • Artillery regiment with train company and

That was also part of the brigade

  • Arsenal direction with the garrison artillery company.

Additionally were in the garrisons

  • Garrison companies

formed from the garrison regiment No. 12. They mainly fulfilled disciplinary tasks and in 1850 were combined into a regular disciplinary company . This was renamed the Workers Company between 1866 and 1869 and merged with the Ulm Workers' Department in 1871 .

In 1835 the change of garrisons (see note there) also changed the subordination of the infantry regiments:

  • 1st Brigade: 5th and 8th Infantry Regiment,
  • 2nd Brigade: 1st and 4th Infantry Regiment,
  • 3rd Brigade: 3rd and 7th Infantry Regiment,
  • 4th Brigade: 2nd and 6th Infantry Regiment.

This was partly repeated in 1847:

  • 1st Brigade: 5th and 6th Infantry Regiment,
  • 2nd Brigade: 4th and 8th Infantry Regiment,
  • 3rd Brigade: 1st and 7th Infantry Regiment,
  • 4th Brigade: 2nd and 3rd Infantry Regiment (the brigade was disbanded at the end of 1848).

In 1849 the Württemberg army was reclassified. The change in the cavalry was only minor. A brigade was formed from the four regiments, but in 1852 it was renamed the Reiter Division again. The infantry was combined into a division with three brigades:

  • 1st Brigade: 4th, 5th and 6th Infantry Regiments,
  • 2nd Brigade: 3rd, 7th and 8th Infantry Regiments,
  • 3rd Brigade: 1st and 2nd Infantry Regiment.

In September 1855 the artillery brigade was enlarged and reclassified. In addition to the artillery regiment, which now has 9½ batteries, the arsenal direction and an army train division belonged to the brigade. The latter was responsible for the supply of ammunition for the entire Württemberg army.

In 1859 two battalions of hunters were set up.

  • 1st Jäger Battalion in the 1st Brigade, from 1866 with the 3rd Brigade, in 1871 taken over as a fusilier battalion in the 8th Infantry Regiment.
  • 2nd Jäger Battalion in the 2nd Brigade, taken over in 1871 as a Fusilier Battalion in the 1st Infantry Regiment Queen Olga.
  • The 3rd Jäger Battalion was set up on September 17, 1865 with the 2nd Brigade and in 1871 it was transferred to the 5th Infantry Regiment of King Karl as a fusilier battalion.

In 1860 the infantry regiments changed their position again:

  • 1st Brigade: 1st, 2nd and 3rd Infantry Regiment,
  • 2nd Brigade: 5th, 6th and 7th Infantry Regiments,
  • 3rd Brigade: 4th and 8th Infantry Regiments.

Württemberg Field Brigade 1848

During the Schleswig-Holstein War , Württemberg put together a combined brigade under Lieutenant General Moriz von Miller . Were used here

  • 6th Infantry Regiment
  • 8th Infantry Regiment
  • 2nd Cavalry Regiment
  • 3. riding battery

with a total strength of 4,938 men, 1,161 horses and six six pounder cannons.

The brigade marched from Ludwigsburg on August 21, 1848 in six columns to Altona , partly by steamboat from Mannheim to Cologne , partly by train via Frankfurt am Main and Kassel . Still on the march received in Dransfeld the tab 2. regiment with the 3rd horse-battery the command for reversal in Frankfurt.

In Altona, Lieutenant General von Miller took command of a division composed of troops from Württemberg, Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt , while Major General Wilhelm von Urach took over command of the Württemberg brigade . The division was released to their homeland after the Malmo armistice . Only the 2nd Battalion of the 8th Infantry Regiment remained and formed the combined brigade of Porbeck with the 1st Battalion of the Baden Infantry Regiment von Freydorf and a foot battery from Hessen-Darmstadt and were involved in the battle of Ulderup and the coastal protection . In August 1849 the battalion returned.

Württemberg Observation Corps 1848

The Württemberg troops marching back from Schleswig-Holstein were ordered to march back on September 24, 1848 in Hanover with the VIII Army Corps to Baden. When the troops arrived in Freiburg , Struves Freischar had already been crushed at Staufen . In October, the 2nd cavalry regiment with the 3rd cavalry battery from Frankfurt and the 4th infantry regiment from its garrison in Stuttgart as well as 2 squadrons of the 4th cavalry regiment came to the corps, which uses the lake district as an operational area with headquarters in Donaueschingen would have. When fighting began in Baden in 1849, the corps moved back to the Kingdom of Württemberg.

Württemberg troops 1849

At the beginning of May 1849, the 1st Battalion of the 8th Infantry Regiment and the 2nd Battalion of the 4th Infantry Regiment marched as a combined Württemberg regiment by rail to Frankfurt and secured the Rhine crossing at Lorsch and Heppenheim at Worms from May 17th . It then fought in the Neckar Corps .

Mobilization 1859

After the outbreak of the Sardinian War , mobilization was ordered for the armed forces . At the end of March, those on leave were called back to their units, and at the beginning of May the formation of a Württemberg field division consisting of two field brigades (five infantry regiments), one cavalry brigade (three regiments) and 6½ batteries was ordered could meet and disbanded on July 21st.

Württemberg Field Division 1866

Staff of the Kgl. Württ. Field Division during the battle near Tauberbischofsheim , 1866
1st (Württ.) Division in the VIII Federal Army Corps 1866
Reserve cavalry and reserve artillery in the VIII Federal Army Corps, 1866

During the German War of 1866, Württemberg provided a field division under Lieutenant General Oskar von Hardegg, the 1st Division of the 8th German Federal Army Corps and parts of the reserve cavalry and reserve artillery. Were used here

  • 1st Infantry Regiment Queen Olga
  • 2nd Infantry Regiment
  • 3rd Infantry Regiment
  • 5th Infantry Regiment King Karl
  • 7th Infantry Regiment
  • 8th Infantry Regiment
  • 1st Cavalry Regiment King Karl
  • 2nd Cavalry Regiment Queen Olga
  • 3rd Cavalry Regiment King Wilhelm
  • 1st to 3rd Jäger Battalion
  • 1st, 4th, 6th and 7th foot battery and 1st mounted battery
  • 1st and 2nd ammunition column
  • Pioneers and Bridge Train

Württemberg field division 1870/1871

In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71, Württemberg put together a field division in the 3rd German Army (Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm ). The division commander was the Prussian Lieutenant General Hugo von Obernitz . Were used here

  • 1st Field Brigade (Major General Frhr. Von Reitzenstein)
1st Infantry Regiment Queen Olga
7th Infantry Regiment
2nd Jäger Battalion
Medical train
  • 2nd Field Brigade (Major General Frhr. Von Starkloff)
2nd Infantry Regiment
5th Infantry Regiment King Karl
3rd Hunter Battalion
Medical train
  • 3rd Field Brigade (Major General Frhr. Von Hügel)
3rd Infantry Regiment
8th Infantry Regiment
1st Hunter Battalion
Medical train
  • Cavalry Brigade (Major General Graf von Scheler)
1st Cavalry Regiment King Karl
3rd Cavalry Regiment King Wilhelm
4th Cavalry Regiment Queen Olga
  • artillery
3 field artillery departments
  • Pioneer corps with bridge train and bulwark column, medical train, six field hospitals, hauled ammunition reserve, train, four supply columns, field butchery, field bakery, mobile horse depot.

From August 2, 1870, the division together with the Baden field division formed the Werder corps and on August 8 it was subordinated to the V (Prussian) Army Corps.


The uniforms were standardized by the "Uniform Rules for the Royal Wuerttemberg Military, in Special Relation to the Clothing of Officers" of January 1818. In the months of May to October the infantry's uniform was a royal blue Spenzer , and in the months of November to April a royal blue kutka without buttons, with cuffs , epaulettes and cloth belt with a border in the color of “the passepoils or the lapels” The cavalry and the artillery have a skirt, down at the front, red in the seams, pockets, collars and lapels, with the infantry "but only passepoilated where the regiment's surcharges are involved". The epaulettes were made of brass for the cavalry with a crescent moon and eight scales on the band, for the mounted artillery they were made of polished iron, for the infantry and foot artillery with a silver crescent moon and a band made of cloth with white company / battery number. In addition, everyone had a black collar. All had royal blue, half-width trousers with red piping for cavalry and artillery (white trousers and gaiters in summer), a black shako (cavalry cloth, infantry felt) with a leather cover, a metal shield with regimental number and black and red cockade in front. Cavalry and mounted artillery had bund boots, infantry and foot artillery had black boots (gaiters and shoes from 1820). The leather gear (worn under the epaulettes) was white, the coats were light gray.

Already in 1821 Spenzer and Kutka were replaced by a royal blue Kolett and the trousers turned blue. In 1848, a single-breasted blue tunic was introduced for everyone. In 1864 the now shorter tunic was dark blue with two rows of buttons and a collar edged in the same color as the regiment, red armpits replaced the epaulets, and stars were introduced on the collar as badges of rank , as in Austria.


In 1817 all troops had to deliver their flags to the arsenal, only the 2nd Cavalry Regiment was allowed to keep its standard of honor, which had been awarded to it in 1809

In 1818 all units were given standard marks. On a black pole with a tip, there was a gold-braided laurel wreath with golden berries, cast in bronze and lacquered in green, bearing the king's name "W". Golden and yellow strings with tassels hung down from either side of a crossbar below. A blue shield below the crossbar bore the raised number of the regiment, silver for the infantry and gold for the cavalry, the bodyguards on horseback a royal crown in place of the number.

By royal order of September 3, 1851, all battalions received new flags and all cavalry regiments new standards, which the king gave them on the Cannstatter Wasen. The flags of the infantry were made of red silk, with the crowned signature "W" of the king on one side, on the other side the crowned coat of arms of Württemberg, held by a yellow deer and a black lion, underneath on a blue currency ribbon the inscription " Fearless and Trew ”and the White Cross of the Military Merit Order. The fringes were in the colors of the regiment's lapels. The standards of the cavalry were made of burgundy-red silk with fringes all around (different colors for the regiments), on the front in gold-yellow the crowned name “W”, on the back the crowned Württemberg coat of arms held by a yellow stag and a black lion blue currency ribbon and the inscription "Feartlos und trew". At the lower end of the coat of arms the white cross of the Order of Military Merit. At the pole tip in gold "WR"

Garrisons and locations

During the German Confederation, Württemberg leaned on the Austrian military. In addition to the Austrian rank badges on the collar, the local stationing method with periodic change of garrisons was adopted.

Kingdom of Württemberg in the German Empire 1870–1918

Louis Braun : Württemberg dragoons
Uhlan regiment of King Wilhelm I (2nd Württemberg) No. 20
November 1905: Swearing in in the courtyard of the large infantry barracks (Rotebühlbau) in Stuttgart

XIII. (Royal Württemberg Army Corps

The Württemberg Army of the Empire formed an independent part of the army of the German Empire to be deployed in the war . It consisted of the XIII. (Royal Württemberg) Army Corps with headquarters in Stuttgart, to which two divisions ( 26th in Stuttgart and 27th in Ulm ) were subordinate. The commanding general was normally a Württemberg officer . In addition, Württemberg troops took part in the formation of the XV. Army Corps (Strasbourg).

According to the military convention with the North German Confederation of 21./25. November 1870, similar to Bavaria and Saxony , had its own war ministry and its own general staff and was therefore not incorporated into the Prussian army. The chief of the troops was the King of Württemberg . The cockade and pennant were in the black and red national colors, the belt lock carried the motto: "Feartlos und trew". The units of the Wuerttemberg Army kept their previous internal number, on October 2, 1871, to distinguish them from troops from other German states, they received the corresponding addition: “… Wuerttemberg… Regiment”. On December 18, 1871, they received additional numbers. These corresponded to the consecutive numbering of all regiments of the German Armed Forces, regardless of their affiliation to one of the contingents. The Württemberg infantry regiments were given the numbers 119 to 126, the cavalry regiments the numbers 19 and 20 as well as 25 and 26 and the artillery regiments the numbers 26 and 27. On December 14, 1874 they were given the names in the final spelling and numbering: "... Regiment ( x. Württembergisches) No. x “. Frequent spellings were also "... (x. Württemb.) No. x" or "... (x. Württ.) No.x", e.g. B. Infantry Regiment (3rd Württemberg) No. 121.

The independence from Prussia was also expressed in the fact that until 1891 the Württemberg troops wore a double-breasted tunic instead of the Prussian single-breasted one .

Württemberg troops outside the XIII. (Königl. Württ.) Army Corps

  • The Corps of Honorary Disabled remained in existence and was dissolved on March 31, 1909.
  • Castle guard company from August 1, 1872.
The strength of the company was one sergeant, two sergeant sergeants, three sergeant sergeants, and 44 sergeants. They were recruited from senior NCOs in the reserve and the Landwehr, but only semi-disabled, civilian employees or unfit for field service, but who were still fit for garrison service. The officers were not part of the company. Initially, the command was led by an officer of the troops commissioned by the king. From 1892 a wing adjutant on duty led the company with the powers of a regimental commander; he was assigned a further officer with the powers of a company commander. “The palace guard company was used to supervise the royal palaces and gardens and as a guard of honor on festive occasions; in addition, she had to do the guard duty inside the locks. "
  • 8th Infantry Regiment, from December 18, 1871 8th Württemberg Infantry Regiment No. 126 , from ?? Infantry Regiment Grand Duke Friedrich von Baden (8th Württ.) No. 126
The regiment did not return to its garrison after the Franco-Prussian War , but remained in Strasbourg from December 18, 1871, assigned to the XV. Army Corps (Strasbourg). In 1897 it was finally incorporated there.
  • Württ. Festungsartillerie-Bataillon, from November 15, 1873, when it was taken over to the Prussian budget, Württ. Fußartillerie-Bataillon No. 13 , on October 1, 1893 final Kgl. Prussia. Foot Artillery Battalion No. 13
  • 16. (Württ.) Company / Kgl. Prussia. Railway regiment in Berlin from April 1, 1887, from October 2, 1893 4th (Württ.) Company / Kgl. Prussia. Railway Regiment No. 3 . The company was included in the Prussian budget from October 1, 1899.
  • 4th (Württ.) Company / Kgl. Prussia. Airship Battalion No. 4
  • 4th (Württ.) Company / Kgl. Prussia. Railway Regiment No. 34 in Berlin from October 1, 1913.
  • 3rd (Württ.) Company / Kgl. Prussia. Telegraph Battalion No. 4 in Karlsruhe from October 1, 1913.
  • Württ. Detachment at the Kgl. Prussia. Fortress Telephone Company No. 4 in Strasbourg from October 1, 1913.

Garrisons and locations (1912)

According to the ranking of the active service status of the Royal Prussian Army and the XIII. (Royal Württemberg) Army Corps , Berlin 1912.

For the inactive Landwehr associations and units , there were districts that were indicated on the place-name signs .

First World War

Already on July 15, 1914, the class 1867 and part of the class 1866 were convened. With the mobilization in 1914 and during the First World War , further Württemberg units were set up (non-Württemberg troops are marked in italics in the following list ).

After 1918

After the First World War , the army was demobilized in accordance with the provisions of the Versailles Treaty . The Provisional Government of Württemberg placed the Deputy XIII on November 21, 1918. General command of the Württemberg Ministry of War , after his resignation on November 30, 1918, King Wilhelm II released all officials and soldiers from their oath on him. With the formation of the Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic , all associations and units of the former German armies were dissolved. By order of the Württemberg War Ministry I a No. 17431 of April 16, 1919, the dissolution of the standing Württemberg Army on April 30, 1919 was ordered. The regimental staffs that were still in existence remained in place for further tasks in connection with the dissolution. They were converted into settlement centers on October 1, 1919 and, after all work had been completed, also dissolved by July 1, 1920.

The constitution of the Weimar Republic finally transferred some important sovereign rights that still belonged to the southern German states to the Reich. For Württemberg u. a. the transfer of the security troops to the Reichswehr , so that the Württemberg War Ministry could be dissolved from June 1919.

People's State of Württemberg 1918–1919

The provisional government Blos the people's state Württemberg decided immediately after the end of World War I on 20 December 1918 from the existing remnants of the old army security units set up, which were combined in May 1919 in three security regiments without Regiment bars. Their task was the "protection of military property and safeguarding public nutrition." Leaders of the security forces was the lieutenant of the Landwehr Paul Hahn .

On April 16, 1919, the security forces in Ulm became one

  • Graeter Security Department

formed, which was used at Augsburg and Munich to combat the Munich Soviet Republic and then dissolved again.

On February 25, 1919, the establishment of a was independent of the security forces

  • Württemberg Volunteer Department Haas (Major General Otto Haas )

ordered at the Münsingen military training area . It should consist of the 1st to 3rd Württemberg volunteer regiment. In fact, only the 1st regiment was deployed. It was used on April 16 to attack Augsburg and on April 28 to attack Munich .

These Württemberg security troops and volunteer associations were transferred to Reichswehr Brigade 13 of the Provisional Reichswehr from June 1919 .

Participation in wars

Württemberg troops were involved in the following wars:

Troops were not deployed in either case. The Wuerttemberg troops were not ready for action after months, despite the effort.

Individual soldiers from Württemberg also took part in the following conflicts:


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  • Gerhard Papke: From the militia to the standing army. In: Military History Research Office (ed.): Handbook on German Military History 1648–1939 , Volume I, Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Munich 1979.
  • Paul Sauer : The reorganization of the Württemberg army under the Duke, Elector and King Friedrich (1797-1816). In: Journal for Württemberg State History 26 (1967), pp. 395-420.
  • Karl von Seeger: On the Württemberg army and war history. In: Special supplement from the Stuttgart NS courier with government gazette for Württemberg No. 1 dated February 28, 1935.
Two thousand years of Swabian soldiery , Union Deutsche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1937.
Imperial eagle, cross flags, Staufer lions and Württemberg coats of arms and flags In: Journal for Württemberg State History, XIII. Born in 1954.
  • Leo Ignaz von Stadlinger: History of the Württemberg war system. K. Hofdruckerei zu Guttenberg, Stuttgart 1856.
  • Peter-Christoph Storm: The Swabian Circle as a general. Writings on the history of the constitution, Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot Berlin, 1974, ISBN 3-428-03033-8 .
  • Günther Voigt: Germany's armies until 1918, origin and development of the individual formations. Edited by Hans Bleckwen and Dernot Bradley, 11 volumes, Biblio Verlag Osnabrück 1981, ISBN 3-7648-1199-4 .
Volume 4 … the Württemberg grenadier, fusilier and infantry regiments 119–127. ISBN 3-7648-1285-0 .
Volume 5 … the infantry regiments 128–182 of the… Württemberg army…. ISBN 3-7648-1288-5 .
Volume 6 ... Dragoon Regiments 1–26. ISBN 3-7648-1484-5 .
Volume 7 ... Uhlan regiments 1–21. ISBN 3-7648-1494-2 .
Volume 8 Field artillery and foot artillery , foot artillery edited by Günter Wegner, ISBN 3-7648-1495-0 .
Volume 9 pioneers. ISBN 3-7648-1496-9 .
  • Walter Wannenwetsch, Joachim Hilsenbeck: Kingdom of Württemberg. The military headgear with police, fire brigade and control station 1869–1919. Steinach Verlag, Reutlingen 1993.

Individual evidence

  • Leo Ignaz von Stadlinger: History of the Württemberg war system . K. Hofdruckerei zu Guttenberg, Stuttgart 1856
  1. Stadlinger p. 313.
  2. after Stadlinger p. 321.
  3. after Stadlinger p. 320ff.
  4. Stadlinger, p. 464.
  5. Stadlinger, p. 464.
  6. quoted from Stadlinger, p. 321.
  7. quoted from Stadlinger p. 65ff.
  8. quoted from Stadlinger, p. 332 footnote
  9. Stadlinger, p. 337 footnote
  10. Stadlinger p. 405.
  11. Stadlinger p. 405.
  12. after Stadlinger, p. 337 footnote
  • Dr. August Ludwig Reyscher (Ed.): Complete, historically and critically processed collection of the Württemberg laws
  1. Vol. 2, p. 21ff.
  2. Vol. 12, p. 17 ff.
  3. Vol. 19.1, p. 14.
  4. Vol. 19.1, p. 176.
  5. Vol. 19.1, p. 12.
  6. Vol. 19.1, p. 17.
  7. Vol. 19.1, p. 110.
  8. Vol. 19.1, p. 106.
  9. Vol. 19.1, p. 507.
  10. Vol. 19.1, p. 123.
  11. Vol. 19.1, p. 136.
  12. Vol. 19.1, p. 154.
  13. Vol. 19.1, pp. 186ff.
  14. Vol. 19.1, pp. 198f.
  15. Vol. 19.1, p. 212ff.
  16. Vol. 19.1, p. 727 ff.
  17. Volume 19.2, p. 660.
  18. Vol. 19.2, number 567
  19. Vol. 19.2, number 567
  20. Reyscher, pp. 1376 ff.
  21. Reyscher vol. 19.2, p. 1420ff, regulation for the internal service of the infantry
  22. Reyscher Vol. 19.2, p. 1284; Württemberg Government Gazette No. II of March 7, 1815, pp. 85 ff.
  23. Reyscher Vol. 19.2, p. 1542; Württemberg Government Gazette No. 51 of March 18, 1819, p. 441 ff.
  • Gerhard Papke: From the militia to the standing army. In: Military History Research Office (ed.): Handbook on German Military History 1648–1939 , Volume I. Bernard & Graefe, Munich 1979
  1. Papke, p. 229.
  • Peter-Christoph Storm: The Swabian Circle as a general. Writings on the history of the constitution, Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-428-03033-8 .
  1. ^ After Storm, p. 215: "Capitulatiton Ihro Hochfürstlicher Highness Eberhardt Ludwig's Duke of Württemberg p. because of conferirten Crais Marshal Office, dd. Eßlingen the 25th Martii Anno 1707 "
  2. quoted from Storm
  • Others
  1. Holdings A 28 aBd M 21 on Landesarchiv-BW.de
  2. Kapp, p. 100ff.
  3. quoted from von Neipperg, p. 30.
  4. after Franz Skarbina and C. Jany, p. 62.
  5. quoted from Harder, p. 62. There also “When the war commemorative coin was awarded 25 years later, King Wilhelm I was still able to honor 26,058 veterans of a total of 15 campaigns between 1793 and 1815 in 1840. The 60 veterans from the first campaign were compared to 14,319 from the last; 10,905 people to be awarded had participated in one campaign, 9,196 two, 971 even four campaigns. Two veterans each made ten and eleven marches. "
  6. ^ Government Gazette from 1814, p. 73.
  7. Württ. Government Gazette 1811 Nro. 25, June 1, p. 265.
  8. ^ Herbert Hahn: The Royal Württemberg Army 1806–1871. P. 32.
  9. ^ Wilhelm Gustav Philipp Julius Gleich: The first 100 years of the Uhlan regiment King Wilhelm I. (2nd Württemb.) No. 20. Uhland'sche Buchdruckerei GmbH Stuttgart, undated, pp. 144f.
  10. Württemberg Government Gazette No. 10 of March 19, 1868, pp. 97 ff.
  11. see Federal War Constitution
  12. Württemberg Government Gazette No. 10 of March 19, 1868, pp. 97 ff.
  13. Harder, pp. 66f.
  14. The campaign of 1866 in Germany , Appendix, Appendix 28
  15. ^ Corps order of October 24, 1864
  16. Fiedler Fig. After p. 144.
  17. quoted from Walter Wannenwestch, p. 39.
  18. Moser, p. 116 ff.
  19. Announcement of the provisional government of November 21, 1918 regarding the reorganization of the military command structure, State Gazette 1918 No. 274
  20. Law on the formation of the provisional Reichswehr of March 6, 1919, RGBl. 1919, p. 295.


  1. Nördlingen 1634 by Perter Engerisser. Verlag Heinz Späthling 2009. S. 237 u. ff.
  2. ^ Johann Friedrich (1637–1659) was the eldest son of Duke Eberhard III.
  3. According to Stadlinger, the naming of colors related to the colors of the uniforms' lapels
  4. After Duke Wilhelm Ludwig's death in 1677, Duke Friedrich Carl von Württemberg-Winnental and Duchess Magdalene Sybille became the guardians of the minor Eberhard Ludwig
  5. April 23. On this day, contracts for the farmhands and maidservants for the coming summer were concluded.
  6. Peace foot = half war foot
  7. The first rail transport of Württemberg cavalry from Darmstadt to Sachsenhausen took place on September 17-18, 1848
  8. A brigade made up of one battalion from each infantry regiment and a foot battery with eight guns under Colonel von Röder
  9. Gustav Struve had proclaimed the republic in Loerrach on September 21st .
  10. Mobilization turned out to be extremely difficult: The shortage of officers was made up by the rapid promotion of NCOs, and unsuitable crews were promoted to replace them; Remont horses had to be bought first.
  11. General marching order: Vanguard: Field brigade Jäger battalion at the head with two to three squadrons and one to three batteries km large train, headquarters of the division, field gendarmerie, after 5 km army train, after 5 km ammunition reserve
  12. Royal. Ordre of May 28, 1809: “His Royal Majesty has most graciously rested by virtue of the Highest Decree of May 28, 1809 to testify to the hunter regiment on horseback Duke Louis, very much your satisfaction with his excellent behavior at a meeting on May 17, 1809 near Linz a standard , on which the star and the cross of the Royal Military Merit Order is embroidered. "
  13. The regiment kept this standard until it was disbanded in 1919
  14. In order to prevent too close cohesion with the population, the regiments in Austria were relocated to new garrisons every 30 years.

Web links

Commons : Württembergische Army  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : Uniform  pictures up to 1850: panels from Stadlinger - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Commons : Maps of Württemberg troops in World War I from Moser  - collection of images, videos and audio files