|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 49 ° 39 ' N , 8 ° 34' E
|Administrative region :||Darmstadt|
|Circle :||Mountain road|
|Height :||98 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||25.24 km 2|
|Residents:||13,703 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||543 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||64653|
|Area code :||06251|
|License plate :||HP|
|Community key :||06 4 31 016|
|LOCODE :||DE LRW|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Christian Schönung ( CDU )|
|Location of the city of Lorsch in the Bergstrasse district|
Lorsch is a town in the Bergstrasse district in southern Hesse . Lorsch is known inter alia by the World Heritage appointed Lorsch . Since 2010 Lorsch has been known as the “ Carolingian City ”.
Lorsch - known as "The Gate to the Bergstrasse" - is located about five kilometers west of the actual Bergstrasse , exactly between Einhausen and Heppenheim. It is located in the Upper Rhine Plain just a little west of the Odenwald between Darmstadt in the north and Mannheim in the south. The city is not far west of the lower reaches of the Weschnitz . The Weschnitzinsel nature reserve is located in the southeast of the city .
Lorsch borders in the north on the municipality of Einhausen and the city of Bensheim , in the east on the city of Heppenheim , in the southeast on the municipality of Laudenbach and the city of Hemsbach (both Rhein-Neckar-Kreis , Baden-Württemberg ), in the south on the city of Lampertheim , and in the west to the city of Bürstadt .
Lorsch includes a district (Gmk.-Nr. 63029). The Seehof residential area is located in the south of Lorsch .
Lorsch is - like the other places on the Bergstrasse - characterized by a particularly mild and sunny climate with around 2000 hours of sunshine annually and the earliest start of spring in Germany. Protected by the Odenwald, kiwis, almonds, figs and peaches thrive in the mild climate. The Bergstrasse is therefore often referred to as “Germany's Riviera”.
From the beginning to the 18th century
The area around Lorsch was populated as early as the Neolithic Age due to the climatically favorable Upper Rhine Plain , as archaeological finds show. After the first tribe known by name, the Celts , the Romans began the military occupation of areas on the right bank of the Rhine around 40 AD . Around 260 the Alemanni conquered the Roman Limes , pushed the Romans back across the Rhine and settled the area. The Roman stray finds and building remains discovered during excavations in the Lorsch Monastery do not yet allow an exact dating. After 500 AD, the Alemanni were again ousted by the Franks , as evidenced by Franconian graves near Biblis , Wattenheim and Klein-Rohrheim .
Lorsch as an accessory for the monastery
How the Lorsch settlement came into being in the early Middle Ages is unclear. In the documents the name Lauresham is always used for the Lorsch monastery, an extra-monastery settlement was mentioned casually at best. The Abbey of Lorsch was founded in 764 by the Frankish Gaugrafen Cancor founded and his mother Williswinda and Benedictine monks of Gorze monastery settled at Metz. In a document from the year 885 the abbey was mentioned as "Lauressam", from which the current city name developed over time. In the early and high Middle Ages, the abbey was a powerful imperial monastery with possessions in the Odenwald , on Bergstrasse , in Rheinhessen , in the Palatinate , in Alsace and in Lorraine . The place Lorsch was first mentioned in a document in 795 and is related to the donation of the "Mark Heppenheim" by Charlemagne to the imperial monastery Lorsch . This upgraded the monastery and withdrew it from the dioceses of Mainz and Worms . The "Mark Heppenheim" encompassed most of today 's Bergstrasse district and large parts of the Odenwaldkreis . Lorsch is not mentioned in the boundary description of 773. In connection with this donation, border disputes developed between the Lorsch Abbey and the Diocese of Worms, which led to the convening of an arbitration tribunal in 795 on the Kahlberg near Weschnitz, an old assembly and court venue not far from today's Walburgis Chapel . As a result of this court of arbitration, a new boundary description was established, which now also named the most important places within the boundaries of the Mark Heppenheim, namely Furte (Fürth) , Rintbach (Rimbach) , Morlenbach (Mörlenbach) , Birkenowa (Birkenau) , Winenheim (Weinheim) , Heppenheim , Besinsheim (Bensheim) , Urbach (Auerbach) , Lauresham (Lorsch) and Bisestat (Bürstadt) . 772 rose King Charles Abbot for immediate princes, making this jurisdiction and the right to levy the hitherto royal in his field gradient received. Through many other donations, the monastery reached its greatest power in the 9th and 10th centuries before its decline followed in the 11th and 12th centuries. In 1076, under Abbot Ulrich, Lorsch Abbey was granted market and coinage rights by Emperor Heinrich IV .
During the investiture dispute - from 1076 (Reichstag in Worms) to 1122 (Worms Concordat) - many possessions had to be surrendered to the nobility. In the late 12th century an attempt was made to reorganize the administration by recording the old title deeds ( Lorsch Codex ). Nevertheless, in 1232, Emperor Friedrich II subordinated the imperial abbey of Lorsch to the Archdiocese of Mainz and its bishop Siegfried III. von Eppstein on reform. The Benedictines opposed the reform, so they had to leave the abbey and were replaced by Cistercians from the Eberbach monastery . As an accessory to the abbey, the town of Lorsch was also subordinated to the Archbishop of Mainz. Due to the freedom of the imperial monastery, the monastery bailiffs were administrators and court lords within the monastery property. This office came into the possession of the Count Palatine around 1165. From this constellation, severe disputes developed between the Archdiocese of Mainz and the Electoral Palatinate as the owner of the bailiwick . These disputes could not be settled until the beginning of the 14th century through a contract in which the possessions of the monastery were divided between Kurmainz and Electoral Palatinate and the bailiwick rights of the Count Palatine were confirmed. In 1248 the Cistercian monks were replaced by Premonstratensians from the Allerheiligen monastery and from then on the Lorsch monastery had the status of a provost's office .
In 1267, a burgrave is mentioned for the first time on the Starkenburg (via Heppenheim), who also administered the Starkenburg office. In this office was the " Zent Heppenheim " with Lorsch, from which the blood jurisdiction was exercised, whose chief judge was also the burgrave. For the administration of the still existing slopes of the Lorsch monastery, however, the head shop in Lorsch was responsible. The waiter in Heppenheim was first mentioned in 1322. He had his seat in the official court of Heppenheim and was the highest financial and judicial officer after the burgrave. In 1292, the Lorsch Abbey gave Stephan von Zwingenberg the "main right" to Lorsch (right to taxes on the death of a serf) for life. The lower jurisdiction lay either with the Wildhubengericht mentioned from 1423 or the Portengericht mentioned from 1423. The court seal described in 1489 consisted of a vertically divided shield; A gallows on the left and the Mainz wheel on the right. According to a document from 1423, 24 Wildhübner of the Hubengericht zu Lorsch on the instructions of the cellars of Heppenheim and the burgrave give information in the forecourt of the monastery about the extent of the wild ban , the number and the names of those lying in it Huben and the rights of the Archbishop of Mainz to the Huben. This year the Hubengericht included the Huben von Grießheim , Hardenau (Wüstung near Bickenbach ), Seeheim , Urbach , Heppenheim , Weinheim , Schrießheim , Virnheim , Odicken ( Edigheim on the left of the Rhine), Scharre (Scharhof near Sandhofen ), Kirschgartshausen (near Sandhofen) , Lampertheim , Bürstadt , Biblis , Rohrheim , Gernsheim , Biebesheim , Frenkfeld (courtyard near Gernsheim), Stockstadt , Wasserbiblos (courtyard between Crumstadt and Eich ), Schwanheim , Hausen , Kessenau (presumably deserted area near Hähnlein ), and Breitenbach (not localized, possibly around Dornheim ). It is known from the year 1489 that the courts of Langen and Ginsheim appeal to the Portengericht in Lorsch and this to the court councilors and judges in Heidelberg.
In the course of the Mainz collegiate feud , which was fateful for Kurmainz , the Starkenburg office was pledged redeemable to Kurpfalz and then remained in the Palatinate for 160 years. Count Palatine Friedrich had the “Amt Starkenburg” pledged for his support from Archbishop Dieter - in the “Weinheimer Bund” concluded by the Electors on November 19, 1461 - whereby Kurmainz received the right to redeem the pledge for 100,000 pounds.
Reformation and Thirty Years War
In the early days of the Reformation , the Palatinate rulers openly sympathized with the Lutheran faith, but it was not until Ottheinrich (Elector from 1556 to 1559) that the official transition to Lutheran teaching took place. After that, his successors and inevitably the population changed several times between the Lutheran , Reformed and Calvinist religions. As a result of the Reformation, the Electoral Palatinate abolished Lorsch Abbey in 1564. The existing rights such as tithe , basic interest, validity and gradient of the Lorsch monastery were from then on perceived and administered by the "Oberschaffnerei Lorsch".
In 1618 the Thirty Years War broke out, during which the region around Lorsch was devastated several times and the inhabitants were severely decimated by the plague. For Lorsch Abbey, the closure of the provost's office in 1619 meant the final end. In 1623 Spanish troops for the Catholic war party conquer the region and thus restore the rule of Kurmainz. They had already taken Starkenburg in 1621 and used it as a base of operations for the further conquest. The towns of Nordheim Biblis and Wattenheim were sacked and the Lorsch monastery, which was occupied by the Spaniards, burned down. In the same year Stein Castle was taken by the Spanish and the Palatinate troops defeated near Bürstadt. From October 26, 1623 it is reported that 124 residents of Lorsch, 26 residents of Klein-Hausen , 66 residents of Bürstadt and 81 residents of Biblis paid homage to the Archbishop of Mainz, who was under the military protection of General Tilly . This began the re-Catholicization of the area, which was promoted from 1624 by Jesuits from Aschaffenburg. In 1625 the Archbishop of Mainz gave the Calvinists the order to accept the Catholic faith by Easter 1626 at the latest or to leave the country. In 1626, the Counter Reformation in the Starkenburg office was considered complete.
The horror of this war was far from over for the Lorschers. The Swedish troops fighting for the evangelical side pushed as far as the Bergstrasse in 1631 and brought Calvinism back. On December 6th and 7th they crossed the Rhine under King Gustav Adolf near Erfelden , and the city of Gernsheim was handed over for a contribution of 300 Reichstalers. In 1632 and 1633, the plague raged in the region and the population was severely decimated. After the catastrophic defeat of the Evangelicals near Nördlingen on September 6, 1634, the Swedish troops withdrew from Bergstrasse in 1635, and the second Catholic restoration began. Ultimately, the Catholic victory at Nördlingen prompted France to intervene in the Thirty Years' War alongside the now weakened Swedes. With the Swedish-French War, the bloodiest chapter of the Thirty Years' War began in 1635. From the region around Lorsch, chroniclers report from that time: "Plague and hunger rage in the country and decimate the population, so that the villages are often completely empty". From Hausen we received news from 1642 that “imperial troops invaded Haußen four times and caused damage of 26 guilders.” The chroniclers also wrote in the same year: “The parsonages in Biblis, Bürstadt and Lorsch are burned and dilapidated”. In 1644 and 1645 the city of Gernsheim was taken first by French and then by Bavarian troops. In 1646 Biblis was uninhabited, and in 1647 the French under General Marshal Turenne came victorious to Gernsheim and demanded the destruction of the fortifications.
Return to Kurmainz
With the end of the Thirty Years' War by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the return of the pledged Oberamt Starkenburg to Kurmainz was set, and with the Bergstrasse recession of 1650 the two electors settled the remaining denominational and territorial disputes. Thus Lorsch finally came again under Kurmainz rule, which lasted until the dissolution of Kurmainz in 1803, and the re-Catholicization of the places of the office of Starkenburg was completed.
In the years 1688–1697, the Palatinate War of Succession , provoked by France, raged , which exposed the area between the Rhine and Bergstrasse to various types of destruction and thus partially destroyed the reconstruction efforts after the Thirty Years' War. It was not until the Peace of Rijswijk in 1697 that the French withdrew behind the Rhine again. The chroniclers report from this time:
- 1689: Destruction of many towns and villages on the Rhine by the French; in the parish of Gernsheim, the year 1689 is headed Annuus Feralis ( Year of Terror) in the Book of the Dead . The French destroy the Wattenheim rectory.
- 1690: "Great damage was caused in Hofheim by the French."
- 1694: "On the Bergstrasse and in the whole country there is great death and famine."
In a directory from 1782 of the "Oberschaffnerei Lorsch" can be read: - belonged to the same or were administered by it - "A farm with fields, meadows and forest with 127 acres". The Catholic parish in Lorsch belonged to the Bensheimer Landkapitel at this time . Since the rebuilding of the monastery church after the fire in 1090, the place had a smaller parish church in which the services for the Lorsch population were held.
In 1782 Kurmainz carried out an administrative reform in the area of the “Office Starkenburg”, with which an administrative bailiff was established in Lorsch . The office was renamed Oberamt and now consisted of the sub-offices or district bailiffs Lorsch, Fürth , Heppenheim and Bensheim . In addition to Lorsch, Biblis , Bürstadt , Klein-Hausen and Viernheim also belonged to the “Amtsvogtei Lorsch” . The Upper Office of Starkenburg, in turn, was subordinate to the “Lower Archbishopric” of the “Electorate of Mainz” .
19th century until today
Lorsch becomes Hessian
The late 18th and early 19th centuries brought far-reaching changes to Europe. As a result of the Napoleonic Wars , the “ Left Bank of the Rhine ” and thus the left bank of the Rhine from Kurmainz was annexed by France as early as 1797 . At the last session of the Perpetual Reichstag in Regensburg in February 1803, the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss was adopted, which implemented the provisions of the Peace of Lunéville and reorganized the territorial situation in the Holy Roman Empire (German Nation) . Through this reorganization, Kurmainz was dissolved, the Oberamt Starkenburg and with it Lorsch came to the Landgraviate of Hessen-Darmstadt . The "Amt Lorsch" continued as the Hessian district bailiwick, but the Oberamt was dissolved in 1805. In the same year the elector moved from Mainz to Regensburg. The superordinate administrative authority was the "Darmstadt administrative district", which from 1803 was also referred to as the "Principality of Starkenburg".
In the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt, the judicial system was reorganized in an executive order of December 9, 1803. The “Hofgericht Darmstadt” was set up as a court of second instance for the Principality of Starkenburg . The jurisdiction of the first instance was carried out by the offices or the landlords . The court court was the second instance court for normal civil disputes, and the first instance for civil family law cases and criminal cases. The superior court of appeal in Darmstadt was superordinate . With this, the " Zent Heppenheim " and the associated central courts had finally lost their function.
Under pressure from Napoleon , the Rhine Confederation was founded in 1806 , this happened when the member territories left the empire at the same time. This led to the laying down of the imperial crown on August 6, 1806, with which the old empire ceased to exist. On August 14, 1806, the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt was raised by Napoleon to the Grand Duchy of France against high military contingents and membership of the Rhine Confederation , otherwise he was threatened with invasion.
Konrad Dahl reported in 1812 in his historical-topographical-statistical description of the principality of Lorsch, or church history of the Oberrheingau about the office and the market town of Lorsch:
»The Lorsch office contains 5 localities, namely: Lorsch, Biblis, Würrstadt, Kleinhausen and Virnheim and with these borders on the offices of Heppenheim, Bensheim, Gernsheim, Lampertheim and Weinheim. There are 1071 residential buildings and 7083 souls in the whole of Lorsch. Among the latter are 6969 Catholics, 10 Lutherans, 8 Reformists, and 96 Jews. All the subjects of this land are serfs. In terms of land, the office contains 14.269 acres and 3 square meters of fields, 3462 square meters. Meadows and willows, and 15015 m. 2 Vrtl. Grove. The whole Lorsch office still belongs to Cent Heppenheim , just as it did old times ; the supplement shows us ... what the localities of this office have to do and achieve in embarrassing court cases. Before the 17th century, the cellar or taker of the monastic and later sovereign gradient always lived in Lorsch. But after the Archbishopric of Mainz came back into possession of Bergstrasse and the Lorsch Monastery, and the latter had finally been destroyed, it came to Bensheim, where a lordly office was established, but at the same time the head conductors of Lorsch were connected with it. This official cellar was also responsible for the administration of justice until 1782, when a separate justice office was set up not only in Bensheim, but also in Lorsch. After the senior office in Starkenburg was repealed (1804), it became independent.
The market town of Lorsch has neighbors Heppenheim, Bensheim, Kleinhausen, Boppstadt and Bürrstadt. It is large, has beautiful houses and streets, and quite rich residents, some of whom do considerable trade. 1677 people live in 262 residential buildings that the town contains. The district consists of approximately 2385 acres of fields and meadows. The beautiful new parish church in Lorsch was only built in 1724 and inaugurated in 1762. She is safe to him. Nazarius consecrated. "
After Napoleon's final defeat, the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15 also regulated the territorial situation for Hesse, and in 1816 provinces were established in the Grand Duchy. The area previously known as the “Principality of Starkenburg”, which consisted of the old Hessian territories south of the Main and the territories on the right bank of the Rhine that were added from 1803, was renamed “Province of Starkenburg” . Through the Congress of Vienna, the Grand Duchy of Hesse was assigned additional areas in accordance with Article 47, including Worms , Alzey , Bingen and Mainz , an area known as Rheinhessen . In 1815 the Grand Duchy joined the German Confederation . In the Frankfurt tract of June 30, 1816, Grand Duke Ludwig ceded the Duchy of Westphalia, which had already been occupied on September 6, 1802, to the King of Prussia as a result of the German War .
In 1814 serfdom was abolished in the Grand Duchy and with the constitution of the Grand Duchy of Hesse introduced on December 17, 1820, it was given a constitutional monarchy , in which the Grand Duke still had great powers. The remaining civil rights magnificent as Low jurisdiction , tithes, ground rents and other slope but remained composed until 1848.
The "Amt Lorsch" was described in the latest regional and ethnology: A geographical reading book for all stands as follows:
»Office Lorsch with 1 market town, 7 other places, 1,146 houses. and 8,755 a.
Lorsch, market town on the Weschnitz, and the official seat in the buildings of the former Premonstratensian Abbey. 262 house. and 1,660 inh. As in the vicinity of old monasteries, game, wood, fish, good pasture and good wine, as soon as the climate allows it, never fail to be absent: so are all these aids to a comfortable speculative life in the vicinity Lorsch united. - Villages: Biblis, Bürstadt, Kleinhausen, Seehoff, Virnheim. "
In 1821, as part of a comprehensive administrative reform, the district bailiffs in the provinces of Starkenburg and Upper Hesse of the Grand Duchy were dissolved and administrative districts were introduced, whereby Lorsch came to the administrative district of Heppenheim . As part of this reform, regional courts were also created, which were now independent of the administration. The district court districts corresponded in scope to the district council districts and the district court of Lorsch was responsible as the court of first instance for the district of Heppenheim . This reform also regulated the administrative administration at the municipal level. The mayor's office in Lorsch was one of 12 mayor's offices in the district. According to the municipal ordinance of June 30, 1821, there were no longer appointments of mayors , but an elected local council, which was composed of a mayor, aldermen and council.
The statistical-topographical-historical description of the Grand Duchy of Hesse: Province of Starkenburg from 1829 describes Lorsch as:
»Lorsch (L. Bez. Heppenheim) market town; is at the beginning of the Chaussee leading to Bensheim, 1 St. from Heppenheim, and has 314 houses and 2459 Enw., up to 43 Luth. and 63 Jews are all Catholic. Lorsch is the seat of the regional court and the forest inspector. There is a beautiful church built in 1734, a chapel, a town hall, the newly built district prison and the ruins of the world-famous Lorsch Abbey.
... It is
not known whether the site of today's Lorsch was already inhabited back then or whether it owes its existence to the monastery. According to tradition, today's Lorsch was formerly called Gunau, which, however, suggests an earlier existence. Emperor Carl the Great, who came to Speier on his return trip from Italy, was urgently invited by Abbot Gundeland, brother of the previous Abbot Rutgang, to the inauguration ceremony of the monastery on Sept. 2, 774. He appeared, followed by Queen Hildegard, his three sons and several imperial princes. Bishop Lullus of Mainz carried out the inauguration with great splendor, and on this occasion the monastery received rich gifts from all sides, as this abbey in a few centuries brought together a small principality. Archbishop Adelbert von Bremen, greedy and intriguing, had the abbey given to him by the emperor; then Abbot Ulrich († 1076) resisted this violent coup, and the Starkenburg was quickly created by the feudal people and members of the monastery not far from Lorsch. This happened in 1066. The abbot's vassals steadfastly defended him at the Starkenburg and defied his reinstatement. But he had to let the emperor's favorite, Berthold, impose himself on him as the monastery bailiff, who made this office hereditary and whose heirs ruthlessly robbed and oppressed the abbey. - In 1067, Emperor Heinrich IV grants Abbot Ulrich the market and minting rights for his village Lauresham; but the latter comes to an end with the abbey itself.
Count Palatine Conrad von Hohenstaufen, brother of Emperor Friedrich I, had married the bailiwick over the Lorsch Abbey and thereby founded the sovereign power of the Count Palatine in this area. Because of the bailiwick rights, as well as because of the Lorsch fiefdoms, some of which had come to the Palatinate, a feud arose between Churpfalz and Churmainz in which the Palatinate retained the upper hand in 1239. - The monastery, which remained under a provost, held itself under various fates until the Bavarian feud in 1504, in which Landgrave Wilhelm II plundered it, just as Count Palatine Friedrich later chased away the monks in 1555, and owned what was left took. The monastery and church stood empty and were the subject of much disagreement between the neighboring count palatine and the ore monastery of Mainz. In 1621 the monastery was set on fire by the Spanish. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ended the dispute between the Palatinate and Mainz. The latter came back into possession of Lorsch and Starkenburg and their belonging, and remained there until this all came to Hessen in 1802. The vestibule of the monastery, still standing from 774, which led into the Clausur and was converted into a chapel in 1697, is well preserved up to the gable. Only a small part of the formerly very large main church of the monastery still stands, since it was not rebuilt like that after the fire of 1621. These remains, consisting of the front part of the church where the main entrance was, are now set up as a fruit store. A tall building that shines far into the distance with its white wall. The immediate area is now a garden and vineyard. In the garden you can still see excavated tombstones and stone coffins. The glories of this monastery have now disappeared; but his documents have been preserved in abundance and shine a bright light on the history of nearby and distant regions. "
Other events in Lorsch at the beginning of the 19th century were the repair of the gate hall of the Lorsch monastery in 1827 and the fall of the customs barriers between the Grand Duchy of Hesse and neighboring Prussia, to which Frankfurt also belonged, in 1828. In the same year the road between Gernsheim and Darmstadt was completed and the number of Jews in Lorsch was given as 63.
In 1832 the administrative units were further enlarged and circles were created. After the reorganization announced on August 20, 1832, there should only be the districts of Bensheim and Lindenfels in the future in Süd-Starkenburg ; the district of Heppenheim was to fall into the Bensheim district. Before the ordinance came into force on October 15, 1832, it was revised to the effect that instead of the Lindenfels district, the Heppenheim district was formed as a second district alongside the Bensheim district . Lorsch was assigned to the Bensheim district. In 1842 the tax system in the Grand Duchy was reformed and the tithe and basic pensions were replaced by a tax system of the kind that still exists today.
The following entry can be found in the latest and most thorough alphabetical lexicon of all localities in the German federal states from 1845:
“Lorsch near Heppenheim. - Market town with a Catholic parish church, regarding the Evangel. belonging to the parish of Schwanheim. - 314 H. 2459 E. (incl. 63 Jews). - Grand Duke. Hesse. - Starkenburg Province. - Bensheim district. - Lorsch District Court. - Darmstadt Court of Justice. - In addition to a beautiful church, the market town of Lorsch also has 1 chapel, 1 town hall and 1 district prison. There used to be a Premonstratensian abbey here, the buildings of which were largely destroyed in 1621. In addition to the regional court, a Catholic deanery and the forestry inspection of the Heppenheim Forest have their seat here. - Lorsch used to belong to Churmaniz, from which it passed to Hesse in 1802. "
As a result of the March Revolution of 1848, with the "Law on the Relationships of the Classes and Noble Court Lords" of April 15, 1848, the special rights of the class were finally repealed. In addition, in the provinces, the districts and the district administration districts of the Grand Duchy were abolished on July 31, 1848 and replaced by "administrative districts", whereby the previous districts of Bensheim and Heppenheim were combined to form the administrative district of Heppenheim . Just four years later, in the course of the reaction era, they returned to the division into districts and Lorsch became part of the Heppenheim district.
The population and cadastral lists recorded in December 1852 showed for Lorsch: a market town of 3099 inhabitants; Seat of a regional court, a forestry office, a chief forester's office, including the ruins of the famous Lorsch Abbey. The district consisted of 5760 acres, of which 3778 acres were arable land, 1303 acres of meadows and 407 acres of forest. (The so-called Lorsch Forest had 9858 acres). Lorsch owned a brick factory and the forester's house in the wild.
In the statistics of the Grand Duchy of Hesse, based on December 1867, the market town of Lorsch stated: own mayor's office, 411 houses, 3243 inhabitants, the district of Heppenheim, the district court of Lorsch, the Protestant parish of Bensheim of the dean's office in Zwingenberg and the Catholic parish of Lorsch of the dean's office Bensheim. The mayor's office was also responsible for the brickworks (one house, 7 pop.) And the Seehof (one house, 7 pop.).
In 1870, the Prussian Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck provoked the Franco-German War with the so-called Emser Depesche , in which the Grand Duchy of Hesse took part as a member of the North German Confederation on the side of Prussia . Before its official end on May 10, 1871, the southern German states joined the North German Confederation, and on January 1, 1871 its new constitution came into force, with which the federation was now called the German Reich . On the German side, this war claimed around 41,000 deaths, around 58 of them from Lorsch. With the Reich Coin Act , Germany only had one currency, the mark with 100 pfennigs as a sub-unit.
After the Grand Duchy of Hesse had been part of the German Empire from 1871, a series of administrative reforms were decided in 1874. The state-specific rules of procedure as well as the administration of the districts and provinces were regulated by district and provincial assemblies. The new regulation came into force on July 12, 1874 and also decreed the dissolution of the Lindenfels and Wimpfen districts and the assignment of Lorsch to the Bensheim district.
At the end of the 19th century, the industrial age slowly heralded itself in Lorsch as well. On the Rhine in 1842 something new happened on the steam boats of a Worms entrepreneur who had the ships called "The Eagles of the Upper Rhine" run between Mannheim and Mainz. Further improvements to the infrastructure resulted from the construction of railway lines. In 1869 the opening of the Nibelungen Railway from Worms via Lorsch to Bensheim was celebrated, where it was connected to the Rhein-Neckar Railway , which was completed in 1846 . Further infrastructure improvements were reported for 1900, so near Worms both the Ernst Ludwig Bridge for road traffic and the railway bridge over the Rhine were opened to traffic. The numbers of emigrants show that the times were also marked by a lot of poverty. From 1881 to 1900, 529,875 German emigrants were counted. On January 1, 1900, the Civil Code came into force throughout the German Empire .
Mayer's Orts- und Verkehrslexikon reported in 1913:
»Lorsch Hessen, Fl. ( Flecken ), not far from the Weschnitz; Starkenburg , district of Bensheim, LG. , BKdo. II Darmstadt; 4845 E .; P ( post office ), E ( railway station ) 1 km: Worms – Bensheim (with EPs ( passenger transport ) L'er Wald), branch. (Railcar) L. – Heppenheim; AG. , StdA. ( Registry office ), ForstA. ( Forestry office ), OFörst. (Head forester's office ); 2 Cath., Ev. Pf. ( Parish office ), syn. ( Synagogue ); Spk. ( Sparkasse ), SpDar. ( Savings and Loan Bank ) , Volksbk. ( Volksbank ); Supermarket, grain and cattle dealers ( grain and cattle trade ); Cigar maker; Saw weight «
Time of world wars
On August 1, 1914, the First World War broke out, which put an end to the positive economic development throughout the German Empire . When the armistice was signed after the German defeat on November 11, 1918, Lorsch had 124 casualties to mourn, while the war cost a total of around 17 million human lives. The end of the German Empire was thus sealed, and the troubled times of the Weimar Republic followed. In the period from 1921 to 1930, there were 566,500 emigrants in Germany who tried to escape the difficult conditions in Germany.
On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler became Chancellor, which sealed the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the National Socialist dictatorship. Four years earlier he attended Erich Jost's funeral. He was stabbed to death in August 1929 at the fourth Nazi Party Congress in Nuremberg by men from the " Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold ". In addition to Hitler, other Nazi greats were present at the funeral, for example Reich Governor Jakob Sprenger . Erich Jost was buried in the Lorsch cemetery. In the spring of 1933, Adolf Hitler made May 1 a public holiday called “German Labor Day”. In this way, a union demand was met by the government of all people, which the unions strictly opposed. The unions called for participation in the May events, as they felt they were the initiators of the May idea. The official program was already heavily influenced by the National Socialists: “6 o'clock wake up by the SA bands. 8 a.m. flag hoisting in the factories, march to the parade ground, 9 a.m. transmission of the rally from the pleasure garden in Berlin to the public squares of the cities. 10.45 am State act of the Hessian government (...), reception of a workers delegation from the three Hessian provinces. (...) Common singing of the “Song of the Workers”. (...) 7.30 a.m. Transmission from Tempelhofer Feld, Berlin: Manifesto of Reich Chancellor Adolf Hitler, 'The first year of the four-year plan'. Then light music and German dance. 12 noon: Broadcast of the speech by Prime Minister Hermann Göring. (...) Former Marxist singing, gymnastics and sports clubs can take part in the parades, but carry Marxist flags or symbols with you. ”The rude awakening for the unions came a day later when the“ NSDAP led the red unions took over ”:“ The since then Marxist leaders in protective custody - A 3 million account of the former Reichstag President Löbe blocked - The rights of the workers secured - The buildings of the free trade unions occupied ”, headlined the newspapers, which had already been harmonized throughout the Reich.
In Hesse, on July 3, 1933, the "Law for the implementation of field clearing for the purpose of creating jobs in the course of the redevelopment" was passed. In 13 municipalities in the Starkenburg province, including Lorsch, the field clearing procedure was ordered over an area of 200,000 ha. In the course of this amelioration and settlement program, the two places Riedrode and Worms-Rosengarten were created .
The Hessian provinces of Starkenburg, Rheinhessen and Upper Hesse were abolished in 1937 after the provincial and district assemblies were dissolved in 1936. On November 1, 1938, a comprehensive regional reform came into force at the district level. In the former province of Starkenburg, the Bensheim district was particularly affected, as it was dissolved and most of it was added to the Heppenheim district. The district of Heppenheim also took over the legal successor to the district of Bensheim and was given the new name Landkreis Bergstrasse .
In November 1938 the so-called Reichskristallnacht brought hardship and misery to the Jewish fellow citizens. The Lorsch synagogue was burned down and the homes and businesses of Jewish families devastated. As early as 1933, part of the 73-person Jewish community at that time had moved away or emigrated as a result of increasing reprisals. The events of 1938 resulted in most of the Jewish residents emigrating by September 1939. Those who stayed were evicted from their apartments in 1941 and sent to a so-called “Judenhaus” at Karlstrasse 1. In August 1942, all people of Jewish descent still living in Lorsch were deported to extermination camps. 40 of the people who were born in Lorsch or who had lived here for a longer period of time died as a result of the Nazi tyranny. Since 2015, numerous stumbling blocks , which were laid in front of the former residential buildings , have been remembering the victims of National Socialism .
On September 1, 1939, when German troops marched into Poland, the Second World War began , the effects of which were even more dramatic than the First World War and the number of victims estimated at 60 to 70 million people. A military airport was established in the southeast of the Biblis district in 1939, but it was only used for training purposes until 1944. Only after the Allies landed in France was it further expanded and equipped with anti-aircraft guns. During this time, the airport command of the military airfield in Biblis was relocated to Lorsch for security reasons, and 100 private quarters for flight personnel were requisitioned in Lorsch. In early March 1945 the airport was cleared and orders were given to destroy all facilities. From 1944 on, the intensified aerial warfare against Germany was also felt in Lorsch. Large aviation associations flew over Lorsch in their attacks on the surrounding industrial cities of Ludwigshafen, Mannheim or Worms. Lorsch is largely spared of this. In that year, work in the fields became life-threatening due to the continued low - flying attacks . Nobody was safe on the train or on the streets either. In February and March 1945, four women and one man from Lorsch were killed in attacks by low-level aircraft.
In the final phase of the Second World War in Europe, the American units reached the Rhine between Mainz and Mannheim in mid-March 1945. The bridgeheads on the left bank of the Rhine could not be held by the weak German forces, which led to the demolition of the Rhine bridges at Worms, Nordheim and Gernsheim on March 20. The remnants of the German 7th Army, which had withdrawn to the right bank of the Rhine, had to leave almost all of their heavy equipment, such as tanks and artillery, behind, which made it completely pointless to continue the fighting with the absolute air dominance of the Americans and the lack of any German reserves . On the American side, the primary goal was now to avoid further losses, which led to the massive use of artillery, tanks and aircraft, even without precise knowledge of a possible counter-defense, on all cities and villages to be captured. If the advancing forces encountered resistance, an immediate retreat followed and a massive deployment of the air force and artillery. On March 22nd, the 3rd US Army crossed the Rhine near Oppenheim and occupied Darmstadt on March 25th. From the American point of view, this made it necessary for the neighboring US 7th Army to move up quickly to secure its flanks. In preparation for their crossing of the Rhine, most of the Ried communities were shelled by American artillery on March 25th and on the night of March 26th. Lorsch was also affected, causing numerous property damage to buildings and killing four people.
In the first hours of March 26, 1945, American troops crossed the Rhine near Hamm and south of Worms . The forces transferred at Worms took possession of the village of Rosengarten that night, marched into Bürstadt in the early hours of the morning and advanced on today's B47 in the direction of Lorsch. The actual invasion of the Americans in Lorsch then proceeded without further bloodshed. This was probably also thanks to the courageous actions of several women who removed an anti-tank barrier in front of the site, hoisted white flags and made it clear to the Americans that there were no more German soldiers in the area. The weak German forces had been moved back to Bergstrasse on March 26th. This saved Lorsch from further destruction, because days before the German forces stationed in Lorsch had refused to comply with a request from residents to leave the city undefended. On March 27, the American units were in Lorsch, Bensheim and Heppenheim, and a day later Aschaffenburg am Main and the western and northern parts of the Odenwald were occupied. The war in Europe ended with the unconditional surrender of all German troops, which came into effect on May 8, 1945 at 11:01 p.m. Central European Time.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse was a member state of the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866 and then a federal state of the German Empire . It existed until 1919, after the First World War, the Grand Duchy for was republican written People's State of Hesse . In 1945 after the end of the Second World War , the area of today's Hesse was in the American occupation zone, and by order of the military government, Greater Hesse was created , from which the state of Hesse emerged in its current borders.
Post-war and present
As the population figures from 1939 to 1950 show, Lorsch also had to cope with many refugees and displaced persons from the former German eastern regions after the war . Lorsch continued to be shaped by agriculture until after the Second World War. The cultivation of tobacco and tobacco processing played the leading role in the working life of Lorsch. Tobacco has been grown since 1670. Because of tobacco, Lorsch even had its own customs office, since tobacco was exported and foreign tobacco was imported for cigar production. In the 1920s, 200 planters are said to have worked on a cultivated area of 50 hectares and a total of around 800 people lived from tobacco cultivation. Several small cigar factories were in operation, and several large tobacco factories had branches in Lorsch. The bad pay repeatedly led to labor disputes. The biggest strike took place in 1932 in the Carstanjen cigar factory . The employees complained that it was “inhuman” to want to cut weekly wages of up to 12 marks for 48 hours a week by 50 percent. Of the approx. 6000 inhabitants in 1940, 2000 worked in the tobacco industry. There were no other branches of the economy as an employer in Lorsch. After the war, foreign competition and the blue mold crisis caused tobacco growing to decline sharply. In 1997 there was only one farm in Lorsch that grew tobacco on 3.5 hectares. Today, tobacco growing and processing has come to a complete standstill. The last cigar factory was closed in 1983 and the last tobacco factory in 1994. Only the tobacco museum in the museum center of the Lorsch monastery still reminds of this.
In the early 1950s, Lorsch was the venue for motorcycle races organized by the Motorsport Club (MSC Lorsch). The "Riedring Race" attracted tens of thousands of visitors. The attendance record of the opening event of 1950 with 32,000 visitors was no longer achieved. The increasing safety requirements for such races, which were tightened especially in 1955 after the accident at the Le Mans car race with 85 dead, could no longer be guaranteed by the organizers. The legendary "Riedring Race" was history.
On April 1, 1956, a part of the Lorsch forest was redeveloped. A part with seven residents came to the community of Einhausen and a part with two residents to the community of Riedrode . In 1961 the size of the district was given as 2438 ha , of which 914 ha were forest. In 1964, on the occasion of the 1200 year celebration, the Hessian state government granted the municipality of Lorsch the right to call itself a “ city ”. Since July 8, 2010, Lorsch has been officially known as the “Carolingian City”.
On December 17, 1957, the " Wasserbeschaffungsverband Riedgruppe Ost " was founded in the Nibelungensaal of the Lorsch town hall. In addition to Lorsch, it also included the communities of Einhausen , Fehlheim , Rodau and Schwanheim . In December 1958, construction of the “Kannegießer Tannen” waterworks began, and a year later the head of the association in Einhausen announced: “Water is now running out of the taps for 15,000 reed residents - and we want to be grateful”. This was followed in September 1960 by the “Kannegießer Tannen” waterworks on the boundary between Lorsch and Einhausen. The waterworks, which was built at a cost of 4.5 million D-Marks, together with the 74 kilometers of laid pipelines, was called the “largest joint venture in the Bergstrasse district” after its completion.
On August 1, 1972, as part of the regional reform in Hesse, the municipality-free area of the formerly independent Seehof district was divided between the cities of Lampertheim and Lorsch. After Lorsch, the northern part with the actual Seehof at Froschkanzelsee and with about 40 inhabitants at that time was incorporated.
The gate hall (around 800) has been preserved from the Carolingian Benedictine abbey, which has been partially excavated . The Abbey since 1991, along with the eastern "area Altenmuenster" one of the UNESCO protected World Heritage Site . In September 1995, the Lorsch Museum Center was inaugurated in the immediate vicinity of the gate hall . The museum center houses three departments: the monastery history department of the administration of the state palaces and gardens , the department for folklore of the Hess. Landesmuseum Darmstadt and the tobacco museum of the city of Lorsch.
Originally there was only wood processing in addition to the tobacco industry, but Lorsch has now developed into a medium-sized center in which small and medium-sized companies in the building materials, metal, furniture and plastics industries have settled. The favorable traffic situation on the A 5 and A 67 motorways also contributed to urban development . Only a few full-time farms are active in agriculture , and the specialty crops of tobacco and asparagus have declined dramatically.
Courts from 1821
With the formation of the regional courts in the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Lorsch regional court in the Heppenheim district was the court of first instance from 1821 . On the occasion of the introduction of the Courts Constitution Act with effect from October 1, 1879, the previous grand-ducal Hessian regional courts were replaced by local courts in the same place, while the newly created regional courts now functioned as higher courts. This led to the renaming of the Lorsch District Court and allocation to the district of the Darmstadt District Court .
On October 1, 1934, the Lorsch District Court was dissolved. From the district of the district court, the place Hofheim was assigned to the district court of Worms , the place Bobstadt and the city of Bürstadt to the district court of Lampertheim and with Lorsch the remaining places were assigned to the district court of Bensheim .
Territorial history and administration
The following list gives an overview of the territories in which Lorsch was located and the administrative units to which it was subordinate:
- before 1782: Holy Roman Empire , Electorate of Mainz , Office Starkenburg (pledged to Electoral Palatinate from 1461–1650 ), Cent Heppenheim
- from 1782: Holy Roman Empire, Electorate Mainz, Lower Archbishopric, Oberamt Starkenburg , District Bailiwick Lorsch
- from 1803: Holy Roman Empire, Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt (through Reichsdeputationshauptschluss ), Principality of Starkenburg , Lorsch Office
- from 1806: Grand Duchy of Hesse , Principality of Starkenburg, Lorsch Office
- from 1815: German Confederation , Grand Duchy of Hesse, Province of Starkenburg , Lorsch Office
- from 1821: German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Starkenburg Province, Heppenheim District District (separation between justice ( Lorsch District Court ) and administration)
- from 1832: German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Starkenburg Province, Bensheim district
- from 1848: German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Hesse, administrative district of Heppenheim
- from 1852: German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Province of Starkenburg, District of Heppenheim
- from 1867: Grand Duchy of Hesse, Province of Starkenburg, District of Heppenheim
- from 1871: German Empire , Grand Duchy of Hesse, Province of Starkenburg, District of Heppenheim
- from 1874: German Empire, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Starkenburg Province, Bensheim district
- from 1918: German Empire, People's State of Hesse , Starkenburg Province, Bensheim district
- from 1938: German Empire, People's State of Hesse , Bergstrasse district (In the course of the regional reform in 1938 , the three Hessian provinces of Starkenburg, Rheinhessen and Upper Hesse are dissolved.)
- From 1945: American occupation zone , Greater Hesse , Darmstadt Region , Kreis Bergstraße
- from 1949: Federal Republic of Germany , State of Hesse , Darmstadt district, Bergstrasse district
According to the 2011 census , there were 12,876 residents in Lorsch on May 9, 2011. These included 808 (6.27%) foreigners, of whom 436 came from outside the EU , 263 from other European countries and 109 from other countries. 7.8% of the German residents had a migration background . The inhabitants lived in 5656 households. Of these, 1,709 were single households , 1,651 were couples without children and 1,682 were couples with children, as well as 473 single parents and 141 shared apartments .
|• 1623:||124 citizens|
|• 1806:||1660 inhabitants, 261 houses|
|• 1812:||1677 inhabitants, 262 houses|
|• 1829:||2459 inhabitants, 314 houses|
|• 1867:||3243 inhabitants, 411 houses|
|Lorsch: Population from 1806 to 2015|
|Data source: Historical municipality register for Hesse: The population of the municipalities from 1834 to 1967. Wiesbaden: Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt, 1968. |
Further sources:; 1972 :; 1976 :; 1984 :; 1992 :; 2000 :; 2005 :; 2010 :; 2011 census; 2015:
|• 1829:||43 Lutheran (= 1.75%), 63 Jewish (= 2.56%) and 2353 Catholic (= 95.69%) residents|
|• 1961:||1256 Protestant (= 14.08%), 7518 Catholic (= 84.30%) residents|
|• 2011:||2870 Protestant (= 22.3%), 6550 Catholic (= 50.9%), 180 non-believers (= 1.4%), 3080 other (= 24.0%) residents|
The municipality in comparison with the district, administrative district Darmstadt and Hesse:
|year||local community||district||Administrative district||Hesse|
|Employees subject to social security contributions||2017||3728||72,939||1,695,567||2,524,156|
|Change to||2000||+ 53.4%||+ 17.1%||+ 16.1%||+ 16.0%|
|of which full-time||2017||73.2%||70.8%||72.8%||71.8%|
|of which part-time||2017||26.8%||29.2%||27.2%||28.2%|
|Only marginally paid employees||2017||820||15,613||224.267||372.991|
|Change to||2000||+ 14.0%||−4.3%||+ 9.0%||+ 8.8%|
|Branch||year||local community||district||Administrative district||Hesse|
|Commerce, hospitality and transport||2000||22.2%||25.1%||26.4%||25.1%|
|Other (or without assignment)||2000||0.8%||1.7%||1.4%||1.5%|
The local elections on March 6, 2016 produced the following results, compared to previous local elections:
||Parties and constituencies||
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||36.2||13||40.9||15th||44.4||16||43.1||16|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||22.4||8th||22.2||8th||23.8||9||31.1||11|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||13.4||5||18.0||7th||12.4||5||9.6||4th|
|PWL||Independent electorate Lorsch||21.3||8th||16.8||6th||14.7||5||14.7||5|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||6.7||3||2.2||1||4.7||2||1.6||1|
|Voter turnout in%||51.0||61.1||44.6||50.9|
The mayor since 1993 was Klaus Jäger ( non-party ). He was re-elected on February 7, 1999 with 85.2% and on February 13, 2005 with 70.6%. His term of office ended after 18 years on June 1, 2011. Christian Schönung (CDU) was elected his successor on March 27, 2011 with 60.9% of the votes. This was re-elected on December 4, 2016 with 63.1%.
List of the mayors of Lorsch
|Term of office||Surname||Political party|
|1899-1922||Adam Huba||Bourgeois camp|
|1975-1993||Ludwig fountain graves||Independent / CDU|
|since 2011||Christian fining||CDU|
coat of arms
Blazon : “Divided and split below by silver and blue; above in black a golden gate hall (stylized royal hall), below in front a red foot cross, behind a gold armored lion ( lion of Hesse ), divided nine times by silver and red . "
The coat of arms awarded in 1923 contains the image of the entrance hall of the imperial monastery built around 770, the Lorsch cross as a symbol of the abbey and the uncrowned Hessian lion as an indication of the country's affiliation since the early 19th century. The oldest seal of the local court from the 17th century shows some objects that are difficult to interpret; the sign that Hupp had declared as grain tester with a match in conjunction with the other, presumably agricultural implements, had had the Hessian lion in the local seals since 1808.
- Le Coteau ( Loire department in France, since 1967)
- Zwevegem (Belgium, since 1973)
- Thal (district of Ruhla in Thuringia, since 1990)
Friendly relations exist with Šternberk (Sternberg) in the Olomoucký kraj district, Czech Republic. This came about through the sponsorship of displaced persons from the communities Jívová (Giebau), Pohorsch, Weska and Hraničné Petrovice (Petersdorf bei Giebau) who have settled in Lorsch.
Culture and sights
- Cabaret "Sapperlot"
- Lorsch museum center with the monastery history department, the folklore department and the Lorsch tobacco museum (branch of the Hessian State Museum ).
- The monastery museum deals with the history of Lorsch Abbey, the history of the Carolingian Empire , sacred architecture and in particular with the monastery complex of the Lorsch Monastery. In addition, the life of rural residents in the early and high Middle Ages is shown and various replicas, as the court of the Great Charles resulting, magnificently equipped Lorsch Gospels and the Lorsch Rotulus , a Litany of the Saints and also the oldest liturgical book role of the West. Background information on the scriptorium and the library of Lorsch Abbey are explained. The library was considered one of the most important of its time.
- The tobacco museum provides information on tobacco cultivation and processing in southern Hesse since the Thirty Years War as well as tobacco consumption. In addition, tobacco boxes, tobacco pots and pipes are exhibited, as well as well-known cigar smokers such as Ludwig Erhard .
- The folklore museum focuses on everyday culture in Hessen. Old woodworking trades such as arithmetic and spoon carvers, a table and pipe workshop are presented. Household dishes from the 18th and 19th centuries, farm furniture and a Frankfurt kitchen are also presented.
- World Heritage Site Lorsch Abbey . In 2014, 1250 years after the monastery was founded, extensive expansion measures were completed in this area, the focus of which is on the two UNESCO World Heritage Sites “Monastery grounds of Lorsch Monastery” and “Altenmünster Monastery”.
- The monastery hill, an Ice Age sand dune, to which the Lorsch Abbey moved just a few years after its foundation, as the original facility on a Weschnitz Island had become too small due to the abbey’s rapidly growing importance. Of the complex that occupies the entire hill, the king's hall, the basilica fragment and parts of the monastery wall are still preserved today. Landscape architectural additions indicate the original layout.
- The King's Hall , which consists of three semicircular arched openings on the first floor and a pseudo-architecture with capitals in the Ionic style and triangular gables, has not disclosed its original use to this day and, with its construction around 800, is one of the few remaining buildings from the Carolingian era. The building consists of a mixture of Hellenistic-Roman, Christian, Oriental and Germanic architectural styles. On the upper floor there are partly very well preserved wall paintings from different centuries.
- The "Schaudepot Zehntscheune" is located in the Zehntscheune, which was built on the monastery grounds at a later date . The finds found on the monastery hill are exhibited here, from which conclusions can be drawn about the history of the monastery, trade, crafts and medicine at the time.
- The remainder of the church consists of the antechamber of the former monastery church from the 12th century. The sarcophagus "Ludwig the German" , which was previously exhibited there, is now shown in the former "Electoral House", which is located opposite the King's Hall.
- The Museum Center (MUZ) with the departments “History of the Lorsch Monastery” and the Tobacco Museum (see also the section on museums).
- Herbal garden to the Lorsch Pharmacopoeia. In this garden there are only plants from the “ Lorsch Pharmacopoeia ”, which was included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2013 . In this book, ancient medical knowledge was made available for the first time in the Christian world and the medicinal plants described in it were expressly designated as God-given aids for people.
- The site of the former mother monastery Altenmünster of Lorsch Abbey is part of the UNESCO World Heritage and is located about half a kilometer east of the monastery hill near the banks of the Weschnitz. Nothing was left of the system above ground. On the basis of the excavation results, the outlines of the monastery church were indicated by masonry and the cloister buildings were made identifiable by embankments.
- In the experimental archaeological open-air laboratory of the Carolingian mansion Lauresham (short: Lauresham open-air laboratory), a typical manor of the 8th / 9th century was built on the basis of archaeological findings. Reconstructed in the 19th century on an area of 4.1 hectares. The visitor should be brought closer to the life of the people in the early medieval social structures. In addition, the project created a framework for experimental archaeological research in which the manual and agricultural working techniques of that time can be tested. Another project of the open-air laboratory is the Auerrind project, which aims to reproduce an aurochs-like breed of cattle called 'Auerrind'. The extinct aurochs were also native to the forests around Lorsch in the early Middle Ages; With the Auerrind the ecological importance of large grazing animals is to be researched and used in the course of grazing projects in the surroundings of Lorsch.
- The tobacco barn is a holdover from the time of tobacco growing in Lorsch. It was used jointly by the farmers to dry the tobacco leaves. The air flaps in the tall, narrow building could be opened and closed depending on the weather.
- The peony garden is dedicated to the peony , a medicinal plant from the Lorsch pharmacopoeia that is still important today.
- The cultural axis connects the Altenmünster monastery with the monastery hill and the other elements of the world cultural heritage area. A signposted educational trail is planned along the way, which leads past a tobacco field and old cultivated plants, and thus provides knowledge about natural and cultural landscapes.
- The monastery hill, an Ice Age sand dune, to which the Lorsch Abbey moved just a few years after its foundation, as the original facility on a Weschnitz Island had become too small due to the abbey’s rapidly growing importance. Of the complex that occupies the entire hill, the king's hall, the basilica fragment and parts of the monastery wall are still preserved today. Landscape architectural additions indicate the original layout.
- The historic Lorsch town hall was built between 1714 and 1715 based on the Heppenheim town hall. It consists of a rectangular ground floor made of sandstone on which a two-storey half-timbered building stands, on each of which there is a finely structured bay window on the main facade. In the middle there is also a bay window that supports a tower with a double hood. In the upper dome of the tower was the fire bell, which has now been replaced by a carillon. On the upper floor of the town hall is the representative “Nibelungensaal”, which is now used as a meeting and concert hall. It is equipped with wall paintings on events in Lorsch Abbey, which at times had the status of a principality.
- The "Wamsler'sche Haus" is a mighty half-timbered corner building with a mansard roof on the market square. It was restored and adapted to the town hall in the mid-1980s.
- Stiftstraße 18: Listed Hofreite. The Hofreite is located at the point of importance for the historic townscape at the intersection of the three streets Stiftstraße, Waldstraße and Schulstraße, which at times formed the entrance area for traffic coming from Lampertheim and Mannheim. Owned by the Dreiss family until 1920: tobacco and agricultural business. The house was built in the 18th century, the barn in 1869 and the coach house in 1890. From 1920 to 1973 then bakery and wine bar. From 1998 the “Sapperlot” theater has been located in the building. The restoration of the entire courtyard took place in 1998 and in 2002 the theater opened.
- oldest half-timbered house in Lorsch at 19 Stiftstrasse
- The oldest Lorsch guest house, the " White Cross " stands on the site of the old monastery inn . The inn itself was first mentioned in 1563. The upper floor and the gable are made of decorated half-timbering. The pub sign dates from the 18th century.
- Palais von Hausen (built 1776)
- Catholic parish church (consecrated 1753)
- Evangelical Church (1896)
- Wattenheimer Bridge
In Lorsch there is a nature reserve , which is also designated as a fauna-flora-habitat area , namely the Weschnitzinsel von Lorsch . Next we find the protected landscape Forehahi and the two bird sanctuaries Hessian Altneckarschlingen and forests of southern Hesse Oberrheinebene . The whole district is also part of the Bergstrasse-Odenwald Nature Park .
For Lorsch, the Bergstrasse district has designated four trees as natural monuments because of their age, strength and beauty , namely three pedunculate oaks and a plane tree .
Every Shrove Tuesday in Lorsch there is a large carnival parade with over 100 train numbers, which attracts thousands of fools to the monastery town every year. In May the spring market takes place in the city center. The Midsummer Festival is the largest traditional festival in Lorsch and is held every year around June 24th on the festival square by the monastery wall. On the 3rd weekend in September, the traditional curb is celebrated in the city center. The Christmas market - with an opening show in front of the world cultural heritage site - can be found on the 1st weekend in Advent before the world cultural heritage site, in the heart of Lorsch. The organizer is the city of Lorsch.
In 1991 Lorsch organized the 31st Hessentag .
A culinary specialty is the "Original Lorsch Welschbrot" made from Welsch or corn flour, butter or lard, sugar, whole aniseed and raisins.
Economy and Infrastructure
The municipality covers a total area of 2524 hectares, of which in hectares are:
|Type of use||2011||2015|
|Building and open space||319||337|
|from that||Mining land||1||1|
|from that||Green area||23||29|
The federal highway 67 and the federal highways 47 and 460 lead through the district of the city . Lorsch train station is on the Nibelungenbahn line between Bensheim and Worms , and there are frequent bus connections with Lampertheim / Bürstadt, Heppenheim, Einhausen and Bensheim. The tariffs of the Verkehrsverbund Rhein-Neckar apply for local transport, the tariffs of the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund and the Hessenticket apply to trips to Darmstadt and Frankfurt am Main . Lorsch is on the Hessian long- distance cycle route R9, which leads from Worms via Bensheim to Höchst in the Odenwald .
The company TrekStor GmbH & Co.KG was founded in 2001 in Lorsch, where it has its headquarters. It makes USB flash drives, external hard drives and MP3 players produce in Asia. However, development and quality management are located in Lorsch.
The Lorscher homepage offers an overview of other resident companies.
In Lorsch there are two regional daily newspapers , the Bergsträßer Anzeiger belonging to the Mannheimer Morgen publishing group with the regional edition Lorsch / Einhausen and the less widespread Starkenburger Echo .
- Tourist information Nibelungenland
- District adult education center
- Geo-Naturpark Bergstrasse-Odenwald
- Coworking office Lorsch for start-ups , self-employed people , founders
- Playground and leisure area in the Birkengarten
- Birkengarten bird and educational park run by the local bird protection association
- public catholic library
- Heinrich Vetter Electoral Palatinate Library
- The heated forest swimming pool Lorsch was built in the 1970s. The technology was completely renovated and expanded in 1994 and 1995. "Congratulations for the Lorsch million pool " was the headline of the Bergsträßer Anzeiger when the outdoor pool was opened as a "forest swimming pool" on June 6, 1970 by the then Hessian Minister of Social Affairs Horst Schmidt - after a two-year construction period and at a cost of 2.5 million D-Marks . In hot summers, up to 240,000 bathers were counted. The extensive area is considered the most beautiful outdoor pool in the region.
The Wingertsbergschule is located on a former dune in the Rhine valley on the northeastern edge of its catchment area, the city of Lorsch. In the immediate vicinity is the well-known former Lorsch Monastery. The Wingertsbergschule was founded as a primary school in the Bergstrasse district on January 9, 1974, it is the successor to the Carolingian elementary school, which was sponsored by the city of Lorsch until 1972. Around 540 children are currently attending the school, they are taught by 31 teachers.
The Werner von Siemens School was named after the Berlin inventor Werner von Siemens . After the decision on the construction of a new secondary and secondary school in the south of the city (Lagerfeld) by the Hessian Ministry of Education and the Bergstrasse district in June 1971, the Werner von Siemens School was opened in March 1973. In November 1973 the school management and the school parents' council decided to give the school the name Werner von Siemens School, which was announced during an official ceremony on June 24, 1974.
sons and daughters of the town
- Valentin Lorbacher (1825–1909), President of the Hessian Chamber of Accounts
- Egidius Gutfleisch (1844–1914), lawyer and member of parliament
- Ludwig Becker (1871–1950), lawyer
- Hans Rummel (1872–1952), architect
- Alexander Landgraf (1906–1972), lawyer, Gestapo officer and SS leader
- Ludwig Gärtner (1919–1995), football player
- Wolfgang Selzer (1926–2003), archaeologist
- Ernst-Dieter Suttheimer (* 1941), opera singer
- Michael Meister (* 1961), CDU politician
- Achim Brunnengräber (* 1963), political scientist
- Konrad Dahl: Historical-topographical-statistical description of the principality of Lorsch, or church history of the Upper Rhinegau , Darmstadt 1812. ( online at Google Books )
- Heinrich Diehl: Lorsch. History and stories. Verlag Laurissa, Lorsch 1991, ISBN 3-922781-17-9
- Wilhelm Weyrauch: On the origins of Lorsch - The first church in Lauresham. In: History sheets district Bergstrasse. Vol. 33/2000, pp. 11-64.
- Literature about Lorsch in the Hessian Bibliography
- Search for Lorsch in the archive portal-D of the German Digital Library
- Literature by and about Lorsch in the catalog of the German National Library
- Official website of the city of Lorsch
- Flyer from the Culture and Tourism Office of the City of Lorsch. (PDF; 1.57 MB)
- Information brochure about Lorsch (PDF; 1.94 MB)
- Lorsch, Bergstrasse district. Historical local dictionary for Hessen. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Information on the municipality of Lorsch. In: Hessisches Gemeindelexikon. HA Hessen Agentur GmbH , 2016.
- Link catalog on Lorsch at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- ↑ Not a member of any public religious community.
- ↑ Hessian State Statistical Office: Population status on December 31, 2019 (districts and urban districts as well as municipalities, population figures based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- ↑ a b Jakob Müller, Markus Sanke: Lorsch Abbey, Archeology ( Memento from May 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on November 17, 2014
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j Timetable of the Biblis community. Biblis parish, accessed December 15, 2014 .
- ↑ Regests of the city of Heppenheim and Starkenburg Castle until the end of Kurmainzer rule (755 to 1461) . No. 5a ( digital view [PDF; 2.0 MB] - compiled and commented on by Torsten Wondrejz on behalf of the Heppenheim City Archives).
- ↑ a b c Wilhelm Müller: Hessisches Ortnamesbuch - Starkenburg , Darmstadt 1937, pp. 442–449
- ^ Johann Konrad Dahl: Historical-topographical-statistical description of the principality of Lorsch or church history of the Upper Rhinegau . Darmstadt 1812, OCLC 162251605 , p. 178 ff . ( Online at google books ).
- ^ Johann Konrad Dahl: Historical-topographical-statistical description of the principality of Lorsch or church history of the Upper Rhinegau . Darmstadt 1812, OCLC 162251605 , p. 43 ( online at google books ).
- ^ Heinrich Karl Wilhelm Berghaus : Germany for a hundred years: Abth. Germany fifty years ago . tape 3 . Voigt & Günther, Leipzig 1862, OCLC 311428620 , p. 358 ff . ( Online at google books ).
- ↑ a b Johann Konrad Dahl: Historical-topographical-statistical description of the principality of Lorsch or church history of the Upper Rhinegau . Darmstadt 1812, OCLC 162251605 , p. 219 ff . ( Online at google books ).
- ↑ Latest regional and ethnology: A geographical reader for all classes. Mecklenburg, Kur-Hessen, Hessen-Darmstadt and the free cities. tape 22 . Published by the geographical institute, Weimar 1921, OCLC 900105572 , p. 10 ( online at google books ).
- ^ M. Borchmann, D. Breithaupt, G. Kaiser: Kommunalrecht in Hessen . W. Kohlhammer Verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-555-01352-1 , p. 20 ( partial view on google books ).
- ^ A b c Georg Wilhelm Justin Wagner : Statistical-topographical-historical description of the Grand Duchy of Hesse: Province of Starkenburg . tape 1 . Carl Wilhelm Leske, Darmstadt October 1829, OCLC 312528080 , p. 148 ( online at google books ).
- ^ Johann Friedrich Kratzsch : The newest and most thorough alphabetical lexicon of all localities in the German federal states . tape 2 . Zimmermann, Naumburg 1845, OCLC 162810705 , p. 56 ( online in the HathiTrust digital library ).
- ↑ Law on the Conditions of the Class Lords and Noble Court Lords of August 7, 1848 . In: Grand Duke of Hesse (ed.): Grand Ducal Hessian Government Gazette. 1848 no. 40 , p. 237–241 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 42,9 MB ]).
- ^ Ordinance on the division of the Grand Duchy into circles of May 12, 1852 . In: Grand Ducal Hessian Ministry of the Interior (ed.): Grand Ducal Hessian Government Gazette 1852 No. 30 . S. 224–229 ( online at the Bavarian State Library digital [PDF]).
- ↑ Wolfgang Torge : History of geodesy in Germany . Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 2007, ISBN 3-11-019056-7 , pp. 172 ( partial view on google books ).
- ^ Ph. AF Walther : The Grand Duchy of Hessen: according to history, country, people, state and locality . G. Jonghaus, Darmstadt 1854, DNB 730150224 , OCLC 866461332 , p. 336 ( online at google books ).
- ↑ a b Ph. AF Walther : Alphabetical index of residential places in the Grand Duchy of Hesse . G. Jonghaus, Darmstadt 1869, OCLC 162355422 , p. 54 ( online at google books ).
- ^ Lists of casualties of the German army in the campaign 1870/71. In: Online project fallen memorials. Archived from the original on May 6, 2015 ; accessed on May 10, 2018 .
- ^ Lorsch, Bergstrasse district, Hesse (1870–71). In: Online project fallen memorials. Accessed December 2019 .
- ↑ Martin Kukowski: Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt: Tradition from the former Grand Duchy and the People's State of Hesse. Volume 3 , KG Saur, 1998, page 23, ISBN 3-598-23252-7
- ^ Meyers Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon des Deutschen Reichs, Volume 2 , Leipzig 1913
- ↑ Headlines from Bensheim on the 175th anniversary of the "Bergsträßer Anzeiger" 2007. (PDF 8.61 MB) Fresh birch green, waving flags. P. 66 , archived from the original on October 5, 2016 ; accessed on December 28, 2014 .
- ↑ Headlines from Bensheim on the 175th anniversary of the "Bergstrasse Indicator" 2007: The "Origin of the Bergstrasse District". P. 109
- ↑ a b c d e f Lorsch, Bergstrasse district. Historical local dictionary for Hessen. (As of May 23, 2018). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- ^ History of the Jewish community in Lorsch. In: Alemannia Judaica. Accessed December 2019 .
- ↑ a b Series of articles in the Bergstrasse Gazette from 2005 about the end of the war on Bergstrasse. Bergstrasse and Lorsch. Bergsträßer Anzeiger, accessed on December 20, 2014 .
- ↑ Headlines from Bensheim on the 175th anniversary of the “Bergsträßer Anzeiger”: “12 Marks for 48 hours of work”, p. 80
- ^ Joachim Acker: Tobacco cultivation in Germany. Accessed December 2014 .
- ↑ Headlines from Bensheim on the 175th anniversary of the "Bergsträßer Anzeiger" 2007: "The smell of petrol lured to Lorsch", p. 74
- ↑ area changes from 01 January to 31 December 2011. In: www.destatis.de. Federal Statistical Office, accessed December 2019 .
- ↑ Headlines from Bensheim on the 175th anniversary of the "Bergsträßer Anzeiger" 2007: "Finally water from the tap". P. 31
- ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes for municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart and Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 350 .
- ↑ Law on the reorganization of the Bergstrasse district (GVBl. II 330–15 § 7) of July 11, 1972 . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior (ed.): Law and Ordinance Gazette for the State of Hesse . 1972 No. 17 , p. 222 ff . ( Online at the information system of the Hessian State Parliament [PDF; 1,2 MB ]).
- ^ History of the city of Lorsch. In: www.deutsche-staedte.de. Archived from the original on September 13, 2017 ; accessed in September 2017 .
- ↑ Information brochure from the city of Lorsch. (PDF; 1.94 MB) City of Lorsch, accessed December 2019 .
- ^ Ordinance on the implementation of the German Courts Constitution Act and the Introductory Act to the Courts Constitution Act of May 14, 1879 . In: Grand Duke of Hesse and the Rhine (ed.): Grand Ducal Hessian Government Gazette. 1879 no. 15 , p. 197–211 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 17.8 MB ]).
- ^ Ordinance on the reorganization of district courts of April 11, 1934 . In: The Hessian Minister of State Jung (Hrsg.): Hessisches Regierungsblatt. 1934 No. 10 , p. 63 ( Online at the information system of the Hessian State Parliament [PDF; 13.6 MB ]).
- ^ Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. State of Hesse. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- ^ Grand Ducal Central Office for State Statistics (ed.): Contributions to the statistics of the Grand Duchy of Hesse . tape 1 . Großherzoglicher Staatsverlag, Darmstadt 1862, DNB 013163434 , OCLC 894925483 , p. 43 ff . ( Online at google books ).
- ↑ a b List of offices, places, houses, population. (1806) HStAD inventory E 8 A No. 352/4. In: Archive Information System Hessen (Arcinsys Hessen), as of February 6, 1806.
- ^ A b Population according to nationality groups: Lorsch, Karolingerstadt. In: Zensus2011. Bavarian State Office for Statistics , accessed in September 2019 .
- ↑ Migration background in%: Lorsch, Karolingerstadt. In: Zensus2011. Bavarian State Office for Statistics , accessed in September 2019 .
- ^ Households by family: Lorsch, Karolingerstadt. In: Zensus2011. Bavarian State Office for Statistics , accessed in September 2019 .
- ^ Local elections 1972; Relevant population of the municipalities on August 4, 1972 . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior (ed.): State Gazette for the State of Hesse. 1972 No. 33 , p. 1424 , point 1025 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 5.9 MB ]).
- ↑ Local elections 1977; Relevant population of the municipalities (item 1668) from December 15, 1976 . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior (ed.): State Gazette for the State of Hesse. 1976 No. 52 , p. 2283 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 10.3 MB ]).
- ^ Local elections 1985; Relevant population of the municipalities as of October 30, 1984 . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior (ed.): State Gazette for the State of Hesse. 1984 No. 46 , p. 2175 , point 1104 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 5.5 MB ]).
- ↑ local elections 1993; Relevant population of the municipalities as of October 21, 1992 . In: The Hessian Minister of the Interior (ed.): State Gazette for the State of Hesse. 1992 No. 44 , p. 2766 , point 935 ( online at the information system of the Hessian state parliament [PDF; 6.1 MB ]).
- ↑ a b municipality data sheet : Lorsch. (PDF; 222 kB) In: Hessisches Gemeindelexikon. HA Hessen Agency GmbH
- ^ The population of the Hessian communities (June 30, 2005). In: Hessian State Statistical Office . Archived from the original .
- ^ The population of the Hessian communities (June 30, 2010). In: Hessian State Statistical Office . Archived from the original .
- ^ The population of the Hessian communities (June 30, 2015). In: Hessian State Statistical Office . Archived from the original .
- ^ Religious affiliation : Lorsch, Karolingerstadt. In: Zensus2011. Bavarian State Office for Statistics , accessed in September 2019 .
- ^ Result of the municipal election on March 6, 2016. 431016 Lorsch, Karolingerstadt. Hessian State Statistical Office, accessed in April 2016 .
- ^ Result of the municipal election of March 27, 2011. 431016 Lorsch, Karolingerstadt. Hessian State Statistical Office, accessed in November 2019 .
- ^ Result of the municipal elections of March 26, 2006. 431016 Lorsch, St. Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt, accessed in November 2019 .
- ↑ Results of the municipal elections of 2001 and 1997. (No longer available online.) Hessian State Statistical Office, archived from the original ; accessed in October 2019 .
- ↑ Sparks distinguished mayors. In: www.morgenweb.de. Mannheimer Morgen, January 26, 2011, accessed November 2012 .
- ^ Election results of the mayoral election of December 4, 2016. In: wahlen.lorsch.de. Accessed October 2019 .
- ^ Chronicle of the SPD Lorsch. In: website. SPD local association Lorsch, accessed in October 2019 .
- ↑ On a new democratic foundation. (PDF; 208 kB) In: Article by the non-party electorate Lorsch. Accessed October 2019 .
- ↑ Mayoral election in Lorsch, Karolingerstadt. Hessian State Statistical Office , accessed in April 2019 .
- ↑ Cabaret Sapperlot. Website.
- ↑ Bernd Fäthke, The new cultural-historical department in the Museum Center Lorsch, Hessische Heimat, magazine for art, culture and monument preservation, 41st year, 1991, issue 2, p. 39 ff
- ↑ Information on the Bergstrasse. Region: Lorsch: Worth seeing. Private website, accessed December 11, 2014 .
- ↑ a b c d Königshalle & monastery area. In: Website of the Lorsch Monastery. Lorsch city administration, accessed in October 2019 .
- ↑ View depot tithe barn. In: Website of the Lorsch Monastery. Lorsch city administration, accessed in October 2019 .
- ↑ Lorsch Museum Center. In: Website of the Lorsch Monastery. Lorsch city administration, accessed in October 2019 .
- ↑ Altenmünster. In: Website of the Lorsch Monastery. Lorsch city administration, accessed in October 2019 .
- ↑ Lauresham Open Air Laboratory. In: Website of the Lorsch Monastery. Lorsch city administration, accessed in October 2019 .
- ↑ Auerrind project. In: Website of the Lorsch Monastery. Lorsch city administration, accessed in October 2019 .
- ↑ Prisca Jourdan :: Auerrindprojekt Lorsch tries to back-breed the Ursus. In: Bürstädter Zeitung. Retrieved April 8, 2017 .
- ↑ a b c Further sights along the cultural axis. In: Website of the Lorsch Monastery. Lorsch city administration, accessed in October 2019 .
- ↑ State Office for Monument Preservation Hessen (Ed.): City Hall Heppenheim In: DenkXweb, online edition of cultural monuments in Hessen on the website of the State Office for Monument Preservation Hessen
- ↑ Appendix 1: List of natural monuments in the Bergstrasse district. (PDF; 4.82 MB) The district committee of the Bergstrasse district - lower nature conservation authority -, November 30, 2011, accessed on January 24, 2016 .
- ↑ Hessisches Statistisches Informationssystem In: Statistics.Hessen.
- ↑ Coworking Lorsch. Website. Development company Lorsch mbH / regional start-up center Lorsch
- ↑ Headlines from Bensheim on the 175th anniversary of the “Bergsträßer Anzeiger” 2007: “Meeting point for thousands of bathing fans”, p. 56