|coat of arms||Germany map|
|County :||Wartburg district|
|Fulfilling municipality :||for Seebach|
|Height :||440 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||38.55 km 2|
|Residents:||5456 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||142 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||99842|
|Area code :||036929|
|License plate :||WAK, SLZ|
|Community key :||16 0 63 066|
|City structure:||3 districts|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Gerald Slotosch (independent)|
|Location of the city of Ruhla in the Wartburg district|
Ruhla is a mountain town in western Thuringia between Eisenach and Schmalkalden . The state-approved resort is located at an altitude of 440 to 530 meters on the north side of the Thuringian Forest on the Rennsteig . The districts of Thal and Kittelsthal belong to the city of Ruhla . With both districts, the city had a good 5605 inhabitants on an area of 38.51 square kilometers at the end of 2016.
The name Ruhla is said to be derived from the Rolla stream (derived from rubble) flowing through the upper part of the village . The Rolla empties into the Erbstrom , namesake of Erbstromtals . Ruhla is embedded in this low mountain range.
The city, first mentioned in writing in 1355, gained fame as an industrial and watch city , but today it is more touristy. The park mini-a-thür , which shows models of over 100 sights of Thuringia, contributes to this. With the church of St. Concordia , Ruhla is the only corner church in Germany that is still in its original state.
The city of Ruhla is located in the west of the state of Thuringia . About 50 kilometers as the crow flies separate the town center from the state capital Erfurt . The 38.51 square kilometer urban area is located southeast of Eisenach on the eastern edge of the Wartburg district .
The municipality of Wutha-Farnroda borders the urban area of Ruhla in the north . In the northeast are Seebach and Hörselberg-Hainich , to the west Etterwind and Marksuhl . The district of Winterstein in the town of Waltershausen is six kilometers to the east, and about seven kilometers further is Waltershausen . In a south-westerly direction are Moorgrund and the district town of Bad Salzungen (13 kilometers). Schweina and Bad Liebenstein (8 kilometers) are located in the south of Ruhla, Brotterode-Trusetal in the southeast. Eisenach is about ten kilometers to the northwest.
The districts of Thal and Kittelsthal, which were incorporated in 1994, belong to the city of Ruhla. Ruhla has been a fulfilling community for Seebach since 2006 .
Geology and vegetation
The area around the city of Ruhla is very diverse in geological terms and is one of the best-studied areas in Germany. The oldest standing rocks are crystalline slates ( mica slate , phyllite , gneiss , amphibolite ). In other areas these are about 1000 meters deep, in Ruhla they are on the surface due to mountain elevations and erosion . High mountains, such as the Breitenberg and the Ringberg , consist of such crystalline slates that are mainly found in the north of Ruhla. A Zechstein band of different widths connects to the crystalline area in a northerly direction before Thal .
Porphyries form the west and east of Ruhla than effusive high peaks like the Kahle Koppe in the east and the Kissel in the West. Both in the porphyry and in the crystalline schist there are V-valleys with steep slopes without a broad valley floor.
To the southwest of Ruhla there is Ruhlaer Granit with block fields and single blocks (for example on Gerberstein ). These have a higher proportion of quartz and are therefore harder. The valleys are hollow valleys because the granite has been weathered creepily and its weathering products are easy to remove. A Zechstein band of different widths adjoins the granite area in a southerly direction near Steinbach / Altenstein . With the mining of iron ore and its smelting, the basis for the settlement of the Ruhla area was given.
Almost half of the entire forest area around Ruhla consists of spruce, the second largest portion is made up of pure beech forest. Above 700 meters there are almost exclusively spruce trees, the monoculture of which leads to soil impoverishment. Maples , ash trees and birches grow here and there in clearings . Overall, the proportion of mixed forests is very low. Until about 250 years ago there were pure deciduous forests (mainly beeches).
Mountains and rivers
The landscape of Ruhla is characterized by numerous mountains, including: Gerberstein ( ), Birkenheide ( ), Breitenberg ( ), Kahle Koppe ( ), Ringberg ( ), Bermer ( ), Todte Mann ( ), Großer Wartberg ( ) ), Gollertskopf ( ), Meisenstein ( ), Spitziger Stein ( ) and the Scharfenberg ( ). Due to the narrow valley location, the city extends to more than 5 kilometers. The beginnings of six side valleys are included in the settlement area. The western and southern side valleys are mostly moderate uphill to the Rennsteig.
The Erbstrom flows through Ruhla , its source is located southeast of the village. It unites near the stadium with the trickle of Kalter Rümpler and then takes on the Rolla , the name of the city. The hereditary current flows on through Thal and flows into the Hörsel in Wutha-Farnroda .
Climatically, Ruhla can be assigned to the German low mountain range. The average annual precipitation is 890 millimeters. It rains heaviest in June, mostly intense thunderstorms, the driest month is February. The Rennsteig is considered a weather divide . The climatic conditions within the urban area of Ruhla are very different due to the altitude, the topography and the prevailing western air currents. In the ridge of the Rennsteig, a blanket of snow was observed on an average of 180 days in the 1960s (from November 4th to May 2nd). The phenological spring begins relatively late. In the urban area of Ruhla, local climatic effects are increasingly occurring (e.g. fog banks), which allow the respective weather to vary; locations exposed to wind and sun, cold air accumulations in the narrow valley sections and other effects are responsible for this. The average annual temperature is 7.5 ° C, with the warmest in July (16 ° C) and the coldest in January (−1 ° C).
An observation station of the private weather service Meteomedia has been located in Ruhla at an altitude of 430 meters since May 17, 2006 . Since December 2007 the daily weather forecast for Ruhla has been based on their observations.
Around the year 1355, Ruhla was first mentioned in an inheritance book of the county of Henneberg . In 2005, the celebrated watch town , the 650-year anniversary . The first settlements in the urban area probably existed as early as the Neolithic or the Bronze Age , as isolated archaeological finds suggest.
By the 10th century at the latest, wandering blacksmiths moved into what is now the Ruhla area in order to mine the iron ore available seasonally. The first settlers settled down around three centuries later along the Rennsteig mountain ridge . They were looking for ores above ground and processed them on site in forest forges ; they were miners , charcoal burners and blacksmiths at the same time .
The first settlements, the Glasbach and Alte Ruhl desolations , were near the Rennsteig. The forest smiths used the racing furnace to extract iron and used the abundant raw materials iron ore and wood , which they processed into charcoal. The Landgraves of Thuringia promoted the manufacture of tools and weapons. The heavy consumption of wood by mining and charcoal burning pushed the forest back, the areas were prepared for pasture by migrating farmers and shepherds. In the valley floor, along the water-rich Rolla, numerous smelters, hammer mills and grinding mills were built; at the same time, an initial road network and permanent settlement developed in the current location.
In the 18th century, the spa and bathing system in Thuringia had its first heyday. From 1756 the renovated ducal-Weimar forester's house in Ruhla was set up as a spa and bathing facility in the summer months. Later private landlords and inns offered quarters for spa guests and Ruhla developed into a well-known seaside resort. After the development of further springs around 1850, around 500 to 600 guests per season came to the spa.
An important event in the local history was the division of Ruhla. These were temporary territorial changes that strongly influenced the economic development and the coexistence of the population and were the reason why there are two Protestant churches in the village. It was not until 1920/1921 that the two administrative areas were united with the formation of the state of Thuringia .
In the late 19th century, the Ruhla pocket watch Fearless was developed. After it was initially exported primarily to the USA, it has been in series production since 1890. The pocket watch, jokingly known as the Rühler Kartoffel , was the first machine-made watch and could therefore be offered at a significantly lower price than the watch movements produced in watch factories.
Ruhla was granted city rights in 1896.
During the First and Second World Wars, a lot was manufactured in Ruhla for armaments. In the largest company in town, the watch and machine factory Gebrüder Thiel , more than 730 men and women as so-called Eastern workers as well as many prisoners of war from France and military internees from Italy had to do forced labor during World War II . The company received the honorary title from the then office for beauty of work : National Socialist model company . In the company C. & F. Schlothauer more than 1000, in another eight companies more than 550 forced laborers were used. Nineteen graves in the Trinitatis cemetery commemorate the victims, who included five women and six small children .
Ruhla was not bombed during World War II. Due to aerial battles over the city area and aircraft shot down in the process, Ruhla still had to record some deaths and destruction. In April 1945, American artillery shelled the site, destroying the roof and nave of St. Trinity, the reconstruction took five years.
Since Ruhla is somewhat hidden in the valley when viewed from the air and at that time had a terminus , the Compiégne saloon car , the place where the armistice was signed between Germany and France, was hidden in Ruhla from the end of 1944 to March 1945 and was constantly guarded.
After the occupation of Thuringia by the Soviet Military Administration of Thuringia (SMATH) under General Vasily I. Tschuikow, the Ruhla population, which consisted largely of factory workers and craftsmen, worried about the continued existence of their jobs. The armaments factories were supposed to be smashed according to the Four Power Agreement, which in the Soviet Zone usually meant dismantling and relocation to the Soviet Union. However, the Ruhla industrial operations were largely preserved. Nazi functionaries and war criminals were searched for, and "purges" of the administration or schools took place in several waves. Many residents settled in the western zones.
With the division of Germany , private travel opportunities to the Federal Republic of Germany ended . Therefore, vacation opportunities had to be created in their own area, and the bungalow village with camping site Alte Ruhl and the company's own children's holiday camps were built in Ruhla . At the end of the 1960s, the development and expansion of the cooperatively managed residential areas Krümme in the south of the city and in Thal Am Rögis began . The state of preservation of private houses deteriorated.
With the discontinuation of the Ruhla railway connection, bus traffic became of central importance and the former Ruhla train station became the central bus station. Around 5,000 working people commuted to Ruhla every day from a radius of around 30 kilometers.
The urban area of Ruhla expanded in 1994 through the incorporation of the places Thal and Kittelsthal to 38.5 square kilometers.
Since around 1995, old factory buildings have been demolished and the areas have been restructured for tourism. After the fall of the Wall, Ruhla changed from an industrial town to a tourist town, with numerous newly created parks (such as mini-a-thür ) and the redesign of the areas in the town center as well as the creation of new leisure activities (e.g. the Alexanderturmbahn summer toboggan run ).
- Sources: 1880–1993: Statistics of the German Empire. From 1994: Thuringian State Office for Statistics (values from December 31)
In 2005 Ruhla had 4,129 inhabitants, Thal had 1,975 and Kittelsthal 774 inhabitants.
The age group of 0 to 5 year olds accounted for around 3.5 percent in 2009, the proportion of 6 to 15 year olds was 5.3 percent. The 16 to 65 year olds made up a good 62 percent of the population. The remaining 28.2 percent came from people over 65 years of age.
The districts Thal and Kittelsthal were incorporated in 1994. Since July 1, 2006, the city of Ruhla has been a fulfilling municipality for the nearby town of Seebach . A voluntary mayor and the local council are still active there.
Religion and denominations
In Ruhla there is an Evangelical Lutheran parish, a Roman Catholic parish and a New Apostolic parish. A total of 29.1 percent of the inhabitants of all three districts are Protestant, with Kittelsthal having the highest rate at 37.5 percent. The Roman Catholic denomination includes 3.8 percent of all residents, here Thal forms the majority with 5.1 percent. About 67 percent of the population belong to other denominations or are non-denominational.
The city council of Ruhla has 20 seats. The mayor has another seat on the city council, who also chairs the city council.
|Distribution of seats since the last local election on May 26, 2019|
|fraction||CDU||SPD||The left||Free voters Erbstromtal||AfD||Civic alliance|
4828 citizens were eligible to vote in the local elections on May 26, 2019 . The turnout was 60.6 percent.
In the first years after the fall of the Wall, the mayors of Ruhlas changed very often, so between January 1990 and January 1994 four different mayors were in office. Only with the election of Gerald Pietsch ( CDU ) did Ruhla develop continuously. Pietsch did not stand for election in 2006 - Mario Henning (CDU) then took over the office. Henning lost in the local elections on April 22, 2012 . He got 1,370 valid votes and thus 48.2 percent. His successor was the Ruhla SPD local politician Hans-Joachim Ziegler, who received 100 more votes and won with 51.8 percent. Four applicants ran for the local elections on April 15, 2018. The turnout was 58.6 percent. Of the 2,833 valid votes, Frank Böwe (non-party) received 22.7 percent, Enrico Gruhl (SPD) 20.9 percent, Stefan Hartung (CDU) 30.7 percent and Gerald Slotosch (non-party) 25.8 percent. In the runoff election on April 29, 2018, 50.6 percent of those eligible to vote took part. Of the 2,448 valid votes, Stefan Hartung (CDU) received 1,114 votes and Gerald Slotosch (non-party) 1,334 votes. Gerald Slotosch won with 54.5 percent and has been mayor of the city of Ruhla since June 1, 2018.
badges and flags
Blazon : In the black-gold-black bordered golden shield a standing bearded blacksmith in a blue shirt with rolled up sleeves, blue trousers, brown apron and brown shoes, with the right a blacksmith's hammer, with the left blacksmith tongs with a silver blade in front of a blue anvil holding, who rests in front of him on a round block of wood held together by two silver hoops.
The blacksmith of Ruhla has been used by the city as a coat of arms since the unification of the districts in 1921. Before that, each district had its own coat of arms. First the blacksmith was shown growing with tongs and shouldered hammer but without an anvil. Changes to the design have been made frequently since then. During the Third Reich, the blacksmith was portrayed heroically; in the GDR era, the blacksmith only held a horseshoe. The last change to the coat of arms took place in 2007 with a small adjustment to the color scheme.
The city flag consists of the city colors blue and yellow. In the middle of the flag is the city coat of arms.
The partnership with Escaudain is based on a holiday exchange first carried out in 1972. The political partnership was only started in 1995 and strengthened in 2002 by the establishment of a new partnership association. Today there is still a student exchange between the Albert-Schweitzer-Gymnasium in Ruhla, the College Escaudain and the Lycee Technique Denain .
The town twinning with Schalksmühle, founded in 1990, is now mainly maintained by the local senior citizens' associations and youth clubs.
The museum for tobacco pipes and city history in the center of Ruhla has 15 exhibition rooms in which the craft and industrial development of the city of Ruhla as well as the development of tobacco pipe production in Ruhla are documented. Traditional costumes and everyday objects illustrate the culture and way of life of the Ruhla population. According to the town chronicle, the building, which was built in 1614, was the home of an adjoining hammer mill. The Ruhla clock museum reminds of the Ruhla clock making tradition with numerous exhibits.
With the St. Concordia Church, Ruhla has a special church building , an angular church . This church with its unique architectural style, where two naves form a right angle, was consecrated in 1661. The Nikolaikirche in Elsfleth , built in 1504, and a church in Freudenstadt are similar places of worship, but the Ruhla church is the only one in its original state. The equipment of the church is a Jehmlich - organ .
The Trinitatiskirche was the church of the once Gothic district. It stands on Köhlergasse, which is considered the city's oldest street, and was inaugurated in 1686. Duke Ernst the Pious is said to have commissioned the precious pulpit around 1640 for his Gotha castle church, but then it was too pompous for him, which did not correspond to the pietistic zeitgeist. His successor Friedrich I gave it to his subjects in Ruhla. The baptismal font made of Kittelsthaler alabaster , richly decorated with reliefs, was donated in 1684 by the knife scales from Ütterodter Orts . The Trinity Church was badly damaged by fire in April 1945. The nave and the roof were destroyed. The willingness of the community to donate and regional church grants made it possible to re-roof the church after six years, to remove all war damage and to paint the nave. On August 12, 1951, it was returned to its old destination. In 1966, the town's own Trinity Church was transformed into a cemetery church at the request of the Ruhla town council with the approval of the parish council and the approval of the regional council of churches. A ceiling was drawn in the main nave; the side aisles were separated from the main room by partition walls. Today the church also serves as a concert and meeting room. It is looked after by the non-profit Trintiatis association.
The church is surrounded by the mountain cemetery. A memorial in the form of an obelisk (granite block) commemorates domestic and foreign victims of the Second World War . In the upper area of the cemetery 11 members of the armed forces rest who perished between 1943 and 1945. A memorial plaque comes from the GDR era, a series of grave crosses from the Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge , erected after the "Wende".
The Catholic Church of St. Konrad was inaugurated for Easter in 1937. There is also a New Apostolic Church in Ruhla.
The city administration of Ruhla is housed in the historic building at Carl-Gareis-Straße 16. The clinker brick building, as part of a former factory, was renovated from 1996 and has been used as the town hall since September 1997. The new market square is located near the town hall. There are two aluminum sculptures by the sculptor Gisela Eichardt . With the new market, the tourist and nature park information was opened with information boards about the Thuringian Forest nature park and the city of Ruhla.
The townscape, which was originally characterized by half - timbered houses , has changed significantly as a result of industrialization. The monument ensemble on Köhlergasse offers an idea of the original cityscape. The half-timbering of the craftsmen's houses, which were mainly built in the 17th century, consists of the Thuringian ladder , as is typical for the region , but there is also decorative strut framework with St. Andrew's cross and diamond motif.
In the Wiesenstrasse, formerly Poststrasse, is the Ruhla post office, a stately building built in 1927 and 1928. The reason for the construction was the worldwide distribution of Ruhla industrial products. The goods, for example watches, could simply be sent by post, so a needs-based warehouse and customs clearance building was necessary at an early stage.
From 1926 to 1928 the Bauhaus residential complex Altensteiner Straße 16-28a with social housing, playground, city café and shop of the local consumer cooperative was built in Ruhla based on a design by the architect Thilo Schoder . Each apartment consisted of two rooms, a kitchen and a toilet, and there was a shared bathroom in every staircase in the attic. Use by the tenants was regulated by a bathing plan. The settlement in the New Building style , which was renovated in 2002, is a listed building ; the communal bathrooms have been replaced by individual bathrooms in each apartment.
The Carl-Alexander-Turm is the only observation tower in the western Thuringian Forest . It is only a few kilometers away from Ruhla and is located on the 639 meter high Ringberg. 111 steps lead to a height of 21 meters. The Thuringian Forest, Eisenach and the Wartburg , the Hörselberge , the Rhön , the Hohe Meißner , the Hainich and the city of Ruhla can be seen from the viewing platform . The tower was first built in 1867 as a wooden structure with a height of 18 meters by order of Hofrat Alexander Ziegler by the Dresden master builder Eduard Müller. It collapsed in a storm in 1896. In the following year the iron tower was rebuilt, which was completely overhauled in 1959 and 1989. The last renovation measure took place in 1997 for the 100th anniversary of the Alexander Tower. Around the city, hiking trails open up the lookout points, which include the Emmy Temple on the eastern slope of the Ringberg, the Emilienruhe on the Breitenberg, the Königshäuschen and the Bermerhütte.
From the tower of the ruins of the Scharfenburg, first mentioned in 1137, in the Thal district , one has a view of the surrounding countryside. Viewpoints on the Great and Small Wartberg, Meisenstein, Gerberstein and Wachstein provide views of the northern and eastern foreland or the Wartburg .
Parks and memorials
The permanent exhibition mini-a-thür (Little Thuringia), opened in 1999, shows over 100 miniature models of many Thuringian sights, for example the Carl Zeiss planetarium in Jena in an outdoor area. In winter, the models can be viewed in a museum hall. A summer toboggan run has been located near the park since 2009.
In 2005 the Karolinenpark was inaugurated with the exposed stream of the Erbstrom on the site of the former VEB Elektroinstallation Ruhla . The Harmonie children's and water playground was built on an old industrial site in the town center .
A bronze bust of Theodor Neubauer on the grounds of the Albert-Schweitzer-Gymnasium, which bore his name in GDR times, commemorates the communist educator, Reichstag member and resistance fighter who was murdered in Brandenburg-Görden in 1945 .
The Dichterhain not far from mini-a-thür is a memorial for well-known Ruhla citizens such as Friedrich Lux, laid out in 1863 .
In 2006 a memorial plaque was erected in the city center in memory of the Day of German Unity , October 3, 1990. In addition, a sycamore maple was planted that day , which had to be replaced by a new tree in 2005 due to road construction work.
The mountains around Ruhla and Thal are rich in legends that tell of the caves that were already known in the Middle Ages. The oven hole is a cave on the northern slope of the Great Wartberg above Seebach . The hollow stone is located near Thal on the western slope of the Schossberg . Opposite, on the eastern slope of the Spitzigen Stein, is the knight's cave , also called the old cellar . On the Rennsteig , near the forest village of Zollstock , you will find the Rennsteig grotto, an overhanging rock face caused by weathering.
The Kittelsthal stalactite cave is located in the district of Kittelsthal . This was discovered by mining in 1888 and opened to the public in 1896. In 1968 it was closed due to necessary mountain safety measures and opened again to visitors in 1992 after repairs. In the only developed stalactite cave in Thuringia, there are stalactite formations that are several thousand years old.
music and dance
On the legend Der Schmied von Ruhla , the organ virtuoso Friedrich Lux composed a historical-romantic opera of the same name in three acts. This was premiered very successfully in Mainz in 1882. Further performances followed on more than 30 stages, including in Strasbourg, Chemnitz and Basel. Since 2010, Ruhla associations have been preparing a modernized version of the opera, which is expected to be premiered in 2013 with the participation of numerous amateur actors.
In the 17th century, the craft guild of blade and knife smiths in Ruhla performed a dance ritual that is described as a sword or knife dance during Shrovetide and on special occasions . The 16 to 20 dancers selected from the guild members performed a fast-paced show dance, which the dancers had to dance with the greatest concentration and precision, as it was performed with bare knives or swords in their hands.
The Rühler Springer is one of the dances that were very popular at folk festivals in the 18th century; today it is performed by members of various folklore and costume associations.
“This area of tradition, borne by peculiar traditions, called -» the Ruhl «- is described as particularly fond of dancing; for that strange arrangement of the Dukes of Gotha and Eisenach from the year 1680 is to be understood in the same way, which gave the Ruhla residents the “hideous shouting” during their vital folk dance, the “Rühler Springer”, which is still widely known and cultivated today "Shouting and shouting and the annoying twisting, lifting, touching and swiveling of women" was forbidden under severe punishment. This reflects the futile attempt of an absolutist system of rule to impose their courtly and puritanical lifestyle on the people. "
Dialect and usage
The Rühler language with its own phonetics and sometimes special grammar is only spoken by very few residents. There is a dialect dictionary and numerous collections of poems and sayings. Individual terms of the dialect are still used in everyday life. The first extensive consideration of the Ruhla dialect comes from Karl Regel in the book Die Ruhlaer Mundart, published in Weimar in 1868 .
In order to preserve the Ruhla traditions, the folklore association Alt Ruhla e. V. founded, which merged with the Ruhla Museum Association in 1934 and is still active. In public events, the members of the association keep the Rühler Springer and the dialect, who are dressed in traditional costume, alive. On home evenings and when visiting hotels and holiday homes, the people of Ruhla performed their own plays and tales in dialect in ever new variations: Die Damenschnieder (1946), Dear Rühler Kirchenstriet (1949), Rühler Lüter (1952), Der Fliegenschnieder (1954) or The beautiful Elephantine (1976).
The Ruhla costume
The traditional costume of Ruhla was part of the appearance of the people of Ruhla when going to church on Sundays and on many occasions. When the Ruhla local museum opened in 1906, great importance was attached to the collection and presentation of the Ruhla folk costumes. The association for the preservation of folk costumes in the Duchy of Gotha, founded in 1907 in the then state capital Gotha , worked in the same way . This association can be seen as the forerunner of the Thuringian costume association. The association currently consists of 115 association members, including many young people. In 1999, Ruhla was the host of the Thuringian National Costume Festival. The Ruhla festive costume around 1830 was honored at the German Trachtentag 2007 with the title Tracht des Jahres .
“One of the characteristic pieces of clothing of the girls and women was the kantel skirt, the name of which refers to the rich edging. It consisted of an expensive woolen material or of semi-woolen material in which cotton or linen was used as a cover, the so-called two-man.
The dominant colors were green, purple and white. In addition, the bodice, underneath a linen shirt, over it a monochrome jacket, mostly made of silk, was worn, as well as openwork stockings with knitted gussets. The headgear of the wealthy consisted of hoods or caps. In the majority, however, the Haitlappen (Hait or Heid is the vernacular name for head) was used, which was widespread in Thuringia.
The origin of the wearer could always be determined according to the fabric, the type of tie and the arrangement of the knot and the corners. Typical of the Rühlerinnen was the extremely narrow neck rag, the tip of which, decorated with embroidery, hung coquettishly behind the left ear.
The men wore gray, cotton long trousers to work with a short, semi-woolen work jacket, in cold weather a long waistcoat or knitted wool jacket, socks and high boots, and hats with a wide brim. The blue linen coat, which, like in all of Thuringia, represented the clothes of the carters, was known. The men's Sunday clothes consisted of black velvet breeches, white openwork stockings, buckled shoes, a green velvet vest and a short jacket made of black, shiny cloth. It was completed by a green patterned scarf and the pearl-embroidered tobacco pouch. "
The Ruhla Tüschel is a dessert that is usually served warm and made of rolls, eggs, milk and margarine. Cherries or raspberries are added to the tüschel before baking. For a variation without fruit, the tüschel is served with ham. The name Tüschel comes from the fact that one less egg was often taken in the past, as eggs were relatively expensive. This was mostly kept secret by the baker, i.e. covered up or covered up.
The oldest sports club in Ruhla is the Bundes-Schützenverein Ruhla 1725 e. V. Before the beginning of the 20th century, the Ruhla swimming club Neptun was formed , and in 1908 the ball game club 08 was established . There are also various sports activities in the city in winter . Ski hiking trails are groomed , as are the cross-country ski trails on the Storchswiese . There is also an illuminated 1.5-kilometer technical trail with information boards on running technique. The Alte Ruhl ski jumping facility has five jumps of 5, 10, 17 and 37 meters with plastic covering for summer use as well as a 60-meter youth hill. The facility serves as a training facility for TSG / WSC 07 Ruhla . In the stadium means meadow football games take the club EFC Ruhla 08 instead of playing in the national class West. Outside the stadium there is an asphalt open area for inline skaters and skateboarders .
There are two outdoor pools in Ruhla. The Ruhlaer Waldbad has about 3000 square meters of water, spread over three pools. Another outdoor pool is located in the Thal district. An all-terrain circuit was created for motorcycling in the Bermbachtal on the outskirts of the city; it is called the Hans Beimler Stadium and is colloquially known as Beimler . A motocross event takes place there once a year. The tennis court and the Erbstromtal tennis center are located in the Thal district , where the first indoor tennis center in the Wartburg district was built in 2004. In 2005 and 2008, the German Roller Ski Championships took place in Ruhla .
The nature park and city festival takes place every year in May or June at the Neuer Markt in the city center . The Ruhla summer ski club RSV03 has been organizing summer skiing since 2003, whereby the skiers traditionally dress up. In autumn, usually October, the Ruhla winter sports club holds the roller-skis mountain run competition . A small Christmas market in the center of Ruhla takes place every year in December.
The tent fair , which is typical for the area, takes place in Ruhla itself as well as in Thal, Kittelsthal and Seebach. All districts also have their own funfair clubs. The Rühler Kirmes is usually celebrated in July, as is the shooting festival.
In August, in addition to the Neptune Festival in the Ruhlaer Waldbad, the Alexander Tower Festival and the Liesenberg Festival of TSG Ruhla are held. The Köhlergasse Festival takes place every year on the Open Monument Day in September. Also, the community festival of the Evangelical Lutheran parish is celebrated in September.
The Weissenborn Talk, which has been organized every six months by the local Heimatverein in Thal since 1993, is particularly dedicated to regional historical research in the Hessian-Thuringian border area.
In 2004, Pastor Gerhard Reuther initiated the Kultur im Winkel series . Under the umbrella of this series of events, concerts, literary and other cultural events take place in the Winkelkirche St. Concordia all year round .
Economy and Infrastructure
Around 1400 the Eisenach chronicler Johannes Rothe reported on the ironworks in Ruhla. In the Ruhla Valley and the neighboring towns, the division of labor and further specialization in the blade forging trade (knives, scissors and cutting and thrusting weapons) became the rule.
At the beginning of the 18th century knives and cutting weapons were exported from Ruhla for 120,000 thalers each year , in 1747 only 40,000 thalers were sold. In the years 1747 to 1750, numerous cutlers moved to Eberswalde in Prussia , where shortly before Frederick the Great had founded a knife and steel goods factory.
The division of Ruhla and the associated development problems, but also the competition, sales difficulties and the migration of 80 families of the cutlery guild, led to the decline of the Ruhla knife trade in the 19th century. Even during its heyday, pipe fittings production developed into a new line of business, and a short time later tobacco pipes were manufactured in Ruhla . In 1750 the "fake" meerschaum ( sepiolite ) was invented in Ruhla . During this time, Ruhla became world-famous for pipe smokers.
On September 25, 1862, the Thiel brothers registered a trade in pipe fittings. The company developed steadily and due to the general upswing in the Wilhelminian era (1871–1873), the decision was made to move into a new, larger building. The product range included several small metal items , and from 1874 the company considered producing a beer clock as a counter for innkeepers. The first Ruhla pocket watch was presented from 1891 . Due to its very reasonable price, it was initially sold abroad, especially in America . Ruhla developed into one of the most important places in the German watch industry. During the First and Second World Wars, production was almost exclusively limited to the manufacture of time fuses for the armaments industry.
During the time of the German Democratic Republic , the company Uhrenwerke Thiel became public property in 1952 at the instigation of the USSR . In addition to alarm clocks, wristwatches, chess, car and table clocks, the production also included machine tools. In 1963, the development of new manufacturing techniques led to the world's only fully automated production of the legendary caliber 24 , which was built into more than 120 million watches by 1987.
After 1980, serial production of the digital clock based on microelectronic components began. The high-tech production capacities were built up in a specially built plant in neighboring Seebach , while a network of service and supplier companies, for example for plastics processing, measuring equipment and tool construction, was created in the vicinity.
After the fall of the Wall , the Ruhla watch industry began to reshape itself. From the VEB Uhrenwerke Ruhla , private, highly specialized small and medium-sized companies emerged, such as Gardé Uhren und Feinmechanik Ruhla GmbH . To this day, Ruhla is well known as a watch city. In addition, numerous small and medium-sized companies have settled in Ruhla and benefit from the successes of the automotive industry in the Eisenach economic area as suppliers or service providers.
Ruhla is a state-approved resort . In 2005 25,167 overnight stays were counted in Ruhla. Around 1.5 percent of the guests came from abroad. The average length of stay was 2.3 days. In the years from 2001 to 2005, Ruhla was able to record an annual increase in overnight stays; in 2001 the number was 18,701. As in the national trend, the number of overnight stays in 2006 and 2007 fell slightly. In 2007, 18,011 overnight stays were counted, with the average length of stay being 2.0 days. Since 2012 the overnight stays have increased again to 36,077 in 2015 with 2.7 days per stay.
In contrast to its economic and cultural importance, Ruhla is disadvantaged by its topographical situation. Constricted in a narrow valley, the core city extends over a length of over six kilometers. The inner-city road network consists of a developed main road ( Landesstraße 2119) with a few branches. For a long time, a problem with this confinement was the lack of parking spaces in the center. As part of the urban redesign and modernization in the mid-1990s with the scheduled demolition of industrial ruins in the city center, the city center could be continued step by step, including the creation of new parking spaces in the form of parking harbors and green spaces.
A section of the B 88 runs through the Thal district , connecting Ruhla with Eisenach in the north-west and in an easterly direction via Seebach , Friedrichroda , Ohrdruf with Ilmenau . Since January 2010, the new Sättelstädt junction of Federal Motorway 4 has also improved Ruhla's transport links.
For destinations in the west and south, the Rennsteig an der Glasbach (state road 1027) or the Gollert (state road 2118) must be crossed, the B 19 can be reached via Bad Liebenstein and Barchfeld or via Etterwind (municipality of Moorgrund) .
Ruhla is connected to the neighboring communities by Wartburgmobil bus lines. served. The lines lead to Tabarz, Eisenach, Wutha and Seebach in the Wartburg district.
In 1880, at the instigation of local industry, the Ruhlaer Eisenbahn (Rühler Bimmel) company was founded. The standard-gauge branch line branched off in Wutha-Farnroda (Wutha district) from the Thuringian Railway ( Neudietendorf – Eisenach section ) and ran 7.29 kilometers into the Thuringian Forest to the end point in the northern part of Ruhla, the so-called station suburb . After the Second World War, the state of Thuringia transferred the railway into state ownership ; On April 1, 1949, the Deutsche Reichsbahn began operating . This ended on September 23, 1967. The line was dismantled. The station building in Ruhla was demolished. Today the next train station is in Wutha-Farnroda . Part of the former route is used as a cycle path .
The rest of the cycle path network in the city of Ruhla is still under construction, the Thal district is already connected to the Thuringian chain of cities and the Hörseltal cycle path . Since April 2010 the Tannhäuser cycle path has been connecting the villages of Wutha-Farnroda with Ruhla, Schweina, Barchfeld and Bad Salzungen. The 195 km long Rennsteig cycle path and the sculpture path Pummpälzweg run south of the city of Ruhla .
A little outside the center is the city's cultural center, which is used for events and has cubic shapes. The building was opened in 1951, it was constructed in an architecture unusual for the epoch. Originally the clubhouse was built on massive stilts, the lower part was added during an expansion in the 1970s.
The Bermbachtalhalle , which was completely renovated in 2010 , not only provides space for sporting events, but also serves as a location for cultural events.
In Kittelsthal, the village community center serves as an event room. The building was erected in 2001 in the center of the district.
In addition to Kittelsthal, the Ruhla volunteer fire brigade is also located in Thal , the main building of which is on the Ruhlaer Liesenberg.
A readiness of the Thuringian Mountain Rescue in the DRK operates a mountain rescue station with emergency camp for Rennsteig hikers in the Waldhaus Auerhahn on the Rennsteig.
The history of the Ruhla schools can be traced back to the year 1661, the oldest school (in the Eisenach part) was located in the half-timbered wing of the old town hall in Carl-Gareiß-Straße, which was demolished from 1995 to 1997 along with neighboring buildings.
The Albert-Schweitzer-Gymnasium with over 400 students is a mathematics and natural science-oriented high school with computer science and winter sports as further focuses. The catchment area extends from Hörsel to Bad Liebenstein . The school was founded in 1951 as a boarding school in a former hotel building. The training for the Abitur began the following year. The city and grammar school library is located near the grammar school .
The city of Ruhla has several honorary citizens, including the mining engineer and geophysicist Rudolf Meinhold (1911–1999), who received this award in 1996 from his hometown. In addition to the former high school teacher Otfried Blumenstein (1920–2018) and local chronicler Lotar Köllner (1929–2016), Friedrich Lux, Marko Baacke, Ron Spanuth and Juliane Seyfarth are also entered in Ruhla's book of honor.
The organ virtuoso and composer Friedrich Lux (1820–1895), who honored his hometown with an opera about the legend of the Ruhla blacksmith, was born and raised in Ruhla. He also wrote a Missa brevis , festival overtures, numerous organ pieces, three string quartets and a piano trio.
The writer and world traveler Alexander Ziegler was born in Ruhla in 1822 and died in Wiesbaden in 1887 . He wrote numerous travel reports and treatises, for example sketches of a trip through North America and the West Indies with special reference to the state of Wisconsin (1848).
The former ski jumper Dieter Neuendorf (* 1940 in Ruhla) became vice world champion in Oslo in 1966, he also won competitions at Holmenkollen and won ski flying events.
The former Nordic combined skier Marko Baacke grew up in Ruhla . He was twice German youth champion, twice German junior champion, twice vice junior world champion and was world champion in sprinting in Lahti in 2001 at the age of 21. Because of a serious fall while ski jumping on November 20, 2001, where his spleen and a kidney had to be removed, he ended his career after a comeback with World Cup starts and participation in the World Championship in September 2004.
Another skier from Ruhla who has had many successes so far is Juliane Seyfarth . In 2003 and 2004 she was German school champion in ski jumping and in 2004 German champion in women's ski jumping. In February 2006, at the age of 15, she won the first women's world championship competition at the 30th Junior World Championships. In 2018 Seyfahrt became the first woman to be made an honorary citizen of Ruhla. At the beginning of 2019 she became two-time world champion at the Nordic World Ski Championships, and a short time later she won the first edition of the Blue Bird Tour .
- Between Ruhla, Bad Liebenstein and Schmalkalden (= values of our homeland . Volume 48). 1st edition. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1989.
- Address book of the city of Ruhla 1909 - with the inclusion of Heiligenstein, Bad Thal, Kittelsthal and Seebach . Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza 2006, ISBN 3-934748-81-3 , p. 96 (reprint).
- Otto Böttinger: Rühler Schnorrpfüffen. Poems in the Ruhla dialect . Hartmann-Verlag, Sondheim vdRhön 1990, ISBN 3-926523-24-7 , p. 48 .
- Luise Gerbing , Arthur Richter: The Ruhla costume. A folklore walk through five centuries (2005 as a reprint) . In: Heimatmuseum Ruhla (Hrsg.): Contributions to Ruhla local history . Booklet 8. Verlag + Druckerei Löhr, Ruhla 1909, p. 35 .
- Lotar Köllner: field and forest place names of Ruhla and the surrounding area (including water and object names as well as old street and place names, with location information and name explanations) . In: Stadtverwaltung Ruhla (Hrsg.): Contributions to the local history of Ruhla . Issue 1. Verlag + Druckerei Löhr, Ruhla 1995, p. 106 .
- Lotar Köllner: The Rühler Spraoch . In: Stadtverwaltung Ruhla (Hrsg.): Contributions to the local history of Ruhla . Issue 2. Verlag + Druckerei Löhr, Ruhla 1997, p. 84 .
- Lotar Köllner: The Ruhlaer streets and their history . In: Stadtverwaltung Ruhla (Hrsg.): Contributions to the local history of Ruhla . Issue 5. Verlag + Druckerei Löhr, Ruhla 2004, p. 44 .
- Karsten Müller: The tradition of pipe making in Ruhla . In: Thuringian Traditions . Hain-Verlag, Rudolstadt 1996, ISBN 3-930215-13-6 , p. 87 .
- Karl Regel: The Ruhla dialect . Verlag Hermann Boehlau, Weimar 1868, p. 314 .
- Regina Schlothauer: Ruhla as it used to be . Wartberg Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 1993, ISBN 3-86134-152-2 , p. 72 .
- Alexander Ziegler : The Thuringian Forest Village Ruhla and its surroundings. A local history of culture and a loyal escort for bathers, tourists and locals . Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza 2015, ISBN 978-3-86777-959-3 , p. 126 (first edition: 1867, reprint of the 1867 edition, Carl Höcknerim Dresden).
- Otto Hupp: German coat of arms . tape 4 . Kaffee-Handels-AG, Bremen 1930.
- Roland Geißler : hiking guide to Bad Liebenstein and the Inselsberg. Rockstuhl Verlag, Bad Langensalza 2007, ISBN 978-3-938997-79-6 .
- Harald Rockstuhl : The History of the Ruhla Railway. "Rühler Bimmel" 1880–1967 . Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza 2015, ISBN 978-3-86777-896-1 , p. 238 .
References and footnotes
- Population of the municipalities from the Thuringian State Office for Statistics ( help on this ).
- A direct result of the GDR era. The high density of geological outcrops was ideal for the practical training of GDR geologists.
- Geyer, Jahne, Storch: Geological sights of the Wartburg district and the independent city of Eisenach . In: District Office Wartburgkreis, Lower Nature Conservation Authority (Hrsg.): Nature conservation in the Wartburgkreis . Booklet 8. Printing and publishing house Frisch, Eisenach and Bad Salzungen 1999, ISBN 3-9806811-1-4 , p. 71-84 .
- Manfred Salzmann: Between Ruhla, Bad Liebenstein and Schmalkalden - Values of our homeland Volume 48. Akademie-Verlag Berlin 1989. ISBN 3-05-000378-2 , pp. 1-3, 173
- Lotar Köllner, Otfried Blumenstein: Ruhla home book and chronicle - the weather and natural events in and around Ruhla . Ruhla 2008, p. 213
- The weather forecast for Ruhla
- Lotar Köllner: Around Ruhla . Erfurt 1993, ISBN 3-7301-0968-5 , p. 9 ff.
- Ronald Füssel: The witch persecutions in the Thuringian region , publications of the working group for historical witchcraft and crime research in Northern Germany, Volume 2, Hamburg 2003, pp. 244 and 246f.
- Lotar Köllner: Memories of Bad Ruhla . In: EP Report 4. Heimatblätter '93 . Marburg 1993, ISBN 3-924269-61-0 , pp. 112-114
- Gerd Bergmann Rühler Kartöffel In Stadtzeit March-94 Eisenach 1994, p. 10 ff.
- Hans Biallas, Th. Hupfauer, Heinrich Hoffmann, Erich Fischer: The National Socialist Model Companies 1937/38. Raumbild Verlag, Diessen am Ammersee, 1938
- Thuringian Association of the Persecuted of the Nazi Regime - Association of Antifascists and Study Group of German Resistance 1933–1945 (Ed.): Heimatgeschichtlicher Wegweiser to places of resistance and persecution 1933–1945, series: Heimatgeschichtliche Wegweiser Volume 8 Thüringen, Erfurt 2003, ISBN 3- 88864-343-0 , p. 328
- History of the Compiégne saloon car
- Thuringia after World War II. In: Reinhard Jonscher, Willy Schilling: Small Thuringian History. Jena 2004, ISBN 3-910141-74-9 , p. 269.
- City of Ruhla: 16 years of structural change in Ruhla 1990–2006 , Hegl Druckerei, p. 8 ff.
- Thuringian State Office for Statistics
- Residents' the city of Ruhla, as of July 16, 2009
- City council election 2019 in Thuringia - preliminary result. The regional returning officer, accessed on June 4, 2019 .
- Result of the mayoral election 2012 in Ruhla, Stadt. (No longer available online.) Office of the Regional Returning Officer, April 22, 2010, formerly the original ; accessed on April 23, 2012 : “Entitled voters: 5246; Voters: 2918 Turnout: 55.6%; Invalid votes 78; Valid votes 2840. "
- Elections in Thuringia. Retrieved December 20, 2018 .
- General Articles of 19 September 2004 (PDF; 101 kB)
- Otto Hupp: German coat of arms. 1930.
- Lotar Köllner: Ruhla memories in words and pictures. 1998, p. 6 ff.
- City portrait Ruhla - The mountain town in the Thuringian Forest on the Rennsteig
- Gerhard Kühn: Churches in the Eisenacher Land. Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-374-00909-3 , p. 124 ff.
- Website of the Förderverein St. Trinitatis eV , accessed on November 21, 2018
- Manfred Salzmann: Between Ruhla, Bad Liebenstein and Schmalkalden. (= Values of our homeland. Volume 48.) Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-05-000378-2 , p. 41 ff.
- Lotar Köllner: The Ruhlaer streets and their history. Ruhla 2004. pp. 5-33.
- Tourist and Nature Park Information Ruhla (publisher): Nature experience path "Am Breitenberg" in Ruhla . Ruhla, S. 6 (no year).
- Friedrich Lux's biography
- Heiko Kleinschmidt: Advertisement for the Ruhla Festival 2013. Thüringer Allgemeine, local site Eisenach, January 27, 2011, accessed on March 17, 2012 : “The long-term schedule for the performance of the opera 'Der Schmied von Ruhla' by Friedrich Lux was in the foreground first board meeting of the newly founded festival association. "
- Lotar Köllner show dances as a carnival custom - in Ruhla and Steinbach especially the sword dance. In: EP Report 3 - Heimatblätter des Eisenacher Land 1992. Marburg 1992, ISBN 3-924269-95-5 , p. 149.
- Horst H. Müller: Thuringian Forest and peripheral areas. Berlin 1977. ISBN 3-350-00263-3 , p. 125.
- Martin Kahlert, Lotar Köllner, Horst Jäger: Rühler Duden. Ruhla 2003, p. 6 ff.
- Christa Reissig: 100 years old Ruhla. In: Hörselbergbote. Issue 37, Wutha-Farnroda 1999, pp. 5-14e.
- Manfred Salzmann: Between Ruhla, Bad Liebenstein and Schmalkalden. Berlin 1977. ISBN 3-05-000378-2 , p. 43.
- Kurt Drummer, Käthe Muskewitz: From apple potatoes to onion pie. 4th edition. VEB Fachbuchverlag Leipzig, Leipzig 1985, p. 272.
- Bruno Eppelin: Ruhla in the Thuringian Forest. Ruhla, p. 23 ff.
- Wilhelm Bickel: Chronicle of Brotteroda. Brotterode 1925, p. 92.
- This is how we lived - Thuringia a hundred years ago. ISBN 3-932642-00-7 .
- see also: eiszeitstrasse.de ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Keyword: "Schicklerstraße" and the brochure Fremde Heimat Eberswalde - Immigration in the past and present. ( Memento of the original from July 19, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. P. 4 (picture) and p. 21 ff.
- See also F. Bauer: Pocket and Wristwatches - Production and Special Machines for Toolmaking by Gebrüder Thiel GmbH, Ruhle, Thuringia. Leipzig 1938.
- Thuringian State Parliament, Ministry of Economics, Science and Digital Society (6th Wp): Health resorts and recreational areas in Thuringia. In: Small question answered. Thuringian State Parliament, January 27, 2017, accessed on October 8, 2017 .
- Newsletter Tourism Trends Thuringia, 1/2008.
- Verkehrsgesellschaft Wartburgkreis mbH - Timetable ( Memento from January 9, 2004 in the Internet Archive )
- Opening of the Tannhäuser cycle path. In: Thuringian Geopark.de (Onlineportatal). Retrieved May 26, 2010 .
- Homepage of the ASG Ruhla
- Juliane Seyfarth is the first honorary citizen of the city of Ruhla on eisenach.thueringer-allgemeine.de, accessed on March 31, 2019