|Coordinates: 50 ° 48 ′ 2 ″ N , 10 ° 18 ′ 14 ″ E|
|Height :||254 m above sea level NN|
|Area :||11.34 km²|
|Residents :||3144 (Dec. 31, 2011)|
|Population density :||277 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||December 31, 2012|
|Postal code :||36456|
|Area code :||036961|
The church in Barchfeld
Barchfeld is a district of the municipality of Barchfeld-Immelborn in the Wartburg district in Thuringia and is the seat of the municipal administration.
The place is located in the southwest of Thuringia in the Werra valley between the Thuringian Forest and the Rhön . In Barchfeld the Schweina flows into the Werra.
Neighboring towns are Immelborn in the west, Bad Salzungen in the north-west, Witzelroda (municipality of Moorgrund ) in the north, the city of Bad Liebenstein and its district of Schweina in the north-east and Breitungen / Werra ( district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen ) in the south.
The oldest evidence for the settlement of the Barchfelder Flur comes from the Bronze Age. During work in a gravel pit at the Linsenkopf, shattered urns and grave goods were uncovered, a bronze clasp was given to the pastor at the time, and other finds were brought to the local museum in Bad Liebenstein. With the expansion of Frankish rule under Charlemagne to include Saxon-Thuringian tribal territory, the first Christian missionaries also came to the Werra Valley. Following the establishment of the Diocese of Erfurt and the Fulda Monastery by the Anglo-Saxon, papally authorized Bishop Winfrid, better known as Bonifatius , the uninterrupted work of the church began in the 8th century. Barchfeld initially received a small wooden church, which was followed by several subsequent buildings, they were probably consecrated to the Virgin Mary.
High Middle Ages
Today's Barchfeld was built on the right bank of the Werra and was protected by a low castle , which was located in the Werra floodplain and whose main task was the protection of the Königsbreitungen royal estate to the east . Its possessions were transferred to the Premonstratensian double monastery Herrenbreitungen and Frauenbreitungen around 1250 .
Around 915 the royal Palatinate Breitungen was destroyed by the Hungarians during their invasions into the Franconian Empire .
In 933 Barchfeld and Breitungen were mentioned for the first time in the so-called royal document of Heinrich I as "Barcuelda" and "Bretinga". The document reproduced in the royal chancellery describes the boundaries of the Breitungen mark, which was located on an important Werra ford and covered an area of around 280 square kilometers.
The original settlement of Barchfeld was, according to the evaluation of archives (cadastral map from 1772), in the area of the later palace park and around the Barchfeld church. A major fire in 1749 destroyed large parts of this place including the church and the rectory. The original place was surrounded by a fortification made of ramparts, fences and ditches and had two gates - the bar gate was next to the inn "Zur Sonne", through the Fischertor you got to Nürnberger Straße, the old Heerstraße in Werra Valley. There was a brewery, the village school and two free yards in the village. The farms provable by feudal agreements with the landlords were Hopfen Gut, Witzels Gut, Perlets Gut, Hünisches Gut, Schmidts Gut, Stockhauser Gut, Vintzen Gut, Heringer Gut and Langen Gut. There were also farms and mills outside of the village: The Grimmelbach farmstead, already mentioned in 1330, and the Scherfstedter Hof on the Scherfstedter Berg existed until the 16th century, the corridors of the two deserted areas were later divided. At times there was a ferry house on the banks of the Werra, and the two cutting yards - presumably used as sawmills - were located near the village.
Late Middle Ages
Frankenstein Castle , ancestral seat of the Frankenstein dynasts , who also acted as guardians of the neighboring monasteries, was located barely five kilometers west of Barchfeld on a mountain spur that fell steeply to the Werra . The attempts of the Frankensteiners to assert themselves against the strongest powers in the region - the Fulda monastery and the Thuringian landgraves - led to their decline. In 1265, Frankenstein Castle was besieged by Abbot Bertho II of Fulda and partially destroyed. King Adolf also succeeded in this in 1295 , and the castle was probably again badly damaged. As a direct consequence, the Barchfeld Castle gained further importance and was expanded. The Frankensteiners, financially ruined by the fighting, sold most of their possessions to their cousins, the Counts of Henneberg, in 1330 .
In the environment of the Frankensteiner, the noble family belonging to the lords of Stein-Liebenstein zu Barchfeld was active as the castle men of the Barchfelder Wasserburg. From 1318 and 1387 at the latest, the Lords of Stein received the castle and the town of Barchfeld as a fiefdom of the Hennebergs and initially became the sole court lords of Barchfeld. The pledge to the Fulda monastery in 1350 was short-lived, because the monastery was at a feud with the Landgraves of Hesse at that time: with the support of the Landgraves of Thuringia, many of the monastery properties were conquered militarily, including the splinter property in Barchfeld. The Burgmann von Stein succeeded in changing the fronts in time and therefore kept the castle property.
Henneberg-Hessian dual power
As part of the Schmalkalden rule , Barchfeld belonged to the Landgraviate of Hesse from 1360 onwards and in full from 1583 . In 1387, Wetzel von Stein the Elder, who got into financial difficulties, and his son Wetzel the Younger sold three quarters of their property in Barchfeld to Landgrave Hermann von Hessen. A truce was concluded with the Hennebergers, also to regulate the administration of the place Barchfeld, which was now under divided rule. As a result of the Hessian partial takeover, the gentlemen from Stein had to hand over parts of their castle to Hessian castle men (von Buchenau, von Herda). By marriage and inheritance in 1527, Ludwig von Boyneburg zu Gerstungen , the Hessian court judge, came into the possession of the Lords of Herda. In place of the already very dilapidated moated castle, two castles were subsequently built. The Lords of Stein-Liebenstein zu Barchfeld had Stein Castle built in the Renaissance style from 1571 to 1581 ; it was located right next to the former moat. By this time the Boyneburgers had already completed their castles in Stadtlengsfeld and Weilar and were doing the necessary official business there; in Barchfeld they only had an estate as their official residence.
Apparently during this time the first wooden Werra bridge was built, but its existence was short-lived due to flooding and ice. A new construction of the Werra Bridge was not commissioned until 1738.
The Jewish community of Barchfeld was established in the 16th century and was a center of Jewish life in the region. The Reformation was introduced in the 16th century. During the Thirty Years' War , the population of the Barchfeld area , which by inheritance belonged to Hesse-Darmstadt , suffered from attacks by both warring parties, particularly in 1634 and 1635. As a result of the plague and other introduced diseases, only six families in the village survived. In 1640, the writer of the church chronicle noticed that many of the survivors had gone abroad.
In 1721 Barchfeld became the seat of the paraged Landgraves of Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld , a branch of the Hessian sovereigns that emerged from the Hesse-Philippsthal branch in 1721 and who adjoined Wilhelmsburg Palace between 1690 and 1732, directly to Steinsche Palace, as a three-winged Baroque palace erected. Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld is one of the two remaining lines of the former Hessian princely house .
A major fire caused by a bell founder in September 1753 destroyed almost all the courtyards and buildings in the village, including the church and the rectory. The church was rebuilt in the late baroque style within three years. The Evangelical Lutheran congregation later changed its name to Protestant congregation.
Barchfeld received its first school as early as 1600. The first teacher was the clerk Johann Weiß. In the 18th century, up to 120 students were taught in an elementary school. After the fire, teachers were also paid in kind; for 1771 the schoolmaster was entitled to 191 breads as school fees. In the 19th century, the place received musically talented teachers who also mastered the organ and headed the choral society. The teacher Xylander was also active as a composer and founded the Barchfelder Musikverein. The new school building with three halls and two apartments was inaugurated in 1849 - today it is the town hall of the community. With the growing population, another school building (old school) was needed in 1891, and the number of teachers increased to five in 1893. Today's Heinrich Heine School - a state school - was inaugurated in 1912 and had 521 students that year. After leaving school, many young people needed commercial or technical vocational training. In 1927 the community inaugurated the first domestic vocational school in the district of Herrschaft Schmalkalden. After the Second World War, the Barchfeld community expanded due to the influx of resettlers and displaced persons. The school buildings had to be expanded again and a school sports hall was built using NAW . The relatively modern classrooms were also used by the students from the neighboring towns of Immelborn and Moorgrund. In the 1960s, a makeshift after-school care center was introduced to relieve working mothers. In the GDR era, an agricultural school was opened at the site of the former Klosterbräu inn, which was later converted into an alternative quarters for after-school care centers and classrooms. The building, which was reopened after the general renovation in 2000, is now used as a primary school. In the school year 2000/2001, 440 pupils in 24 classes were taught by 30 teachers in the state regular school Barchfeld.
Reconstruction and industrialization
During the reconstruction after the fire, the Seven Years War broke out and hampered the town's economic development.
With the construction of the stone Werra Bridge in 1739, the volume of traffic around Barchfeld increased enormously. Foreign carters needed pre-tensioning services and provisions, so the Barchfeld population also got work and income opportunities. In the first third of the 19th century, the country roads were gradually expanded as paved roads: in 1828, Nürnberger Strasse was expanded in several lots from Eisenach to Meiningen, from 1836 to 1837 the road from Immelborn to Bad Salzungen was built, and in 1845 the gap to the road was closed to Schweina, in 1858 the newly planned Liebensteiner Strasse was built. In 1865 all roads and highways were taken over by the state and the road toll was abolished as a user tax. Bridges and footbridges were built in town, moats and back alleys paved with gravel. The major road paving and sewerage project in Barchfeld was not tackled as emergency work until the 1920s. The expansion of the rail network from Salzungen to Breitungen and Meiningen took place via Immelborn. In order to develop the area around Schweina and Steinbach, which is also important for mining, the Immelborn-Barchfeld-Liebenstein-Schweina railway line was built over a three-year construction period and inaugurated in 1889.
The attempts of Prince Ernst von Hessen-Philippstal in the 19th century to set up a tobacco factory were unsuccessful. The industrial development began towards the end of the 19th century, at the beginning of the 20th century Barchfeld developed into a center for bicycle accessories production through Eduard Reum's business idea. After 1917, the Pallas factory developed into the largest employer. In the First World War 101 residents of Barchfeld and in the Second World War more than 230 residents had to be mourned; a memorial in the village commemorates them.
In 1944 Barchfeld was incorporated into the Erfurt administrative district by the Nazi government and placed under the administration of the Reich Governor for Thuringia in Weimar .
During the aerial battles over Thuringia in October 1944, an American Boeing B-17 ("Flying Fortress") was shot down at a height of about 7,000 m. The nine-man crew managed to get out of the machine above Eichsfeld, which now reached Barchfeld without a pilot and fell there on the meadows on the banks of the Werra. The aircraft wreck was immediately dismantled and presumably transferred to the aircraft yard in Dessau .
20th and 21st centuries
In 1994, Barchfeld and the neighboring community of Immelborn to the west (with the districts of Übelroda, Ettmarshausen and Hauenhof) formed the Barchfeld administrative community . On November 3, 2011, the mayors of the communities Immelborn and Barchfeld signed a contract on the integration of Immelborn into Barchfeld and the formation of the community of Barchfeld-Immelborn in 2012.
On December 31, 2012, the communities of Barchfeld and Immelborn merged to form the new community of Barchfeld-Immelborn. At the same time, the Barchfeld administrative community was dissolved.
In 1955, 3969 inhabitants lived in the village.
Development of the population of the former municipality (December 31) :
- Data source: Thuringian State Office for Statistics
The municipality of Barchfeld pays tribute to its former mayors with a picture gallery in the town hall:
- Heinrich Adam Blum 1878-92
- Ernst Rommel 1912–32
- Karl Schmidt 1932-33
- Kurt Eberlein 1933-41
- Karl Reum 1941–45
- Heinrich Schmidt 1945–46
- Heinrich Hoffmann 1946–50
- Heinrich Baur 1950–52
- Helene Scholz 1952–53
- Karl Klinzing 1953-60
- Heinz Kunze 1960–64
- Hans Klinzing 1964-65
- Heint Schmidt 1965-67
- Karl Klinzing 1967–76
- Hasso Schmidt 1976-81
- Werner Bergemann 1981-83
- Wolfgang Stein 1983-90
- Manfred Seidler 1990-92
- Bernd Kranz 1992–98
- Franz Römhild 1996-2010
- Ralph Groß 2010-12
Barchfeld is the seat of a parish. The Protestant parish of Barchfeld stayed with the Evangelical Church of Kurhessen-Waldeck and did not belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Thuringia during the GDR era . There is also a Roman Catholic parish that belongs to the parish of Bad Liebenstein. Sometimes the Protestant church service is also attended.
The Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses is located on August-Bebel-Strasse , where their weekly meetings take place. A group in Russian is also affiliated with the Jehovah's Witnesses, Bad Salzungen Congregation.
There is evidence of an Israelite community in Barchfeld since the 16th century. It had six families in 1700, 240 people in 1887 and 63 members in 1932. In 1844/45 the Barchfeld synagogue was built in Nürnberger Strasse , which was desecrated by SA men on the night of the pogrom in 1938 and then demolished. Cult objects and furniture were burned on the sports field. In 1933 there were still 57 Jewish people living in Barchfeld, who until 1945 were terrorized, expelled and mostly murdered. From 1988 a memorial stone on the former synagogue site, which was moved to the Jewish cemetery in 1995 , commemorated the Jewish community.
Culture and sights
- The Stein Castle was from 1571 to 1581 on the grounds of a former water castle built. It is dilapidated and entry is prohibited. Since 2012, however, it has been gradually renovated by the municipality of Barchfeld-Immelborn.
- Between 1690 and 1732, after the decaying moated castle was demolished, Wilhelmsburg Palace was built by the Landgraves of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld. It was a three-wing complex that was directly adjacent to Stein's Castle. Today only the west wing is left. The building is not open to the public.
- A memorial stone from 1988 by the sculptor Gerhard König , initially in Nürnberger Strasse on the former site of the Barchfeld synagogue , now in the Jewish cemetery , commemorates the persecution of the Jewish community.
- The Protestant parish church was built as a hall church in quarry stone masonry with corner stones. The east tower has a slate hood, inside is the bell stalls. The north and south portals are marked with the year "1752". The pulpit altar has a richly decorated coat of arms (Hessian lions), the west gallery is dedicated to the church patron and is also richly decorated with coat of arms. The organ front was made in the 18th century. The church served as the burial place of the local nobility until the middle of the 18th century.
- The hereditary burial of the von Stein-Liebenstein zu Barchfeld family is located in the forest on the Heide, about three kilometers as the crow flies east of the local area of Barchfeld on the Stephansberg. It was established in 1835 after burial in the Barchfeld Church, where members of the Landgrave's branch line from Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld had also been buried, had not been allowed since the end of the 18th century. Initially, the deceased were buried in a separate corner of the community cemetery, then the approximately 10 × 15 meter hereditary cemetery was created in the wooded area belonging to the family. There are a total of 29 recognizable grave sites there. The last burial took place in the 1930s. The small cemetery then fell into disrepair and was only bought after 1989 by a distant relative of the Stein-Liebenstein family and gradually restored.
- A grave monument of a Russian woman in the cemetery commemorates the fate of the forced laborers in the village.
Sheet music collection "Music from the house of the Prince of Hesse-Philippsthal-Barchfeld"
A musical collection from the second half of the 18th century is stored in the Hessian Music Archive in Marburg, which was compiled by members of the Landgrave House of Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld and comprises almost 500 compositions, including works by Johann Adolph Hasse , Josephy Haydn , Johann Christian Bach and Christoph Willibald Gluck as well as miniatures of members of Thuringian-Hessian princely houses such as Luise von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld , Anna Amalia von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach and Charlotte Amalie von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg . Due to the small cast sizes of numerous compositions in the collection, it can be assumed that the collection was used for family music-making in the Landgraves' Castle Wilhelmsburg in Barchfeld. The collection caused a stir in 2012 when a previously unknown occasional composition by Johann Christoph Friedrich Bach , Johann Sebastian Bach's second youngest son , was discovered in the collection while cataloging the Barchfeld holdings . On October 9, 2015, some works from the music collection, including the song I should drink the light source by Landgravine Luise von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld , were performed for the first time again at the historic location in Barchfeld for the Early Music Festival in Thuringia - Güldener Herbst.
Sports and leisure facilities
A youth and leisure center, a small sports facility, a mini pipe, playgrounds and parks are available in Barchfeld for leisure activities. In the Immelborn Werraaue there is a local recreation center with two swimming lakes and a campsite.
Economy and Infrastructure
The gravel deposits in the floodplain along the Werra have been explored since the beginning of the 20th century in the search for potash deposits; since 1964, large quarry ponds have been created west of the place with the Immelborn gravel pit , which have been used as a tourist bathing lake for water sports and with Campsite were developed.
Barchfeld has two designated industrial parks on which primarily mechanical engineering and electrical engineering companies have settled:
- The industrial area Im Vorwerk with a total area of 23.26 hectares is located on the south-eastern outskirts of Barchfeld.
- The commercial area Am Eisberg on the north-eastern edge of the village with an area of approx. 58.3 hectares borders the municipality of Witzelroda. The development took place in two sections.
The federal highway 19 leads through the municipality , into which the federal highway 62 joins in the village . The railway line from Immelborn via Barchfeld to Steinbach was shut down in 1973. The Werratal cycle path leads through Barchfeld .
- Eva Margaretha von Buttlar (1670–1721), mystical-libertine sectarian and namesake of the group known under the name Buttlarsche Rotte
- Rudolf Dorschel (1898–1980), judge
- Max Oppenheim (1876–1947), cantor, rabbi assistant and the last teacher at the Jewish school in Düren, North Rhine-Westphalia
- Ernst von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (1789–1850), Russian general of the cavalry
- Karl August Philipp Ludwig von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (1784-1854), Landgrave of Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld from the House of Hesse
- Wilhelm Christoph Kriegsmann (1633–1679), member of the Darmstadt chamber council, hermetic and conventist
- Johann Heinrich Schilbach (1798–1851), landscape painter
- (Johann) Georg Sömmer (1811–1864), portrait painter
- Karl Volkmar: A thousand years of Barchfeld (Werra). Depicted on the basis of the collection of documents belonging to Baroness Frieda Stein-Schlotheim. Self-published by the municipality, Barchfeld 1933, DNB 576812072 .
- Heinrich Weldner: The dialect of Barchfeld on the Werra . (= Journal for Dialectology and Linguistics . Supplement 68). Steiner, Stuttgart 1991, ISBN 3-515-05422-7 .
- Walter Höhn: Thuringian Rhön . Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2005, ISBN 3-86568-060-7 , p. 33.
- Roland Geißler : hiking guide to Bad Liebenstein and the Inselsberg. Rockstuhl Verlag, Bad Langensalza 2007, ISBN 978-3-938997-79-6 .
- Klaus Schmidt: Nature and homeland book Barchfeld / Werra. A representation of nature, landscape and historical development . Self-published by Naturschutzbund Germany, Barchfeld 2008, DNB 991511824 .
- Karl Volkmar: A thousand years of Barchfeld (Werra). Depicted on the basis of the collection of documents belonging to Baroness Frieda von Stein-Schlotheim. Self-published by the municipality of Barchfeld, Feodor Wilisch, Schmalkalden, 1933, DNB 576812072 .
- ^ Thuringian State Office for Statistics - Population by municipalities, fulfilling municipalities and administrative communities
- ^ Karl Volkmar: A thousand years of Barchfeld (Werra). 1933, p. 7.
- ^ 1075 years of Breitungen (Werra). DNB 987022482 . (Festschrift)
- ^ Karl Volkmar: A thousand years of Barchfeld (Werra). 1933, pp. 20-23.
- ↑ Dietlas . In: Paul Lehfeldt, Georg Voss (ed.): Architectural and artistic monuments of Thuringia, Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen, Salzungen district court . Booklet XXXV. Jena 1909, p. 44-47 .
- ^ Baron von Boineburg: Lengsfeld Castle. In: Album of the residences, castles and manors of Thuringia, in particular the Saxon Lands of the Ernestine line. Issue 1. Werl, Leipzig 1858.
- ^ Karl Volkmar: A thousand years of Barchfeld (Werra). 1933, pp. 18-19.
- ↑ a b Hans Patze , Peter Aufgebauer (ed.): Handbook of the historical sites of Germany . Volume 9: Thuringia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 313). 2nd, improved and supplemented edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-520-31302-2 , p. 40.
- ^ E. Schmidt: Development of the school system in the municipality of Barchfeld . In: Altensteiner Blätter . Schweina 2001, p. 87-104 .
↑ In a contemporary family chronicle of a Barchfeld miller Ebert it is written which burdens he had to endure:
- In 1756 the wretched war with the King of Prussia started and it got worse from day to day. ... that in 1757 I had 15 soldiers and once a cavalry officer, colonel, lieutenant, captain, namely 3 to 4 officers. ... in 1758 again 7 times, always officers, but sometimes had 3 to 4 weeks ..., 1759 again 14 times officers ..., 1760 again 6 officers ..., 1761 again 8 officers, 1762 again had 8 officers ... I wasn't sure of my life, 1763 had dragons, 1 adjudant general, and then, thank God, the war broke out again ... As a result of the war events , the grain prices had risen enormously. (From Karl Volkmar: Thousand Years of Barchfeld (Werra). Self-published by the community, Barchfeld 1933, pp. 35–38.)
- ^ Karl Volkmar: A thousand years of Barchfeld (Werra). 1933, pp. 59-64.
- ↑ a b K. Schmidt: A foray through the history of Barchfeld . In: Altensteiner Blätter . Schweina 1997, p. 131-36 .
- ↑ E. Schmidt: plane crash . In: Altensteiner Blätter . Schweina 1997, p. 141-45 .
- ↑ sdk / ide: Yes to Barchfeld-Immelborn. In: Südthüringer Zeitung (editorial office Bad Salzungen). November 4, 2011, accessed on November 4, 2011 : “The councils voted unanimously in favor of the draft contract to integrate the municipality of Immelborn into the municipality of Barchfeld. ... The legislative process is expected to take three quarters of a year, so that the integration can become legally binding at the end of 2012 at the earliest. The currently existing administrative association (VG) will then be dissolved. The VG meeting also passed the corresponding resolution on Wednesday evening unanimously and without discussion. "
- ↑ StBA: Area changes from January 1st to December 31st, 2012
- ^ Paul Luther: Materials for local history lessons - Bad Salzungen district, Suhl district . Ed .: Council of the Bad Salzungen District, Department of Public Education. Bad Salzungen 1959, structure of the district of Suhl (overview of the places and population of the districts), p. 5-11 .
- ^ Municipality: Barchfeld – Immelborn . Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- ↑ https://www.jw.org/apps/X_CONGSHARE?l=e87eeb0e488bf2e37e9246ca2c242b75
- ^ Israel Schwierz: Evidence of the Jewish past in Thuringia. ( Memento of the original from October 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 23.77 MB), p. 60, accessed October 1, 2014.
- ^ Georg Dehio: Handbook of the German art monuments Thuringia . Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-422-03095-6 .
- ↑ Barchfeld - The last resting place of those von Stein ( Memento from August 31, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ Thuringian Association of the Persecuted of the Nazi Regime - Association of Antifascists and Study Group of German Resistance 1933–1945 (Ed.): Local history guide to sites of resistance and persecution 1933–1945. (= Guide to local history. Volume 8: Thuringia). Erfurt, 2003, ISBN 3-88864-343-0 , p. 318.
- ^ Daniela Wissemann-Garbe: Signature group HA IV in the Hessian Music Archive Marburg. RISM, 2014, accessed July 13, 2017 .
- ↑ Business parks in the Wartburg region. In: Wartburgkreis-Online. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011 ; Retrieved February 18, 2010 .
- ↑ Business park “Im Vorwerk”. In: Barchfeld - Werra. Retrieved February 18, 2010 .