Anna Amalia from Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Duchess Anna Amalia of Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach, b. Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, painting by Johann Ernst Heinsius (1769)
Bust of the Duchess in the Duchess Anna Amalia Library by Martin Gottlieb Klauer (1780)

Anna Amalia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (born October 24, 1739 in Wolfenbüttel , † April 10, 1807 in Weimar ) was by marriage Duchess of Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach . She worked as regent , patron and composer .

Origin and youth

Anna Amalia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1788/89) by Angelika Kauffmann

Anna Amalia was born on October 24, 1739, the fifth of thirteen children of the duke couple Philippine Charlotte (born of Prussia) (1716–1801) and Karl I of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1713–1780) in Wolfenbüttel Castle . She received a proper education for princesses of the high nobility, especially by the theologians Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Jerusalem and Matthias Theodor Christoph Mittelstädt . Religious education was the most important part of education and was taught in both German and French. Anna Amalia's upbringing followed the Protestant traditions of the Braunschweig house, but also integrated 'reasonable' principles of knowledge and denominational balancing thoughts. In addition, she was instructed in the history of states, regents and the imperial constitution, geography and the fine arts, so she learned to dance and play the piano.


Ernst August II of Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach

The sixteen-year-old princess was married on March 16, 1756 to the also Evangelical Lutheran Duke Ernst August II. Constantin of Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach . On September 3, 1757, shortly before her 18th birthday, she fulfilled the most important dynastic expectation with the birth of Hereditary Prince Carl August . Her second son Friedrich Ferdinand Constantin was born after the early death of her husband (May 28, 1758). Anna Amalia remained widowed until her death on April 10, 1807.


Anna Amalia's monogram on 1/6 thaler from 1764
1/6 thaler value side with FSWUEO VM as inscription

According to her husband's testamentary decree, from August 30, 1759, the dowager of the duchy led the provincial administration ( regency ) in the duchies of Weimar and Eisenach for her underage sons. The coins with their monogram bore the abbreviation FSWUEOVM for "Princely Saxony-Weimar and Eisenachische Obervormundschaftliche Landesmünze" on the value side. The use of her own monogram on the small coins and, above all, her own portrait on the Kurant coins , suggests that Anna Amalia exercised the office not only with the intention of representing her, but also with her own design claims. As regent, she had to fight the persistence of councilors and estates , against which she was less and less able to assert herself as the Hereditary Prince came of age. She started reform approaches in the judiciary, policey (social and regulatory policy) and education, but these remained unfinished. When Anna Amalia handed over the government to her son Carl August on September 3, 1775, the state finances were shattered by the Seven Years' War and an expensive court.

The relationship between the “ authorities ” and the “ subjects ” was strained by well-meaning “measures of happiness” that remained alien to the traditional world of the population. This was evident not least in the civil war-like turmoil over the so-called “midwife's penny”. This tax was supposed to secure the training of midwives and finance a birthing center, which the population considered improper. The day after the riots, on May 6, 1774, the Weimar Castle burned down . The citizens of the city were involved in the investigation into the castle fire and called for denunciations.

Upbringing of sons

Duchess Anna Amalia of Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach, b. Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, painting by Johann Friedrich August Tischbein , 1795, Gleimhaus Halberstadt

Count Johann Eustach von Schlitz, known as Görtz, was responsible for the upbringing of the two princes, as well as other prince teachers. Although Anna Amalia herself had proposed him for the office of Prince Educator , the relationship between him and the Duchess was always mistrustful. Anna Amalia feared that Görtz was trying to alienate her sons. In 1772 she brought the poet Christoph Martin Wieland into the group of prince teachers. In the respected writer she hoped to win an ally against Goertz. Wieland and Görtz both vied for the favor of Carl August, the soon-to-be Duke, in order to secure their own position. Shortly before the end of his tenure, Anna Amalia dismissed the prince tutor, while Wieland stayed in Weimar and served the duchess as partner and advisor on literary issues.

Appropriate handling

During the reign, the duchess was always the center of attention of the closer, aristocratic court society. Occasionally foreign guests enriched court life by attending the masked balls and the performances of the court theater - which was dissolved in 1774 . Since the castle fire, Anna Amalia kept a separate widow's court in her city ​​palace , and in the summer months (since 1781) in the nearby Tiefurt tenant house. When the military, artists and scientists made guest appearances at the Duke's court, they often paid their respects to his mother as well. After 1775 Anna Amalia increasingly integrated middle-class people into the sociable forms of entertainment, but almost exclusively male artists and scholars who usually did not come from the Weimar bourgeoisie, such as the former prince teacher Christoph Martin Wieland, the writer and Illuminati Johann Joachim Christoph Bode , the Leipzig citizen Art professor Adam Friedrich Oeser , the painter Georg Melchior Kraus or the antiquity expert Karl August Böttiger . The women Anna Amalia invited were mostly low-nobility. They were either married to men who were in foreign court or military service, lived separately from them for a time in Weimar, or settled there permanently as widows. Her correspondence served the Duchess to present herself in terms of artistic fashions, social developments and political events in line with the times.

Courtly conviviality

The content and forms of conviviality that Anna Amalia organized changed over the decades - festivals, balls and redoubts (masked balls), readings, theater performances, concerts and chamber music, as well as lectures and performances. During the busy phase of the lovers' theater (1776–1780), the court of the duchess was the sociable, art-loving center of the Weimar court. However, Anna Amalia was unable to maintain this position as the central figure in socializing, as the interest of the court turned more and more to the ruling duke couple, Carl August and his wife Luise . After 1790, Duke Carl August and Goethe increasingly professionalized the forms of socializing and entertainment media at court. They excluded the amateur duchess's mother from these activities. Anna Amalia then distanced herself from Goethe's (and Schiller's ) efforts to establish herself as an aesthetic monitoring body in Weimar.

Anna Amalia initiated the Journal of Tiefurt in 1781, shortly after her uncle Friedrich the Great had published a pamphlet on German literature . It appeared in a private, handwritten duplicated edition in 49 editions from 1781 to 1784. The Weimar Literary Society around Goethe as well as Anna Amalia herself and other Weimar women participated in writing.

Art lover and stay in Italy

The Duchess countered Goethe's and Schiller's classicism concept with the sociable ideal of “sensual” education - she primarily wanted to expand her skills, enjoy aesthetic impressions and have a chat. Significantly, the “Friday Society” initiated by Goethe with scholarly lectures only took place for about six months (autumn 1791 / spring 1792) in the Duchess's city palace before she “moved” to Goethe's house on Frauenplan. Anna Amalia withdrew to her own court, which she and her favorites stylized as a refuge for the muses, where they could indulge in art lovers, far from the political turmoil and wars of the 1790s and 1800s. In the summer she gathered her great friends at Schloss Ettersburg . Anna Amalia's personal interests varied: she took drawing lessons from Georg Melchior Kraus , learned English, Italian and Greek and wrote a few small literary manuscripts.

The most important arts for Anna Amalia's personal art lover and the conviviality of her court were music and musical theater. The Duchess regretted that Weimar was relatively decoupled from the artistic centers of the empire. She tried to make up for this lack of personal experience, especially in Italy. She spent the years 1788 to 1790 in Rome and Naples , which was very unusual for a widowed Protestant princess. There Anna Amalia enjoyed nature, the arts and sights, led a musical academy (salon) and enjoyed a secret friendship with Giuseppe Capecelatro , the Archbishop of Taranto .

Patron in the courtly favor system

Anna Amalia lacked the financial means for extensive patronage ambitions, as an evaluation of her box bills showed. Anna Amalia was 'enlightened' insofar as she always aimed for external impact, where she appeared informed and up-to-date - in front of a broad, also non-courtly audience. As openly as she dealt with new ideas, she remained true to the dynastic thinking in which she grew up. Even if she did not have to adhere to any ceremonies at her widow's farm, she always paid attention to etiquette and decent behavior. Even if the courtly norms sometimes seemed too narrow to her, she was still dominated by the courtly system of favor and disapproval. Her younger son Constantin, who first wanted to marry a German lower-nobility and then a French bourgeois, was relegated to a proper course.

Death and burial

Anna Amalia died on April 10, 1807 after a short illness in the Wittumspalais in Weimar. There she was laid out in the large ballroom, which was lined with black fabric for the occasion, so that the population could say goodbye to their former duchess and duchess mother. Goethe himself wrote an obituary for her death.

Anna Amalia was buried in the city ​​church of Weimar at her own request . In contrast to previous dukes, she was not transferred to the royal crypt , which was commissioned by her son Karl August and completed in 1828 .

Library of Anna Amalia

The Anna Amalia Library was one of the first publicly accessible princely libraries in Germany.

According to a prehistory that goes back to 1552, the targeted expansion of the ducal library began in 1691 under Duke Wilhelm Ernst of Sachsen-Weimar. At first it was housed in three rooms of the residential palace. In 1766 Anna Amalia had the Green Palace converted into a library. The current inventory comprises around 1 million volumes, including around 200,000 from before 1850.

Within the so-called Duchess Anna Amalia Library (also known as the “Thuringian State Library”), the Duchess's private library, with around 5000 volumes, is one of the largest private book collections of German princesses of the 18th century. The book collection initially presented European literature in French, as was common among princesses at the time, but from 1776 the catalog shows a “decisive turn towards German literature and translations into German. In contrast to other small German farms, Anna Amalia also followed the focus on the German language and tradition, which has been evident since the 1870s. " (Bärbel Raschke)

As Raschke notes, the library contains the French classics and the writings including Voltaire , Wolff , John Locke and Kant , the works of Shakespeare and “a surprising amount of literature by women, about women and for women”. She also owned several French and English literary histories as well as the ten-volume European women's literature history from antiquity to the present day Parnasse des Dames by Louis-Édme Billardon de Sauvigny (1736-1812). It is fitting that their collection also contains copies of profeminine defensive writings by the Querelle des femmes .

Musical works

Music theory

  • Music theory textbook , 100-page text, Ms. (title by another hand)
  • Thoughts on Music , Ms.


The duchess was a connoisseur of music and left the following musical compositions (unless otherwise stated, Thuringian State Library , Mss. There fire loss, some received as reprints):

  • Sinfonia a due Oboi, due Flauti, due Violini, Viola e Basso di Amalija. 1765.
  • Oratorio (three parts) (1768) (??)
  • Setting of Goethe's Singspiel Erwin und Elmire (1776), printed in Leipzig 1921
  • Setting of Goethe's Das Jahrmarktsfest zu Plundersweilern : A Schönbartspiel , together with Carl Friedrich Sigismund von Seckendorff (1778)
  • Sonatina per il harpsichord obligato, Corno Primo, Corno Secondo, Oboe Primo, Oboe Secondo, Flauto Primo, Flauto Secondo, Viola e Basso, di Amalia. [~ 1780 after Christine Fornoff]
  • Divertimento in B flat major per il pianoforte, clarinetto, viola and violoncello [Ms ~ 1790 after Christine Fornoff], Verlag Amadeus 1992
  • Authorship not guaranteed: Partita [Sinfonia in D major for wind instruments and strings] Saxon State Library

In addition, she made great patronage efforts in music. The musicians she supported - including Charlotte von Stein - were not widely known, but enlivened the conviviality at their court.


Following on from Goethe's necrology (1807) - he also wrote her grave inscription "Worshiping the sublime, enjoying the beautiful, working the good" - national and literary research of the 19th and 20th centuries has Anna Amalia as the model of an enlightened patroness and the founder of a supraregional one significant " court of muses " inflated. Anna Amalia hired Wieland as one of the teachers of her princes in 1772 as regent - the later appointments of Goethe, Herder and Schiller to Weimar do not go back to her. In Goethe's appointment (1776) by Duke Carl August, Anna Amalia intervened primarily to prevent the resignation of the Privy Councilor Jakob Friedrich von Fritsch , the most important minister during her reign.

Anna Amalia's identifying embedding in a 'national mission' in Weimar was revived in the 1990s when the former (grand) ducal library in Weimar was named after the duchess. The new sober picture, which was obtained from an evaluation of their correspondence and their box bills (including Berger 2003), is only slowly gaining acceptance in popular Weimar literature. In contrast, the term “court of the muses” is rarely used in cultural-historical research.

In his sensational book Goethe and Anna Amalia - A Forbidden Love , Ettore Ghibellino claims that there was an "affair" between Anna Amalia and Goethe. However, this thesis is rejected by the majority of experts.


Like most princesses, Anna Amalia never published any of her writings and compositions that had been preserved in her estate ( Thuringian Central State Archive Weimar ) and in the Duchess Anna Amalia Library (up to the fire in 2004).

  • Anna Amalia von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach: Letters about Italy. According to the manuscripts, with an afterword. Ed. Heide Hollmer. St. Ingbert 1999.
  • Alfred Bergmann (Ed.): Letters from Duke Carl August to his mother, Duchess Anna Amalia. October 1774 to January 1807. Jena 1938.
  • C [arl]. August]. Hugo]. Burkhardt (Ed.): Letters from Goethe's mother to the Duchess Anna Amalia. Weimar 1885.
  • Werner Deetjen (Ed.): The Göchhausen. Letters from a lady-in-waiting from classical Weimar. Berlin 1923.
  • Heinrich Düntzer (Ed.): From Karl Ludwig von Knebel's correspondence with his sister Henriette (1774–1813). A contribution to the history of German courts and literature. Jena 1858.
  • Heinrich Düntzer (Ed.): Letters from Duke Karl August of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach to Knebel and Herder. Leipzig 1883.
  • Heinrich Düntzer (Ed.): On German literature and history. Unprinted letters from Knebel's estate. 2 volumes. Nuremberg 1858.
  • Hans Gerhard Gräf (Ed.): Johann Heinrich Merck's letters to the Duchess Mother Anna Amalia and to the Duke Carl August von Sachsen-Weimar. Leipzig 1911.
  • Otto Harnack (ed.): On the post-history of the Italian trip. Goethe's correspondence with friends and fellow artists in Italy 1788–1790. Weimar 1890.
  • Eduard von der Hellen (Ed.): The journal of Tiefurt . Weimar 1892.
  • Heide Hollmer, Albert Meier (Ed.): Johann Gottfried Herder. Italian trip. Letters and diary entries 1788–1789. Munich 1988.
  • Robert Keil (Ed.): Mrs. Rath. Correspondence from Katharina Elisabeth Goethe. Leipzig 1871.
  • Adolf Kohut (Ed.): Unprinted letters from the Duchesses Anna Amalia and Luise von Sachsen-Weimar to Herder (from Herder's estate). In: Monthly issues of the Comenius Society. 18 NF 1, 1909, pp. 179-184.
  • Adolf Kohut (ed.): Unprinted letters from Duchess Anna Amalia to Mrs. Karoline Herder. In: Monthly issues of the Comenius Society. 21 NF 4, 1912, pp. 107-115.
  • Mario Leis et al. (Ed.): The letters from Goethe's mother. Based on the edition by Albert Köster, Frankfurt am Main 1996.
  • Bernhard Seuffert: The Duchess Anna Amalia's trip to Italy. In letters from her companions. In: Prussian year books. 65, 1890, pp. 535-565.
  • Bernhard Seuffert: Wieland's appointment to Weimar. In: Quarterly for literary history. 1, 1888, pp. 342-435; 2, 1889, pp. 579-594.
  • Sören Schmidtke (ed.): The testament of Ernst August II. Constantine. In: Wieland studies. 9, 2015, pp. 305-316.
  • Karl August Varnhagen von Ense , Theodor Mundt (Ed.): KL von Knebel's literary estate and correspondence. 3 volumes. Leipzig 1835–36. (2nd edition 1840)
  • Karl Wagner (Ed.): Letters to Johann Heinrich Merck von Goethe, Herder, Wieland and other important contemporaries. Darmstadt 1835.
  • Karl Wagner (Ed.): Letters to and from Johann Heinrich Merck. An independent series of letters to JH Merck that appeared in 1835. Darmstadt 1838.


  • Carl v. Beaulieu-Marconnay: Anna Amalia, Karl August and the Minister von Fritsch. Contribution to the German cultural and literary history of the 18th century. Weimar 1874.
  • Joachim Berger (Ed.): The 'Court of the Muses' Anna Amalia. Sociability, patronage and art lover in classic Weimar. Cologne 2001.
  • Joachim Berger: Anna Amalia von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1739–1807). Space for thought and action of an 'enlightened' duchess. Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 3-8253-1516-9 . (Review)
  • Joachim Berger: Representative strategies of German princesses in the late Enlightenment. In: The Eighteenth Century. 28/2, 2004, pp. 273-292.
  • Joachim Berger, Leonie Berger: Anna Amalia von Weimar. A biography. Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-54967-5 .
  • Wilhelm Bode: Amalie, Duchess of Weimar. Volume 1: The pre-ethical Weimar. Volume 2: The Duchess Amalie's court of muses. Volume 3: A retirement age in the artistic circle. Berlin 1908.
  • Wilhelm Bode: The Weimar court of muses 1756–1781. Berlin 1917.
  • Georg Bollenbeck: Weimar. In: Etienne François, Hagen Schulze (ed.): German places of memory. Volume 1, Munich 2001, pp. 207-224.
  • Friederike Bornhak: Anna Amalia, Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, the founder of the classical Weimar era. With appendix: Anna Amalia's correspondence with Frederick the Great. Berlin 1892.
  • Carl August Hugo Burkhardt:  Amalia . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, p. 386 f.
  • Gabriele Busch-Salmen, Walter Salmen , Christoph Michel: The Weimar Musenhof. Poetry - music and dance - garden art - conviviality - painting. Stuttgart 1998.
  • Georg von Dadelsen:  Anna Amalia. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, ISBN 3-428-00182-6 , p. 302 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Sandra Dreise-Beckmann: Duchess Anna Amalia of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach (1739–1807). Music lover and patron. Schneverdingen 2004.
  • Weimar event. Anna Amalia, Carl August and the emergence of the classical period 1757–1807. Exhibition catalog. Leipzig 2007.
  • Ettore Ghibellino: JW Goethe and Anna Amalia - a forbidden love? Weimar 2007, ISBN 978-3-936177-88-6 .
  • Gabriele Henkel, Wulf Otte (ed.): Duchess Anna Amalia - Braunschweig and Weimar. Stages of a woman's life in the 18th century. Exhibition catalog. Braunschweig 1995.
  • Michael Knoche (Ed.): Duchess Anna Amalia Library - cultural history of a collection. Munich 1999.
  • Regina-Bianca Kubitscheck:  Anna Amalia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 29, Bautz, Nordhausen 2008, ISBN 978-3-88309-452-6 , Sp. 78-86.
  • Veit Noll: Goethe in the madness of love. Or: love versus law and morality. Goethe's sacrilege of kidnapping 'Iphigenie' with a view of August von Einsiedel and Emilie von Werthern. In: Veit Noll: Two participants from the Weimar culture around Anna Amalia and Goethe in the period from 1775–1785. Essays relating to Johann August von Einsiedel (1754–1837) and Emilie von Werthern (1757–1844) on Goethe and Anna Amalia. Egon Wogel Verlag, Salzwedel 2009, pp. 25–168.
  • Veit Noll: Goethe in the madness of love II. Volume 1: The flight 1786. Forschungsverlag Salzwedel 2014, ISBN 978-3-9816669-2-2 . Volume 2: “Tasso's” message. Forschungsverlag Salzwedel 2016, ISBN 978-3-9816669-4-6 .
  • Paul Raabe (Ed.): Wolfenbütteler contributions. From the treasures of the Herzog August Library. Volume 9, Wiesbaden 1994.
  • Ursula Salentin: Anna Amalia: pioneer of the Weimar Classic. Cologne 1996.
  • Heide Schulz: Weimar's most beautiful star. Anna Amalia of Saxe-Weimar a. Eisenach. Source texts for the creation of an icon. (= Weimar-Jena event. Culture around 1800, aesthetic research. Volume 30). Heidelberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8253-5887-7 . ( Reviews )
  • Gerhard Schuster, Caroline Gille (ed.): Repeated reflections. Weimar Classic 1758–1832. Permanent exhibition of the Goethe National Museum. Munich 1999.
  • Hellmut Th. Seemann (ed.): Anna Amalia, Carl August and the Weimar event. (= Yearbook of the Klassik Stiftung Weimar. 2007). Göttingen 2007.
  • Anette Seemann: Anna Amalia. Duchess of Weimar. Insel, Frankfurt 2007, ISBN 978-3-458-17345-8 .
  • Marcus Ventzke (ed.): Court culture and enlightenment reforms in Thuringia. The importance of the court in the late 18th century. Cologne et al. 2002.
  • Marcus Ventzke: The Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach 1775–1783. A model case of enlightened rule? Cologne 2004.
  • Wilhelm Wachsmuth: Weimar's Musenhof in the years 1772–1807. Historical sketch. Berlin 1844. (Reprint: Bad Neustadt / Saale 1982)
  • Paul Weizsäcker: Anna Amalia, Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, the founder of the Weimar Court of Muses. Hamburg 1892.
  • Christiane Weber: Anna Amalia - patron of culture and science. Weimarer Taschenbuch Verlag, Weimar 2008, ISBN 978-3-939964-04-9 .
  • Emmy Wolff: The women of Weimar and their literature. The 1st circle: Anna Amalia and the Tiefurter Journal . In: Emmy Wolff (Ed.): Generations of women in pictures. Herbig, Berlin 1928, pp. 35-39.
  • Wolfram Huschke:  Anna Amalia, Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. In: Ludwig Finscher (Hrsg.): The music in past and present . Second edition, personal section, volume 1 (Aagard - Baez). Bärenreiter / Metzler, Kassel et al. 1999, ISBN 3-7618-1111-X  ( online edition , subscription required for full access)

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Gerhard Schön: German coin catalog 18th century. 3. Edition. Munich 2002, pp. 841-843, 1107.
  2. Katharina Mommsen : Duchess Anna Amalia's "Journal von Tiefurth" in response to Frederick II's "De la littérature allemande". Weimar 2008, p. 8.
  3. Katharina Mommsen: Duchess Anna Amalia's "Journal von Tiefurth" in response to Frederick II's "De la littérature allemande". Weimar 2008. (online) (About the journal for Tiefurt )
  4. Eduard von der Hellen (Ed.): Das Journal von Tiefurt. with an introduction by Bernhard Suphan. (= Writings of the Goethe Society. Volume 7). Weimar 1892. (digitized version)
  5. Jutta Heinz, Jochen Golz (Ed.): "It was started as a weekly joke." The journal of Tiefurt. Wallstein, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8353-0957-9 .
  6. About the library | History. Retrieved June 11, 2018 .
  7. ^ Bärbel Raschke: The library of the Duchess Anna Amalia. In: Michael Knoche (Ed.): Duchess Anna Amalia Library. Cultural history of a collection. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich / Vienna 1999, ISBN 3-446-19724-9 , p. 83 f.
  8. For both writings see Panja Mücke: Anna Amalia von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1739–1807). In: Approach X - to seven women composers. (= Furore Edition. 897). Kassel 1999, ISBN 3-927327-49-2 , p. 20 f.
  9. ^ Panja Mücke: Anna Amalia von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1739-1807). 1999, pp. 22-23.
  10. ^ Regina-Bianca Kubitscheck:  Anna Amalia von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 29, Bautz, Nordhausen 2008, ISBN 978-3-88309-452-6 , Sp. 78-86.
  11. with a silhouette: AM and Frau von Stein, facing each other in profile, AM sitting
predecessor Office successor
Ernst August II. Regent of the Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach
Karl August