Christoph Martin Wieland

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Christoph Martin Wieland by Ferdinand Jagemann (1805).

Wieland's signature:
Signature Christoph Martin Wieland (cropped) .jpg

Christoph Martin Wieland (born September 5, 1733 in Oberholzheim near Biberach an der Riss ; † January 20, 1813 in Weimar , Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach ) was a German poet , translator and editor at the time of the Enlightenment .

Wieland was one of the most important Enlightenment writers in the German-speaking area and the oldest of the classical four stars of Weimar , to which Johann Gottfried Herder , Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Friedrich Schiller are counted.


Descent, childhood and adolescence

Wieland's birthplace in Oberholzheim , view from 1840
Wieland's parents' house in Biberach

Christoph Martin Wieland was born in the rectory of Oberholzheim , a village that was at that time a benefice of the hospital to the Holy Spirit of the free and equal imperial city of Biberach . His ancestors had lived in Biberach since 1560. As hosts of the inn "Zum schwarzen Bären" on the Biberach market square, they gained influence in the city council and appointed Wieland's great-grandfather Martin Justin Wieland (born November 18, 1624 in Biberach; † January 1, 1685 ibid.) A mayor of this city. From his first marriage in 1649 with Maria Walpurga Wern (* 10 August 1627 in Biberach; † 1669 ibid.) Comes the grandfather of the later poet Thomas Adam Wieland the Elder. Ä. (* July 27, 1653 in Biberach; † March 29, 1729 in Oberholzheim). He had studied at the universities of Strasbourg, Wittenberg, Basel and Tübingen and in 1680 acquired the academic degree of a master's degree in philosophy. He took up the profession of theologian and worked from 1680 in Kohlstetten and Kleinengstingen, from 1688 in Mundigen and from 1693 as pastor in Oberholzheim. From his marriage on July 1, 1680 with the pastor's daughter Anna Maria Brigel (born February 1, 1661 in Biberach; † July 3, 1739 ibid.), Some children descend, from whom Christoph Martin Wieland's father of the same name Thomas Adam Wieland d. J. (born January 3, 1704; † September 27, 1772 in Biberach) also took up the profession of theologian.

Thomas Adam Wieland the Elder J. had studied in Tübingen and Halle, also obtained the degree of a master’s degree and succeeded his father as pastor in Oberholzheim. Thomas Adam Wieland the Elder J. married the later mother of the poet Regina Katharina Kick (* July 1, 1715 in Biberach; † February 27, 1789 in Weimar), the daughter of the major in the Margravial Baden district regiment, Hereditary Prince Johann Christoph Kick (* July 1, 1663 in Lindau; † August 22, 1741 in Biberach) and his second wife, who married on November 22, 1693, Marie Christine Rauh from Biberach (born February 21, 1689 Biberach: † January 24, 1765 ibid.). Since Thomas Adam Wieland d. In 1736 he was given the post of infirmary preacher at the Magdalenenkirche in Biberach, the family moved there. Here his father became evening preacher in 1755 and early preacher senior of the church institution in 1761 . The son Johann Gottlieb Wieland († young), Justin Sebastian Wieland († young), Thomas Adam Wieland (born December 13, 1735 in Oberholzheim; † May 8, 1764 in Biberach), who became a copperplate engraver, also came from the parents' marriage. and the daughter Marie Justine Regina Wieland († young). Johann Gottlieb von Gaupp and Justinus Hartmann acted as baptismal witnesses in the town church of Oberholzheim. Katharina Justina Zell and Regina Margaretha Rauh.

After his father's transfer, Christoph Martin Wieland was taught by him, by private teachers and later in the Biberach city school. At the age of twelve he tried his hand at Latin and German verse; by the age of sixteen he had read almost all the Roman classics; Among the then modern writers he was attracted by the Enlightenmentists Voltaire , Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle and Pierre Bayle , and among the German poets in particular Barthold Heinrich Brockes .

In the pietistic boarding school at Berge monastery near Magdeburg , which Christoph Wieland attended from 1747, the young Wieland became a great admirer of Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock . He finished the monastery school without a degree and enrolled in 1749 at the University of Erfurt to study philosophy. With his relative Johann Wilhelm Baumer he got to know and appreciate Don Quixote , but also the philosophy of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Christian Wolff . In the summer of 1750 he broke off his studies and returned to his father's house in Biberach. He began a love affair with his two years older cousin Sophie Gutermann (later Sophie von La Roche ) and became engaged to her. This connection released him from an inner loneliness; Sophie (whose novel Geschichte des Fräuleins von Sternheim he was to publish two decades later, in 1771) inspired him to write his first major work, which was published anonymously in 1752: The nature of things or the most perfect world. A didactic poem in six books .

Studies, Switzerland (1750–1759)

In the autumn of 1750 Wieland began studying law at the University of Tübingen , which he soon neglected in favor of literature and his own poetic work. He sent his heroic poem "Hermann" in five songs to Johann Jakob Bodmer - the "grand old man" of Zurich's literary life, which led to an intensive personal correspondence. Wieland soon gave up his unpopular law degree and devoted himself to his education and literature. His first works mark him as a passionate Klopstockian who strives for a specifically Christian poetry.

In the summer of 1752, Wieland accepted Bodmer's invitation to Zurich . The following stay in Switzerland was to last eight years. Warmly received, he stayed with Bodmer for a while as his pupil and took part in the new edition of the 1741 published "Züricherische Streitschriften" against Johann Christoph Gottsched . In the following years he was in stimulating contact with the most important Zurich representatives of the Enlightenment such as Johann Jakob Breitinger , Hans Caspar Hirzel , and Salomon Gessner . In 1753 his "Letters from the deceased to friends left behind" appeared.

At the end of 1753, Sophie broke her engagement to Wieland and married the Electoral Mainz court councilor Georg Michael Anton La Roche (1720–1788). This, as well as a longer stay in the pietistic house of the Grebel family in Zurich, contributed to the fact that Wieland stuck to his "pious" language for a while. In his "Hymnen" (Zurich 1754) and the "Sensations of a Christian" (Zurich 1755) he clearly opposed all erotic poetry. Soon, however, a complete conversion took place in him, especially under the influence of the writings of Lucian , Horace , Cervantes , Shaftesbury , d'Alembert , and Voltaire . In 1754 he separated from Bodmer and started his own private tutoring in Zurich. Increasingly, he turned into a classic representative of the Enlightenment . Already the tragedy "Lady Johanna Gray" (Zurich 1758) - the first German drama in blank verse - welcomed Lessing with the remark that Wieland had "left the ethereal spheres and was walking among people again". Lessing, however, regards the piece as a failed plagiarism that Wieland had from Nicolas Rowe (cf. 63rd – 64th letter, concerning the latest literature). In the same year Wieland wrote the epic fragment "Cyrus" (Zurich 1759), to which Frederick II of Prussia had suggested.

In the meantime Wieland had moved to Bern , where he also worked as a private tutor. There he became engaged to Julie Bondeli , who later became Jean-Jacques Rousseau's girlfriend . Wieland soon had to give up plans to publish a magazine for financial reasons.

Biberach, Erfurt (1760–1772)

The Wieland garden house in Biberach an der Riss
Christoph Martin Wieland in his time as Biberach office administrator. Painting by Oswald May in the Braith Mali Museum in Biberach

In 1760 Wieland returned to Biberach, where he was elected senator and appointed as administrator. A year later he started a relationship with Christine Hogel. In 1764 she gave birth to a child of his own; as a marriage to a Catholic bourgeois daughter was not an option for Wieland's family under any circumstances, he ended the relationship. His illegitimate daughter, Caecilia Sophie Christine, died early. At the urging of his family, he married the Augsburg merchant's daughter Anna Dorothea von Hillenbrand (1746–1801) in 1765, with whom he was to have 14 children.

Former comedy house in the Schlachtmetzig in Biberach an der Riss. In 1762, a Shakespeare play in German was performed here for the first time in Germany, the comedy Der Sturm in Wieland's translation.

Wieland was oppressed by the petty-bourgeois conditions in his hometown; but he found a place of cosmopolitan education and personal stimulation in the Schloss Warthausen of Count Stadion . There he met his former fiancée Sophie, who lived with her husband at Stadion. Intercourse with them and other people in these highly educated circles led to Wieland's final "conversion" to the worldly.

This was followed by the epoch of literary activity which established Wieland's fame and importance for German literature. Around 1761 he began the novel " Geschichte des Agathon ", which was a great success after its publication in 1766/1767. "Don Silvio von Rosalva, or the victory of nature over swarming" followed in 1764. In both works, the influences of Miguel de Cervantes , Laurence Sterne and Henry Fielding can be proven. At the same time, he worked from 1762 on the translation of the plays by William Shakespeare (Zurich 1762–66, 8 vols.), With which he had a lasting influence on theater life in Germany. With the two novels, the poems " Musarion or the Philosophy of Graces" (1768) and "Idris" (1768) as well as the stories "Nadine" (1769), "Combabus" (1770), "The Graces" (1770) and "The new Amadis " (1771) Wieland followed his new path, which stood in complete contrast to the views of his youth: He proclaimed a philosophy of cheerful sensuality, worldly pleasures, and easy grace.

In 1769, Wieland accepted a call to the University of Erfurt . His teaching activity did little to detract from his poetic productivity. In Erfurt, where he lived in the house "Zum Alten Schwan" behind the Krämerbrücke , he wrote the musical play "Aurora", the "Dialoge des Diogenes" and the political-philosophical state novel "The golden mirror or the kings of" in addition to the works already mentioned Scheschian "(1772). It was the latter who paved the way for him to Weimar .

City map of Weimar (1784), on which "H [er] r [n] HofR [at] Wieland [s] Garten" is entered on the left above the center

Weimar (1772–1798)

Christoph Martin Wieland; Painting by Anton Graff , 1794
In 1775 CM Wieland stayed in the Gleimhaus in Halberstadt

In 1772 the widowed duchess and composer Anna Amalia von Sachsen-Weimar called Wieland to bring up her two sons in Weimar. Wieland was not a fan of absolutism , but the opportunity to influence the future duke appealed to him and he accepted. Here he entered the spiritually most important circle of life in Germany at that time, which was grouped around the Duchess, and which already cast a spell over men like Johann Karl August Musäus , Karl Ludwig von Knebel , Friedrich Hildebrand von Einsiedel and Friedrich Justin Bertuch on his arrival closed in itself, and soon after received further stimulation and stimulation by Johann Wolfgang Goethe and Johann Gottfried Herder . As a ducal councilor, Wieland received a secure salary that remained as a pension even after Karl August took office.

In reliable, happy living conditions he developed a fresh and ever more amiable poetic and general literary activity. With the Singspiel Die Wahl des Herkules and the lyrical drama Alceste (1773) he achieved wide recognition. Finally, following the French example, he was able to realize the idea of ​​his own literary magazine. In “ Der Teutsche Merkur ”, which he edited from 1773 to 1789, he published his own poetic works, alongside which he also practiced extensive literary criticism, which for a long time extended to almost everything that was relevant to the literary world Meaning was. His criticism was occasionally very mocking, but never malicious, rather indulgent and constructive. Regardless of this, the poets of the “ Göttinger Hains ” turned violently against him. You -namentlich also Homer -Translations of Johann Heinrich Voss - as well as the early Romantics with their theories but he was skeptical over.

His letters about Alceste , published in the Teutsche Merkur in 1773 , gave Goethe the cause of the farce Gods, Heroes and Wieland . Wieland had criticized the figure of Hercules in the tragedy of Euripides as unsuitable and crude. Goethe, in the full juice of his Sturm und Drang period, let his Hercules appear as a classic hero who ridiculed the writer Wieland. Wieland responded to this attack with great understanding for the young bullies. (Already in the title of Goethe's text there is probably a second reading possibility: Gods , He lden and Wieland ). When Goethe soon followed Duke Karl-August's call to Weimar, a lasting relationship of recognition developed between him and Wieland, to which the surviving old master would set an immortal memorial after Wieland's death in his well-known speech on Wieland .

After the young duke took office, he retired from public office and devoted himself entirely to his literary work as a critic, enlightener and translator. The society satire History of the Abderites , the romantic poem Oberon (Weimar 1780), the poetic stories Das Wintermärchen , Geron the Noble , Schach Lolo , Pervonte and others, collected in the Auserlesene Gedichte (Jena 1784-87), as well as the popular fairy tale collection Dschinnistan (Winterthur 1786–1789) were created in Weimar and bear witness to its creative diversity. This was accompanied by the ingenious translation of Horace's letters and satires (Leipzig 1782 and 1786) as well as the editing of all of Lukian's works (Leipzig 1788 to 1789) and numerous smaller writings.

Oßmannstedt (1798–1803) and again Weimar (1803–1813)

Christoph Martin Wieland, painting by Gerhard von Kügelgen , 1808, Tartu University Library

A complete edition of the works published up to 1802 (from 1794 by Göschen in Leipzig) allowed Wieland to buy the Oßmannstedt estate near Weimar. Here he wanted to build “an island of peace and happiness” - in the midst of the Napoleonic wars that were looming. He wanted to work as a farmer at the age of 65. Here the poet had spent some happy and productive years with his extended family since 1798 (his wife had given birth to seven surviving children in 20 years). His former fiancée, Sophie von La Roche, visited him with her granddaughter Sophie Brentano , with whom a close friendship developed. Heinrich von Kleist also visited him here and read Robert Guiscard from the manuscript to him.

The death of his wife in 1800 and the financial burden caused by the estate prompted him to sell the estate in 1803 and live in Weimar again. There he belonged to the circle of Duchess Anna Amalia until her death. The Attisches Museum magazine , which Wieland alone 1796–1801, and the New Attic Museum , which he edited with Johann Jakob Hottinger and Friedrich Jacobs from 1802–1810, served the purpose of familiarizing the German nation with the masterpieces of Greek poetry, philosophy and rhetoric close. In the Attic Museum he published four of his translated comedies by Aristophanes and two tragedies by Euripides . In 1806 Wieland was the host of Adam Oehlenschläger in Weimar . In 1808 Emperor Napoleon invited him to a meeting on the sidelines of the Prince's Congress in Erfurt. At the age of 76 he joined the Weimar Freemason Lodge Anna Amalia to the three roses and gave numerous lectures there.

Wieland remained exceptionally cheerful until his death. On January 20, 1813, he died of complications from a cold.

According to his wishes, he was buried in the castle garden of Oßmannstedt next to his wife and Sophie Brentano . The grave is located under a three-sided obelisk in a loop of the Ilm . The inscription on the tombstone is a distich and reads:


To the effect

Biberacher emergency money from 1923 with a portrait of Wieland

Christoph M. Wieland was the founder of the tradition of the German educational novel with his work History of the Agathon . After a pietistic phase of enthusiasm, he developed into one of the most influential writers of the Enlightenment. His verse narratives are characterized by masterful style. He mastered satire as well as literary criticism . He also achieved significant achievements as a translator: the Horace and Lukian translations he wrote in Weimar are "still not out of date".

Stylishly supple word art and balanced thoughtful cleverness - a model of reflexive enlightenment ( cf. Modern ) - made Wieland one of the most effective German poets at first, but also attracted him to the persistent hostility of the following generations with their programs of "ugliness" or the culture of feeling ( cf. Sturm und Drang , Romantik ), who disliked his tolerance and free eroticism. In the 19th century, for example, it was the least read among the German classics. In the German-speaking world, Wieland only gained new readership in the second half of the 20th century through Arno Schmidt's enthusiastic rescue of honor.

Wieland's concept of enlightenment was processed in the novel Wieland or The Transformation: an American Tale ( Wieland or the metamorphosis: an American story ; 1798) by the American writer Charles Brockden Brown . The protagonist of the novel is Theodore Wieland, a fictional relative of the poet who kills his family in religious madness.


Christoph Martin Wieland with his wife Anna Dorothea Wieland and their children Sophie Katherine Wieland, Regine Dorothea Wieland, Karl Friedrich Wieland, Maria Karolina Wieland and Amalia Augusta Wieland

Wieland married on October 21, 1765 with Anna Dorothea von Hillenbrand (* July 8, 1746 in Augsburg, † November 9, 1801 in Oßmannstedt), the daughter of the merchant and councilor in Augsburg Johann David von Hillenbrand (* March 14, 1712 in Augsburg; † January 16, 1763 ibid.) And his wife Maria Catharina von Thurm (born September 29, 1721 in Augsburg; † after 1758). From the children we know:

  • Sophie Catharina Susanna Wieland (born October 19, 1768 in Biberach; † September 1, 1837 in Kiel) married the philosopher Carl Leonhard Reinhold on May 18, 1785 in Weimar
    • Karoline Friedrika Dorothea Reinhold (born October 21, 1786 in Weimar)
    • Johann Gottfried Heinrich Karl Reinhold (born August 3, 1788 in Jena, † April 27, 1816 in Kiel) 1814 private lecturer in Kiel, 1815 Dr. jur. and University Counsel
    • Gottlieb Leonhard Reinhold (* and † 1790 in Jena)
    • Ernst Christian Gottlieb Jens Reinhold (born October 18, 1793 in Jena; † September 17, 1855 ibid.) Professor of philosophy in Jena
    • Heinrich August Friedrich Wilhelm Reinhold (* and † 1792 in Jena)
    • Friedrich Reinhold (* 1795 in Kiel) became a Danish artillery officer
  • Karoline Maria Friederike Wieland (* May 11, 1770 in Erfurt, † May 14, 1851 in Jena) married on September 28, 1788 in Oßmannstedt with the deacon of the city church in Jena Johann Salomo Gottlieb Schorcht (* around 1762/63 in Pfiffelbach; † June 10, 1792 in Buttelstedt)
    • Julie Caroline Amalie Schorcht (* December 10, 1790 in Jena; † June 4, 1881 in Weimar) married on April 29, 1816 in Weimar to the secret councilor in Weimar Dr. Gustav Emminghaus (born March 3, 1791 in Jena, † February 25, 1859 in Weimar)
    • Karoline Wilhelmine Schorcht (born October 24, 1792)
  • Dorothea Wieland (born June 9, 1771 in Erfurt, † March 7, 1779 in Weimar)
  • Auguste Amalie Wieland (born April 14, 1773 in Weimar; † February 26, 1858 in Eckersdorf / Silesia) married. I on September 1, 1788 in Oßmannstedt with the pastor in Oßmannstedt August Jacob Liebeskind (died April 20, 1758 in Weimar; † February 12, 1793 in Oßmannstedt), married. II October 12, 1801 in Oßmannstedt with the Rendanten in Eckersdorf / Silesia Gottlieb Friedrich Erler (1773-1857) (1st Sun, 1st To; II 4th ​​So.)
    • Karoline Euphrosine Auguste Liebeskind (born March 6, 1790 in Oßmannstedt; † 1860)
    • Karl Wilhelm Liebeskind (born March 6, 1792 in Oßmannstedt; † 1867)
    • Ernst August Erler (1804–1855)
    • Friedrich August Erler (born August 2, 1802 in Oßmannstedt; † 1848)
  • Karl Wieland (born September 18, 1774 in Weimar; † November 5, 1774 ibid.)
  • Charlotte Louise Wieland (* March 21, 1776 in Weimar; † December 29, 1816) married to Heinrich Gessner on June 18, 1795 (Zurich November 22, 1768 - December 19, 1813)
  • Ludwig Friedrich August Wieland (born October 28, 1777 in Weimar; † December 12, 1819 in Jena) became a poet
  • Karl Friedrich Wieland (* December 7, 1778 in Weimar; † June 9, 1856 ibid.) Became Grand Ducal Accountant in Weimar, married on February 16, 1817 to Johanna Friederike Wilhelmine Reyher (* February 19, 1795 - † August 10, 1860 in Weimar), the daughter of the Justice Council Dr. jur. Theodor Traugott Reyher (1760–1846) in Apolda and his wife Friederike Hammann.
    • Luise Friederike Caroline Wieland (born January 4, 1818 in Weimar; † 1823 ibid.)
    • Karl Gustav Martin Wieland (born December 13, 1823 in Weimar; † July 22, 1847 in Heidelberg) was a student
    • Bianca Sophie Amalie Wieland (born October 24, 1828 in Weimar; † September 5, 1845 ibid.)
    • Caroline Wilhelmine Wieland (* February 20, 1820 in Weimar; † December 6, 1903 ibid.) Married on April 14, 1842 with the lawyer and mayor Karl Robert Peucer (* December 20, 1811 in Buttstedt; † March 19, 1888 in Weimar )
      • Carl Friedrich Robert Peucer (1843–1937) Dr. jur., secret judiciary, higher regional judge in Colmar i. Els.
      • Hermann Peucer became a royal Prussian lieutenant
      • Maximilian Heinrich Peucer royal Saxon land judge in Dresden
      • Elisabeth Peucer (born June 19, 1854 in Weimar; † January 2, 1938 ibid.) Married September 15, 1894 to the pharmacist in Stettin Kuno Hecht († October 30, 1894 in Stettin)
  • Philipp Wieland (born January 20, 1780 in Weimar; † January 13, 1794 ibid.)
  • Wilhelm August Wieland (born February 2, 1781 in Weimar; † September 22, 1865 in Töpliwoda) became economic administrator in Heinrichau / Silesia and died as a grand ducal Saxon forest manager, married on May 3, 1808 in Eckersdorf to Josepha Louise Sauer (* around 1783 in Hartwigswalde (Münsterberg district / Silesia); † 1869)
    • Marie Wieland engaged to Ernst Erler died shortly before their wedding.
  • Juliane (Julie) Caroline Dorothea Wieland (* March 27, 1782 in Weimar; † April 20, 1809 ibid.) Married December 2, 1799 to the chamber president of the Saxon Grand Ducal Carl Wilhelm Constantin Stichling (* April 10, 1766 in Weimar; † 24. August 1836), the son of the Weimar businessman Christoph Ernst Stichling
    • Karl Gustav Stichling (born January 9, 1801 in Weimar; † 1831 in Dornburg) judicial officer in Dornburg, married on July 17, 1827 in Weimar to Bertha Kruse (born April 4, 1806 in Weimar); the daughter of the Weimar camera councilor Leopold Kruse
    • Amalia stickleback (1802-1853) m. with the court attorney in Weimar Dr. jur. Karl Gottlieb Saets
    • Juliane Sophie Friedricke Stichling (born October 25, 1803 in Weimar; † 1876) married. September 4, 1827 with Ferdinand Reich (born February 19, 1799 in Bernburg / Saale; † April 27, 1882 in Freiberg / Saxony)
  • Wilhelmine Johanna Friederike Wieland (* July 7, 1786 in Weimar; † April 29, 1798 in Oßmannstedt)
  • Auguste Friedericke Wieland (* July 7, 1786 in Weimar; † February 26, 1787 ibid.)
  • Maria Luise Charlotte Wieland (born May 3, 1789 in Weimar, † July 31, 1815 in Jena) married. May 1814 with the grand ducal Saxon governor Dr. jur. Gustav Emminghaus
    • Alexander Bernhard Martin Emminghaus (born July 25, 1815 in Jena; † January 13, 1888 in Weimar), Grand Ducal Saxon Council and Ministerial Councilor in Weimar married I. to Henriette Winkel (1821–1845), married. II 1847 with Louise Christiane Diemar (* May 17, 1818 in Ostheim, † 1904 in Weimar)


Napoleon's decree appointing Goethe , Wieland, Starke and Vogel as knights of the Legion of Honor (October 12, 1808)
Wieland monument in Biberach


Wieland monument in Weimar by Hanns Gasser , unveiled in 1857
Title page of the Musarion

For a list of all first editions: see Wikisource .

  • The nature of things. Didactic poem. 1752.
  • Praise to love. 1751.
  • Hermann. Epic fragment. 1751, first printed in 1882.
  • Twelve moral letters in verse. Heilbronn 1752.
  • The spring. 1752.
  • Anti- Ovid or the art of loving. 1752.
  • Stories. 1752.
  • Letters from the deceased to friends left behind. 1753.
  • The tested Abraham . 1753.
  • Memories of a friend. 1754.
  • Hymns. 1754.
  • Ode to the birth of the Savior. 1754.
  • Announcement of a dunciade for the Germans. 1755.
  • Conversation of Socrates with Timoclea, on apparent and true beauty. 1756.
  • Sympathies. 1756.
  • Feelings of a Christian. 1757.
  • Lady Johanna Gray. A tragedy. 1758.
  • Theages or Conversations of Beauty and Love. 1758.
  • Cyrus . 1759.
  • Araspes and Panthea. A moral story in a series of interviews. 1760.
  • Clementina by Porretta. A tragedy. 1760.
  • The victory of nature over enthusiasm or the adventures of Don Sylvio de Rosalva. Roman, Ulm 1764.
  • Comical stories. 1765.
  • History of the Agathon . Novel, part 1 a. 2nd part, Frankfurt and Leipzig, diZürich, 1766 and 1767, original version.
  • Musarion , or the Philosophy of the Graces. Poetry, Leipzig 1768.
  • Idris and Zenide. Leipzig 1768.
  • Nadine. Leipzig 1769.
  • The story of (Prince) Biribinker (s). Ulm 1769 (from: Don Sylvio , 1764, first art fairy tale in German)
  • Koxkox and Kikequetzel. A Mexican story. A contribution to the natural history of moral man. 1769-70.
  • Combabus. Leipzig 1770.
  • The graces. Leipzig 1770.
  • Socrates mainomenos or the dialogues of Diogenes of Sinope . 1770.
  • Contributions to the secret history of the human mind and heart. 1770.
  • The new Amadis. Leipzig 1771.
  • The golden mirror or the kings of Scheschian , a true story. Novel. Leipzig 1772.
  • Alceste . German Singspiel. Leipzig 1773; First performance: Weimar, May 25, 1773.
  • The choice of Hercules. A dramatic cantata. 1773.
  • The accused Cupid. A poem. 1774.
  • Stilpon or the choice of a senior guild master of Megara. 1774.
  • The story of the Abderites . Novel. Leipzig 1774-1780.
  • The judgment of Midas . A strange singspiel. 1775 (after Ovid's music contest between Pan and Apollo ).
  • History of the philosopher Danischmende. 1775.
  • The monk and the nun on the center stone. A poem in three songs. 1775.
  • Titanomachia or the new book of heroes. A burlesque poem. 1775.
  • The winter fairy tale . Narration. 1776.
  • Love for love. 1776.
  • A fragment on the character of Erasmus of Rotterdam. 1776.
  • Geron the nobleman. A story from King Arthur's time. 1777.
  • The summer fairy tale or the mule's bridle. 1777.
  • Thoughts on the ideals of the ancients. 1777.
  • At the Olympics. 1777.
  • Hann and Gulpenheh . Narration. Weimar 1778.
  • The Vogelsang or the three teachings. 1778.
  • Fragments of contributions to the use of those who can or want them. 1778.
  • Chess Lolo . Narration. Weimar 1778.
  • Pervonte or the desires . A Neapolitan fairy tale. 1778-1796.
  • Rosamund. A Singspiel. 1778.
  • Letters to a young poet. 1782/84.
  • Clelia and Sinibald. A legend from the twelfth century. 1783-84.
  • Oberon . Narration. Weimar 1780 ( digitized and full text in the German text archive ); abridged version: Leipzig 1784.
  • Jinnistan . Three volumes, Winterthur 1786–1789.
  • The secret of the cosmopolitan order. 1788.
  • Secret story of the philosopher Peregrinus Proteus. Novel. Leipzig 1791 (preprint Weimar 1788–89).
  • Talks with the gods. 1790-1793.
  • The water vat or the hermit and the Seneschaline of Aquilegia. 1795.
  • Agathodemon. Novel. Leipzig 1796–1797.
  • Aristippus and some of his contemporaries. Epistle novel , four volumes. Göschen, Leipzig 1800–1802.
  • The Hexameron of Rosenhain . 1803-1805.
  • Menander and Glycerion . A romance novel in letters. Göschen, Leipzig 1804.
  • Krates and Hipparchia. 1805.


Title page of Volume 1 of the Translation of the Horazi Satyrs
  • Marcus Tullius Cicero : All the letters . Seven volumes. Zurich 1808–1821 (completed by Friedrich David Gräter).
  • Lukian of Samosata : Complete Works . Six volumes. Leipzig 1788–1789.
  • Horace : letters . Leipzig 1782;
  • Horace: satires . Leipzig 1786.
  • Stabat mater : translation into German . In: Der Teutsche Merkur , Weimar / Oßmannstedt, February 1781.
  • William Shakespeare : Dramas . Eight volumes. Zurich 1762–1766. Re-edited in 1995 by Hans and Johanna Radlayers.
  • Xenophon : Socratic Memories , with the attempt on the Xenofontic Feast by Wieland (series Die Other Bibliothek ). Eichborn, Frankfurt am Main 1998.

Wieland as editor

  • Sophie von La Roche : Story of the Miss von Sternheim . Taken from original papers and other reliable sources by a friend of the same. Edited by Christoph Martin Wieland. Two volumes. Weidmanns Erben und Reich, Leipzig 1771 (published anonymously).
  • The German folk tales by Johann August Musäus . Edited by Christoph Martin Wieland. Five parts. In the Ettinger bookstore, Gotha 1804 f. [first part: 1804; 2nd to 5th Part: 1805].


  • Collected Writings . Dept. I: Works . Section II: Translations . Published by the German Commission of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences [since 1945 by the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin, since 1969 by the Academy of Sciences of the GDR by Hans Werner Seiffert]. Berlin 1909–1975. Completed, d. H. with apparatus volumes, are available in front of volumes I / 6, I / 9, I / 12–15, I / 18, I / 20–23, II / 1–3; without apparatus volumes are available volumes I / 1, I / 2, I / 3, I / 4, I / 7, I / 10, I / 17, II / 4, II / 9-10; Volumes I / 5, I / 16, I / 19, II / 5–8 are missing.
  • Wieland's correspondence . 20 vols. Published by the German Academy of Sciences in Berlin, Institute for German Language and Literature [from Volume 2, 1968, by Hans Werner Seiffert; from Volume 3, 1975, ed. from the Academy of Sciences of the GDR, Central Institute for the History of Literature by Hans Werner Seiffert; from Volume 7, 1992, ed. from the Berlin Academy of Sciences through Siegfried Scheibe, from 1993 from the Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences through Siegfried Scheibe]. Berlin, 1963-2007.


History of the Abderites (1887)
  • Max KochWieland, Christoph Martin . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 42, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1897, pp. 400-419.
  • Wolfdietrich von KloedenWIELAND, Christoph Martin. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 13, Bautz, Herzberg 1998, ISBN 3-88309-072-7 , Sp. 1062-1083.
  • Wieland, Christoph Martin . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 16, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 597.
  • Carl August Böttiger : Literary conditions and contemporaries. Encounters and conversations in classical Weimar. Ed. by Klaus Gerlach and René Sternke. 3. Edition. Aufbau Verlag, Berlin 1989 and Aufbau Taschenbuch Verlag, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-7466-1779-0 .
  • Irmela Brender : Christoph Martin Wieland. 3. Edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-499-50475-8 .
  • Peter Brugger: Gracious gestures, studies of the Rococo style by Christoph Martin Wieland. Philosophical dissertation Munich 1972.
  • Karl August Hugo Burkhardt: Repertory to Wieland's German Merkur. Weimar 1872.
  • Gerhard Dünnhaupt : The metamorphosis of the sorceress. Tasso reception at Wieland. Arcadia. Vol. 14, 1979.
  • Walter Erhart: Division and self-enlightenment. Christoph Martin Wieland's “Agathon” project. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1991, ISBN 3-484-18115-X .
  • Walter Erhart, Lothar van Laak (ed.): Knowledge-telling-tradition. Wieland's late work. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter 2010, ISBN 978-3-11-024036-8 .
  • Bernd Feicke: Wieland's relationship with Eisleben. In: Zs. F. Local history. H. 14, Halle 2005, pp. 52-56.
  • Johann Gottfried Gruber: CM Wieland's life. Georg Joachim Göschen, Leipzig 1827/28. (PDF reprint in the Arno Schmidt reference library.35.77 MB)
  • Peter-Henning Haischer: Christoph Martin Wieland. A citizen of the world in Weimar. Weimar 2015, ISBN 978-3-7374-0202-6 .
  • Jutta Hecker : Wieland. The story of a person in time. Publishing house d. Nation, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-373-00376-8 .
  • Jutta Heinz (Ed.): Wieland manual. Life, work, effect. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2008, ISBN 978-3-476-02222-6 .
  • Sven-Aage Jørgensen, Herbert Jaumann , John A. McCarthy (Eds.): Christoph Martin Wieland. Epoch - Work - Effect , Munich 1994.
  • Wolfgang Lederhaas: Wieland. Preliminary remarks on the 'Untitled Novella'. Kovac, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-8300-1687-5 .
  • Klaus Manger: Classicism and Enlightenment. The example of the late Wieland. Frankfurt am Main 1991, ISBN 3-465-02510-5 .
  • Jürgen Paasch: Christoph M. Wieland in Weimar and Erfurt. (= Stations. 4). Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle (Saale) 2013, ISBN 978-3-95462-027-2 .
  • Nicki Peter Petrikowski: Comment on Christoph Martin Wieland's “The Adventures of Don Sylvio von Rosalva”. Frankfurt am Main 2012, ISBN 978-3-631-62439-5 .
  • Jan Philipp Reemtsma : "The Book of Me". Christoph Martin Wieland's “ Aristippus and some of his contemporaries”. 1993, ISBN 3-251-20131-X .
  • Jan Philipp Reemtsma: "The love of mask dance". Essays on the work of Christoph Martin Wieland. 1999, ISBN 3-251-00453-0 .
  • Klaus Schaefer: Christoph Martin Wieland. Metzler Collection, Stuttgart / Weimar 1996.
  • Hendrikje Schauer: observation and judgment. Literary education from Lessing and Wieland. Heidelberg 2019, ISBN 978-3-8253-6733-6 .
  • Hansjörg Schelle (Ed.): Christoph Martin Wieland. North American research contributions on the 250th anniversary of his birthday in 1983. Tübingen 1984, ISBN 3-484-10469-4 .
  • Arno Schmidt : Wieland or the prose forms. In the S. Messages from books and people. 1971.
  • Andreas Seidler: The attraction of reading. Wieland's Don Sylvio and the autonomization of literature. Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8253-5442-8 .
  • Heide Schulz: Olympia and her poet. In: Weimar's most beautiful star. Anna Amalia of Saxe-Weimar and Eisenach. Source texts for the creation of an icon. Heidelberg 2011, ISBN 978-3-8253-5887-7 ,
  • Friedrich Sengle : Wieland. Stuttgart 1949.
  • Thomas C. Starnes: Christoph Martin Wieland - life and work. Volume 1-3. Sigmaringen 1987.
  • Rainer Strzolka: novel as story - history as novel. The story of the Agathon by Christoph Martin Wieland. 2nd Edition. Koechert, Hanover 2002.
  • Wieland studies. Edited by Klaus Manger, Christoph Martin Wieland Foundation Biberach u. Wieland Research Center Oßmannstedt e. V., ongoing series. Overview of already published volumes .
  • Michael Zaremba : Christoph Martin Wieland - enlightener and poet. A biography. Böhlau, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-412-22006-8 .
  • Michael Zaremba: On the history of the Wieland grave. Edited by the Evangelical Lutheran Church Community of Oßmannstedt, 2007, ISBN 978-3-9811574-0-6 .
  • Hildegund Berger: Christoph Martin Wieland's philosophical novels with special consideration of Aristippus. Dissertation Munich 1944.

See also

Web links

Commons : Christoph Martin Wieland  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Christoph Martin Wieland  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. It is often stated that Wieland was born on September 3, 1733. According to the entry in the church book of Oberholzheim, he is said to have been baptized on September 5, 1733 and the church book does not contain an entry for his birthday. In Wieland's correspondence, September 5 appears as his birthday. For example in a letter dated December 28, 1787 to his friend Leonhard Meister in Zurich and in a letter to his daughter Sophie on September 12, 1809. It was assumed that at that time it was unlikely that a child would be on his day Birth was baptized. Usually there were a few days between birth and the day of baptism. His birthday was presumed to be September 3rd because he wrote a letter to Sophie von La Roche dated November 3rd, 1806, stating that he had celebrated his birthday on September 3rd. In view of the fact that there is no column for baptismal days in the baptismal registers of Oberholzheim, this is unlikely.
  2. Heinrich Habbicht: The ancestors and descendants, as well as the crest of the poet Christoph Martin Wieland. In: Archive for lore and heraldry. Wellers 1908 and Heinrich Werner: Christoph Martin Wieland, his origins and his family connections. In: Württemberg quarterly for regional history. (WürttVjhhLG) Jg. 22, 1913, pp. 112–119 and pp. 218–252.
  3. Johann Gottlieb von Gaupp (* December 27, 1676 in Biberach; † May 27, 1760 ibid.); Father: Johann Friedrich von Gaupp (born September 8, 1641; † 1694); Mother: Jacobina Seutter von Lötzen (* in Ulm), he studied in Altdorf and in 1692 in Jena, in 1698 he became assessor at the city court and in 1699 was city governor in Biberach, April 5, 1709 Protestant city administrator, 1734 privy councilor, hospital nurse and scholarch in Biberach , 1739 Mayor Biberach, married to Maria Elisabetha Besserer and July 15, 1737 to Maria Philippina Amann, his sister Rosina Anastasia von Gaupp (born June 11, 1675 in Biberach) married on July 1, 1697 in Biberach with the merchant in Venice Heinrich Friedrich Francke (born December 4, 1661 in Lübeck, † 1728 in Ulm), brother of August Hermann Francke
  4. Justinus Hartmann († 1760), council member and owner of the Kronenapotheke in Biberach, married in 1707 to Anna Magdalena Briegel (* 1669), the daughter of the Biberach pastor Matthäus Briegel the Elder. J. (born April 3, 1633 in Biberach; † April 14, 1702 in Biberach) and the Stubenheim pastor's daughter Anna Barbara Henisius
  5. Katharina Justina Zell (née Hochstetter; * June 23, 1701 in Sindelfingen; † July 12, 1792), married on October 17, 1724 in Lustenau with the Biberach pastor Johann Georg Zell (* March 30, 1696 in Biberach † 16 January 1761 ibid.)
  6. Regina Margaretha Rauh (born Wieland; born January 3, 1663 in Biberach; † May 9, 1739 ibid.), The daughter of Mayor Martin Justin Wieland, was Christoph Martin Wieland's great aunt and the wife of the council member, superstructure inspector and owner of the market pharmacy in Biberach and Wieland's great-grandfather Johann Georg Ludwig Rauh (born December 31, 1654 in Biberach; † before 1739 (Catholic))
  7. Christoph Martin Wieland. In: August 22, 2013, accessed February 8, 2015 .
  8. Auserlesene Bibliothek der newest German literature, Volume 3. Meyer: Auserlesene Bibliothek der newest German literature. Meyer, 1773, p. 678 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
  9. Among other things, she wrote the Singspiel Erwin und Elmire based on the well-known Goethe text as well as chamber music works that were appealing for court use.
  10. Goethe: In fraternal memory of Wieland. In: Handbook of German eloquence in the Google book search
  11. ^ Adam Zamoyski: 1812. Napoleon's campaign in Russia . CH Beck, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-406-63170-2 , p. 68 ( limited preview in Google Book Search - English: 1812. Napoleon's Fatal March on Moscow. London 2004.).
  12. ^ Lennhoff, Posner, Binder: International Freemasons Lexicon. 2000, p. 903.
  13. Vom-logenleben - Masonic Lodge Anna Amalia. In: February 9, 2015, accessed February 8, 2015 .
  14. ^ William R. Denslow, Harry S. Truman: 10,000 Famous Freemasons from K to Z, Part Two. P. 322.
  15. ^ Klaus Manger: Wieland, Christoph Martin. In: Literature Lexicon. Authors and works of German language. Edited by Walther Killy, Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag, Gütersloh / Munich 1988, Volume 12, p. 312.
  16. Elizabeth Barnes: Loving with a Vengeance: Wieland, Familicide and the Crisis of Masculinity in the Early Nation. In: Milette Shamir, Jennifer Travis: Boys don't Cry? Columbia University Press, New York 2002, p. 52.
  17. ^ Intelligence Journal of the General. Literature newspaper Num. 157 of October 9, 1805, page 1304 , accessed January 4, 2020.
  18. ^ Reference in the database of the French Ministry of Culture , accessed on February 20, 2014.
  19. ^ See Augsburgische Ordinari Postzeitung, Nro. 266, Saturday, Nov. 5th, Anno 1808, p. 3, as (digitized)
  20. See preface in: Christoph Martin Wieland: The story of the Biribinker . Bartholomaeus, 1769 ( limited preview in Google Book search)
  21. Michael Scheffel: Forms of self-reflective narration. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin and New York 1997, ISBN 3-11-092233-9 , p. 101 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
  22. ^ Website of the Wieland edition at the University of Jena.
  23. Overview of the volumes already published.