August Hermann Francke
August Hermann Francke (born March 12 . Jul / 22. March 1663 greg. In Lübeck , † 8. June 1727 in Halle an der Saale ) was a German Protestant theologian , pastor, educator and hymn writer . He was one of the main representatives of Halle Pietism and founded the Francke Foundations in 1698, which still exist today .
Francke was the son of the lawyer and the last syndic of the cathedral chapter at Ratzeburg Cathedral Johann Francke and his wife Anna Gloxin (July 25, 1635-1709), daughter of Lübeck mayor David Gloxin († February 26, 1671), on the extensive property of his grandfather born around his Palais Brömserhof . Today the lodge house stands at the presumed location . His godparents included Sibylle Hedwig von Sachsen-Lauenburg , after whose father Duke August he was named August , and the Lübeck mayor Hermann von Dorne , who gave him his middle name. He had eight siblings. In 1666 his father became court and judiciary of Duke Ernst the Pious , and the family moved to Gotha . His father died there on April 30, 1670. August Hermann was trained by a private teacher, attended the Illustre high school for one year in 1676/77 and was then privately prepared for a university course for two more years.
At Easter 1679 he began basic philosophical studies with Conrad Rudolph Hertz at the University of Erfurt , made himself familiar with the Greek language and laid the foundations for a theological study. His uncle Anton Heinrich Gloxin provided him with the generous Schabbel scholarship , which enabled him to study at the University of Kiel with Christian Kortholt the Elder in autumn 1679 . Ä. could continue. In 1682 he stayed for two months in Hamburg with Esdras Edzardus and returned to Gotha. In Gotha he did self-study for a year and a half, studied at the University of Leipzig from Easter 1684 and became a student of Adam Rechenberg , Johannes Olearius and Johannes Cyprian .
After a short stay in 1685 at the University of Wittenberg , he obtained the academic degree of a master's degree in philosophy in Leipzig with a disputation on Hebrew grammar , completed his habilitation at the Leipzig University and gave his first sermons at the Paulinerkirche in Leipzig . In 1686 he and Paul Anton founded the Collegium Philobiblicum, an association of masters for regular practice in exegesis of both the Old and the New Testament, which was then largely neglected at universities . There he got to know Philipp Jacob Spener , who had a significant influence on him.
In 1701 he was accepted as a foreign member of the Royal Prussian Society of Sciences .
In 1687 he experienced his conversion associated with a crisis of faith and a new beginning . After causing a stir as a pioneer of Pietism first in Leipzig, then in Erfurt - each time accompanied by unrest and expulsions - he became professor of Greek and Oriental languages at the theological faculty of the University of Halle, and later (1698) of theology. Here, too, his appearance caused violent disputes with Lutheran orthodoxy . From 1692 to 1715 Francke was pastor of the St. Georgen Church in Halle's suburb of Glaucha . Contacts with important personalities ( Carl Hildebrand von Canstein , the military, up to the Prussian ruling house) finally enabled him to be appointed to the city in 1715, where he was pastor of the St. Ulrich Church from 1715 to 1727 . Contemporaries praised Francke's oratory. The well-gifted and witty Mr. Francke zu Halle has drawn people's hearts to himself with his gracious clarity in teaching and preaching.
The establishment of the Francke Foundations in Halle represents his real life's work. In 1695 Francke began teaching and caring for children in his community in Glaucha. On September 18, 1698 the foundation stone for a new orphanage was laid and within 30 years school and residential buildings, workshops, gardens and a pharmacy were built. In a total of 50 years of building activity, a school town grew up in which up to 2,500 people lived and worked on the concept of a Christian-inspired social reform. In 1708 Francke also planned a necessary new hospital building. In his instructions on the rules for nursing or sick mothers , Francke set out his ideas about the tasks of nursing staff, which became trend-setting in the early 18th century. For Francke, the parable of Jesus' washing of the feet from the Gospel of John (John 13) was an exemplary and paradigmatic basis for the work of sick and nursing deaconesses.
In February and March 1718 Francke was in the residential town of Ansbach , where he preached, had discussions at court and, among other things, met with the Oberhofmeisterin von Neuhaus, the donor of a widow's house, as well as the maid of honor von Kniestädt and the Silesian evangelical exile Anna Magdalena von Reibnitz , born von Pusch (* 1664; † after 1742), met.
Francke, from whose schools many school teaching positions and parish offices were filled with his students and who was therefore also called "Pastor of Germany", was initially dependent on direct donations for his company, but was able to do so through writing, the institution's own operations, fiscal privileges, etc. Increase Income. In his Halle company, Francke saw the beginning of a worldwide “General Reformation”, which he sought to promote in particular through the Danish-Halle Mission and the Canstein Bible Institute . At the portal of the main building of his foundations, he had Isa 40,31 LUT chiseled: "Those who wait in the Lord get new strength, so that they rise with wings like eagles". Above it is a picture of two eagles soaring towards the sun, which became the symbol of the Francke Foundations.
Death and Effect
The Francke pupil Johann Julius Hecker founded the first practice-oriented secondary school in Berlin in 1747 , was the founder of the first Prussian teachers' college in 1748 and prepared the General School Regulations of August 12, 1763. The regulations formed the basis for the development of the Prussian elementary school system .
The publishing house of the Francke bookstore in Marburg names August Hermann Francke as its namesake.
Many Protestant schools in central and northern Germany bear his name: the Christliche Schulverein Lippe e. V. has named its eight schools of different school types in Detmold , Lage and Lemgo after him, as well as the six schools and three daycare centers of the Hamburg sponsor "Free Christian Confession School Hamburg eV", the Christian school associations in Gießen and Buchholz / Nordheide and the Protestant primary school in Leipzig.
The city of Gotha named Franckestrasse in the east of the city after the pedagogue.
August Hermann Francke was not only a user of the "library of the orphanage", which makes up the main part of today's library of the Francke Foundations, but also owned an extensive private library , about which details have only been known since 2001. A large part of it went as heir to Francke's son Gotthilf August Francke and was auctioned off together with his private library in Halle an der Saale in 1770.
Francke married on June 4, 1694 in Rammelburg Anna Magdalena von Wurmb (1670–1734), the daughter of the heir to Hopperode Otto Heinrich von Wurmb (1631–1676) and his wife Sidonia, geb. von Bila († 1693). Her brothers resisted the connection because Francke did not correspond to her sister's status. Anna Magdalena supported and defended her husband in his religious work. She cared for him self-sacrificingly in his last years of illness. The 33-year marriage resulted in a daughter and two sons:
- August Gottlieb Francke (* / † 1695)
- Gotthilf August Francke (1696–1769) became a theologian
- Johanna Sophia Anastasia Francke (1697–1771), married to Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen
Francke's reform and program of Halle Pietism (1704):
- August Hermann Francke's paper on a reform of the educational system as the starting point for a spiritual and social reorganization of the Evangelical Church of the 18th century: the large essay (= treatises of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig. Philological-Historical Class, Vol. 53, H. 3). With an introduction to sources. Edited by Otto Podczeck. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1962 ( digitized version ).
- Ferdinand Guericke : August Hermann Francke. A memorandum for the secular celebration of his death . Bookshop of the orphanage, Halle 1827.
- Gustav Kramer: Francke, August Hermann . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1877, pp. 219-231.
- Gustav Kramer : August Hermann Francke. A picture of life . 2 volumes, hall 1880/1882
- Adolf Sellschopp : New sources on the history of August Hermann Francke. Halle: Niemeyer 1913 ( digitized )
- Erich Beyreuther : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 5, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1961, ISBN 3-428-00186-9 , pp. 322-325 ( version ).
- Erhard Peschke : Studies on the theology of August Hermann Francke . 2 volumes. Berlin 1964/66.
- Juliane Dittrich-Jacobi: Pietism and pedagogy in the constitutional process of civil society. Historical-systematic study of the pedagogy of August Hermann Francke (1663–1727) . Dissertation, Bielefeld University 1976.
- Siegfried Wibbing: August Hermann Francke (1663-1727). In: Henning Schröer , Dietrich Zilleßen (Hrsg.): Classics of religious education . Diesterweg, Frankfurt am Main 1989, ISBN 3-425-07711-2 , p. 74 ff.
- Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz : Francke, August Hermann. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 2, Bautz, Hamm 1990, ISBN 3-88309-032-8 , Sp. 85-90.
- Reinhard Breymayer : On the fate of August Hermann Francke's private library. About the found auction catalog of the private library of his son Gotthilf August Francke . Nous-Verlag Heck, Tübingen 2001, ISBN 3-924249-42-3 .
- Peter Menck: The education of young people for the glory of God and for the benefit of one's neighbor. The pedagogy of August Hermann Francke . Halle an der Saale, Tübingen 2001, ISBN 3-931479-19-6 .
- Hermann Goltz : The Collegium Orientale Theologicum August Hermann Franckes or: What can become of the utopia of the freyen campus for the glory of God in Halle. In: Arno Sames (Ed.): 500 years of theology in Wittenberg and Halle 1502 to 2002 . Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2003, ISBN 3-374-02115-8 .
- Helmut Obst : August Hermann Francke and the ecumenical dimensions of Halle Pietism . In: Arno Sames (Ed.): 500 years of theology in Wittenberg and Halle 1502 to 2002 . Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2003, ISBN 3-374-02115-8 .
- Richard Toellner (ed.): The birth of a gentle medicine. The Francke Foundations in Halle as a meeting place for medicine and pietism in the early 18th century , proceedings of the international symposium in Halle / S. April 1998, Verlag der Francke'schen Stiftungen Halle 2004. ISBN 978-3-931479-56-5 .
- Erhard Peschke : The theology of August Hermann Francke . Linea, Bad Wildbad 2007, ISBN 978-3-939075-14-1 .
- Michael Kotsch : August Hermann Francke. Educator and reformer . Christliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Dillenburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-89436-834-0 .
- Holger Zaunstöck (Ed.): Built Utopias. Francke's school town in the history of European urban design. Catalog for the annual exhibition of the Francke Foundations from May 8 to October 3, 2010. Verlag der Francke Foundations, Halle 2010, ISBN 978-3-447-06336-4 .
- Armin Stein : August Hermann Francke . Projekt Verlag, Halle (Saale) 2013, ISBN 978-3-95486-343-3 .
- Holger Zaunstöck , Thomas Müller-Bahlke , Claus Veltmann (eds.): Changing the world. August Hermann Francke. A life's work around 1700. Verlag der Francke Foundations, Halle 2013, ISBN 978-3-447-06889-5 .
- Reiner Andreas Neuschäfer: August Hermann Francke. One who shaped people . Down to Earth, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-86270-809-3 .
- Jonathan Schilling: August Hermann Francke's visit to Marburg in October 1717, in: Pietism and Modern Times. 44, 2018, , pp. 50-58.
- Peter James Yoder: Pietism and the Sacraments: The Life and Theology of August Hermann Francke. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park 2020, ISBN 978-0-271-08800-6 .
- Works by and about August Hermann Francke in the German Digital Library
- Publications by and about August Hermann Francke in VD 17 .
- Publications by and about August Hermann Francke in VD 18 .
- Entry on August Hermann Francke in the Catalogus Professorum Halensis
- Francke portal project in which electronic data collections and catalogs as well as editions that have been developed in recent years at the August Hermann Francke Study Center and the Interdisciplinary Center for Pietism Research at the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg are brought together on a single platform and be systematically enriched with digital copies of the listed printed and unprinted sources
- Eduard Hach : Aug. Herm. Francke's birthplace. in: Lübeckische leaves , 1896, pp 370 -372
- Members of the previous academies. August Hermann Francke. Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities , accessed on March 24, 2015 .
- Michael Sachs: The flight of the evangelical wife Anna Magdalena von Reibnitz (1664– ~ 1745) with her five children from Silesia, threatened by forced Catholicization, in 1703 - a mood picture from the age of the Counter Reformation and Pietism. In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 34, 2015 (2016), pp. 221–263, here: p. 227.
- Johann Gottfried Gregorii alias Melissantes: Curieuser AFFECTen-Spiegel , Frankfurt am Main, Leipzig [and Arnstadt] 1715, p. 389.
- Horst-Peter Wolff: August Hermann Francke . In: Horst-Peter Wolff (Hrsg.): Biographical lexicon on nursing history “Who was who in nursing history” . Ullstein Mosby, Wiesbaden / Berlin 1997, p. 55.
- Christine R. Auer: History of the nursing professions as a subject. The curricular development in nursing education and training . Dissertation, Institute for the History of Medicine Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg , academic supervisor Wolfgang U. Eckart . Heidelberg 2008, pp. 122-126. Summary: History of nursing professions as a subject (PDF)
- Michael Sachs: The flight of the evangelical wife Anna Magdalena von Reibnitz (1664– ~ 1745) with her five children from Silesia, threatened by forced Catholicization, in 1703 - a mood picture from the age of the Counter Reformation and Pietism. In: Medical historical messages. Journal for the history of science and specialist prose research. Volume 34, 2015 (2016), pp. 221–263, here: pp. 232 and 258.
- Michael Sachs (2015), p. 227 f.
- Auction catalog: Catalogus Libros Continens Ex Vario Artium Disciplinarumque Genere Selectos Potissimum Theologicos Quibus BD Gotth. Aug. Franckius… Dum Viveret Usus Est Qui D. XXIV. Sept. MDCCLXX In Orphanotropheo Glauchensi Plus Licitantibus Divendentur. Hundt, Halle 1770 ( digitized version ); Virtual reconstruction according to the catalog.
- Antonius Lux (ed.): Great women of world history. A thousand biographies in words and pictures . Sebastian Lux Verlag , Munich 1963, p. 171.
- August Hermann Francke in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints
|(Founding of the orphanage in 1698)||
Director of the Francke Institutes
|Johann Anastasius Freylinghausen|
|SURNAME||Francke, August Hermann|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German Protestant theologian, pedagogue, hymn poet and founder of the foundation|
|DATE OF BIRTH||March 22, 1663|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Lübeck|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 8, 1727|
|Place of death||Halle on the Saale|