|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||North Rhine-Westphalia|
|Administrative region :||Detmold|
|Height :||134 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||129.39 km 2|
|Residents:||74,254 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||574 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||32756, 32758, 32760|
|Primaries :||05231, 05232|
|License plate :||LIP|
|Community key :||05 7 66 020|
|LOCODE :||DE DET|
|City structure:||27 districts|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Rainer Heller ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Detmold in the Lippe district|
Detmold [ dɛtʰmɔlt ] ( Low German Deppelt, Deppeln, also [in phonetic spelling ] Deppəl ) is a city in the region of East Westphalia-Lippe in North Rhine-Westphalia . With around 75,000 inhabitants, Detmold is the largest city in the Lippe district . Administratively it is a large medium-sized town . The music academy and the Ostwestfalen-Lippe University of Technology make Detmold a university town. The German Youth Hostel Association also has its head office here.
From 1468 to 1918 Detmold was the residential city of the lords, counts and princes of the Lippe , then until 1947 the capital of the Free State of Lippe and the State of Lippe , which was then incorporated into the new federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Since then, the city has been the seat of the newly founded Detmold district government . From 1932 to 1972 Detmold was the seat of the Detmold district . Detmold has been the seat of the Lippe district, which consists of the merged districts of Detmold and Lemgo , since 1973 .
Detmold is located in the East Westphalia-Lippe region in the east of North Rhine-Westphalia on the edge of the Teutoburg Forest / Eggegebirge nature reserve . The south of the urban area is covered by the Teutoburg Forest , the actual city is to the north of it, around 30 kilometers east of Bielefeld and around 100 kilometers southwest of Hanover .
The urban area is drained by the Werre , into which the Kniebach and the Heidenbach flow in the city . The Bonebach arises from the union of the Wiembecke and the Berlebecke in the Heiligenkirchen district. Larger standing waters are the Meschesee in Heidenoldendorf and the Donoperteich in Hiddesen .
The urban area, like the entire Lippe region, has a great geological diversity. The ridge of the Osning runs south of downtown Detmold and, together with the Egge Mountains, forms the elongated Teutoburg Forest . The Osning is made up of sand-lime bricks from the Triassic period , with many breaks and folds. This fissure is one reason that there are so many health resorts and mineral water springs in the area. The district of Hiddesen is such a health resort with a gentle climate.
The soils are of medium to very good quality. Towards the end of the last glacial period , marl dust was deposited along the northern slope of the Teutoburg Forest and formed loess earth . That was where the glaciers had penetrated. The predominant subsoil are sand and clay stones from the Mesozoic era . There are predominantly podsol brown earths and pseudogley brown earths on top. The Keuper hills of the Lipperland dominate the northwestern part of the city . Along the Werre, floodplains run through the urban area from southeast to northwest. In the higher elevations of the Osningkamm the upper layer consists of the shell limestone , in which fossils can often be found.
A well-known geologist who researched the sandstones of the Teutoburg Forest was high school professor Otto Weerth .
Exhibits on Detmold's geology are on display in the Lippisches Landesmuseum or are in the fundus there.
The suitability of the urban area of Detmold for the use of geothermal heat sources by means of geothermal probes and heat recovery through heat pump heating varies greatly depending on the location. There are locations with low, but also those with very good suitability (see the adjacent map).
Expansion and use of the urban area
The city, classified as a "large medium-sized town", extends over an area of 129.39 square kilometers. The municipal area has a maximum extension both in east-west and north-south direction of about 15.5 kilometers.
according to type of use
Surface of water
|Area in km²||52.11||42.50||20.97||8.41||0.82||4.14||0.44|
|Share of total area||40.27%||32.85%||16.21%||6.50%||0.63%||3.20%||0.34%|
According to Section 3 (1) of its main statutes, the city of Detmold is divided into the following 27 districts:
|District||Residents||Population density in inhabitants / km²|
|Detmold-North||29694 (together with Detmold-Süd)||2516 (together with Detmold-Süd)|
|Detmold-South||29694 (together with Detmold-Nord)||2516 (together with Detmold-Nord)|
|Spork oak wood||3509||1097|
The Detmold urban area belongs to the maritime climate area of northwest Germany. The annual average temperature is around 9 ° C, the southern outskirts are colder, while the northern periphery is warmer than the mean. The monthly mean fluctuates, typical for the region, from around 0 ° C in January to 17 ° C in July / August. The annual amount of precipitation is about 900 millimeters of water, increasing towards the Teutoburg Forest. The average annual solar radiation is 955 kilowatt hours per square meter.
For the Detmold district of Hiddesen , which is located relatively high and directly on the Teutoburg Forest, the following climatic values are cooler and more humid compared to the city center:
Climate Hiddesen (180 m)
Source: City of Detmold
Middle Ages and City Foundation
Detmold was first mentioned in 783 as Theotmalli (in Piderit 1627 as Dithmal, Dithmaldt ), after Einhard and others the name derives from the Old High German - Old Saxon name of a people's court ( Thing ) ( Theot for the people; mahal for court, court of justice ), whose origin probably goes back to Roman times. In that year, Charlemagne is said to have been defeated by the Saxons in the Saxon Wars . From 1005 it was called Tietmelli- or Theotmalli-Gau in Old Saxony . It is said from the year 1023 that it gave its altar stone, consecrated in 799, to the Abdinghof monastery in Paderborn . The place Detmelle on Werre crossing at the old trade route from Paderborn to Lemgo , where there was a settlement with baptistery and some farm property since the Franks, was awarded in 1263 by the noble Lord Bernhard III. to the Lippe the Lippstadt town charter . In the course of the founding of the city, Detmelle got a modest parcel of 971 hectares and a deacon . The earliest surviving document with the town seal dates from 1305 and is in the Paderborn town archive. In 1265, the market privilege contributed to the further development of Detmold and led to the establishment of a fair. Around 1300 a second fair was introduced on the Sunday before Martini (November 11th).
A city map from the Middle Ages shows a street cross that lies within an almost circular ring about 500 meters in diameter. The two main streets divide the place into four different sized city quarters, whereby the north-west oriented quarter contained the castle of the sovereign. Around 1305 the entire city was secured by moats, walls and walls and a narrow lane ran within the city wall, which, like some of the remains of the wall, is still partially preserved today (Bruchmauer-, August-, Adolf- and Karlstraße). The north-south axis was formed by Lange Straße with a fixed double gate, the Lemgoian gate on the north side and the Horn Gate on the south side. The east-west axis was formed by today's Schülerstrasse and Bruchstrasse. At the east end was the citizen's tower, where beyond the wall the swamp area of the Werreniederung stretched, and in the west the break gate to the town hut opened for the cattle of Detmold's arable citizens .
The castle was administered in the 14th century by a sovereign bailiff . The court keeping and the living expenses of the Burgmannen families , like that of the Busche, von der Borch , von Exterde and Schwartz, had to be earned by the citizens and kept an independent development of communal life within limits. Around 1450 the city only had 350 inhabitants and remained the smallest of the Lippe cities until the 17th century. Other reasons for the hesitant development of the city were looting, destruction and fires, in particular due to the Soest feud in 1447, when Detmold was conquered by Cologne troops and Bohemian aid peoples. Then the city was expanded into a strong fortress and in 1468 Count Bernhard VII zu Lippe chose Detmold as his permanent residence . Around 1590 Detmold had about 700 inhabitants.
Reformation and Thirty Years War
Detmold became the seat of the Lippe regional church . The Reformation in Lippe began in Lemgo in 1538 under Count Bernhard VIII , where Lutheran preaching began in 1522. Before the Reformation, Detmold belonged to the diocese of Paderborn. In 1536 Simon von Exter was the last Catholic and first Lutheran pastor of Detmold. In 1605 the Calvinist Count Simon VI. adopted the Reformed Confession and filled parson posts that became vacant only with Reformed pastors. Since then, the Church of the Redeemer, located centrally between the castle and the market square, has been the church of the Reformed community.
In 1604, the first fair held in June was abolished, the second was moved to November 30, the feast day of the Apostle Andrew, and extended to three days. Since then this market has been called the Andreas Fair. 1616 taught John of the Birghden as representative of the family of taxis operated Imperial Reichspost in Detmold riding post station on the postal route Cologne - Hamburg one. This makes the city the oldest post office in the district of the Oberpostdirektion Münster .
Between 1625 and 1637, several plague epidemics raged in the city , killing 900 people. With the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War , Lippe committed itself to neutrality and Detmold had special rights as a royal seat. Nevertheless, the city suffered several times from raids, looting and raids. The occupation of Detmold Castle in 1640 by the imperial general von der Wahl was a result of the robbery of the Lippe prince . This is the name given to an affair within the count's family in which Countess Katharina took possession of the castle forcibly after she had brought her children to safety. In 1648, at the end of the Thirty Years War, only 900 people lived within the city walls.
After the economic decline during the long war, Detmold was able to recover in the second half of the 17th century and Adolfstraße , which is still in good condition today, was built with small, irregular half-timbered houses that were attached to the inside of the city wall. Around 1663/1665 Elias and Heinrich van Lennep engraved views of the castle and city of Detmold in copper. These cityscapes go far beyond the Merian stitch in their level of detail.
In the late Middle Ages, the Dominicans Heinrich Institoris and Jakob Sprenger published the Hexenhammer , a compendium of the widespread belief in witches. Under the protection of the church, the witch craze also spread in Detmold, albeit not to the same extent as in the Lemgo Witches' Nest . Between 1599 and 1676, 19 people in Detmold were sentenced to death by fire and sword as witches and wizards by the sovereign court, including Mette Deppe . The case files are kept in the State Archives in Detmold . From 1654, 52 children were arrested for alleged witchcraft, imprisoned in a Detmold inn converted into a prison, driven to further denunciations against adults and their peers, and main witnesses in five trials.
Opening of the city walls and the Age of Enlightenment
Count Friedrich Adolf laid out the Neustadt in the south as planned from 1701 after the wall ring had been broken through for the first time. He had the palace and the Friedrichstal pleasure palace built at the expense of the state treasury, as well as a canal through which these places could be reached from the palace by water using gondolas and locks. In 1720, permission was given to remove ramparts and ditches, but city gates and wall towers were only allowed to be removed from 1780. The cityscape was opened up for residential construction in the new century, especially in the south, but the cityscape also changed within the former wall ring. The half-timbered gabled houses built in the past centuries have been preserved, but many new buildings in contemporary classical style have been added. The most impressive building of this time is the town hall on the market square, to which the old building from the 16th century had to give way.
The Lippe school reform in the Age of Enlightenment made the Lippe elementary school system widely known as exemplary. With the help of excellent staff, Princess Pauline zur Lippe took care of the general public education and the improvement of the living conditions of the poor, sick, orphans and old people. On her initiative, a number of exemplary social institutions were built in Detmold, such as a nursing home, an orphanage, a hospital and a workhouse for the unemployed. In 1802 the first kindergarten in Germany was opened in Detmold, which was named Paulinenanstalt in 1856 and still exists today. In 1809 Princess Pauline introduced street lighting in Detmold with 26 oil lanterns.
In 1818 Leopold and Hornsche Strasse were laid out; The State Theater was built in 1825. In 1835 the city was the most populous city in Lippe with 4,137 inhabitants. The cultural life, however, remained provincial, despite such excellent representatives of intellectual life as Christian Dietrich Grabbe and Albert Lortzing . The class differences and the educational gap were high - with the princely court, the court society and civil servants at the top of the society. The revolution of 1848 also brought movement to the citizens of Detmold, which was expressed in demonstrations in front of the palace and in the streets. The government gave in to the wishes of the people and brought the opposition leader Moritz Petri , a friend of Grabbe, into the cabinet. This and the reaction that began after 1850 immediately dampened the unrest of the people.
Prince Leopold III, who loved music and theater . ruled from 1851 to 1875 and promoted theater and concert life in the city. He brought Clara Schumann and the young Johannes Brahms to Detmold as piano teachers for the princely family and as soloists for public concerts. Detmold's development as a city of the muses began. The successor, Prince Woldemar, was the stark contrast and, shortly after taking office in 1875, radically cut expenditure on culture. He dissolved the court orchestra in 1875, justifying this with cost-cutting measures, but at the same time increased the expenses for representation considerably.
Detmold is known to many people through the song Lippe-Detmold, a beautiful city . The composer of this folk song is unknown, but it is associated with the Battle of Preussisch Eylau in 1807. Initially, the song was not related to Detmold, but was used by around 25 locations to which the meter fit. Since around 1880 it has only been associated with Lippe-Detmold as a student, wandering and soldier song in its current version.
Industrial age and empire
Towards the end of the 19th century the citizens came to increasing prosperity, which was also noticeable in the cityscape. The population now rose rapidly: Detmold had 8,053 inhabitants in 1880 and 14,294 in 1910. During this time, Detmold developed from a town of craftsmen and farmers into a modern state capital.
In 1898 Grafregent Ernst zur Lippe gave the city of Detmold the perpetual rights of use to the Berlebeck springs . A water pipe network was laid for 909 houses with 4,000 water taps. As a reminder, a memorial to the Count Regent was inaugurated by the sculptor Heinrich Wefing on Schlossplatz in 1907 .
The new synagogue in Detmold was inaugurated on May 17, 1907 . Princess Bertha and Prince Leopold IV , along with other political, church and social representatives , attended the inauguration . In 1912, due to complaints from Detmold and the surrounding area, it was decided to cancel the Andreas Fair and instead set up an amusement park during these days. However, this did not lead to a satisfactory solution either, so that the amusement park was closed a year later and the Andreas fair was reintroduced. It attracts many visitors every year from the last Wednesday in November until the following Sunday.
In the First World War, the are over 4,000 members of infantry regiment 55 fallen, the III. Battalion was stationed in Detmold. On May 31, 1917, 72 people, mostly young girls, lost their lives in an explosion in a Detmold ammunition factory .
Detmold remained the seat of the Princely House until 1918 and then became the capital of the Free State of Lippe after the Prince's abdication.
Weimar Republic and the time of National Socialism
In the period between November 12, 1918, when Prince Leopold IV renounced the throne, and the National Socialist seizure of power on February 7, 1933, the SPD was the leading political force and, with Heinrich Drake, provided the head of government of the state government in Detmold for four legislative periods .
Because of the economic problems in the Weimar Republic, the right-wing and left-wing radical parties received significant increases in votes and the SPD lost its absolute majority in the state parliament. In 1923 the first local group of the NSDAP was founded in Lippe. In January 1933 the National Socialists mobilized all their forces for the state election campaign; Adolf Hitler spoke sixteen times at rallies. They had high hopes for an election victory on January 15, 1933 in Lippe. These elections met with international interest, as the National Socialists demonstrated here for the first time with all their top people, including Hitler, how they imagined the " seizure of power " two weeks later .
The NSDAP received 39.5%, the SPD 30.2% and the KPD 11.2% of the vote. A coalition of NSDAP, DNVP and DVP was able to form a minority government in the Lippe state parliament. Already in 1933 the churches were brought into line , communists and trade union officials arrested and murdered in part. As in the rest of the Reich, the National Socialists smashed the organizations of the labor movement in Lippe and covered the country with terror .
The best-known Detmold resistance fighter against the National Socialist regime was Felix Fechenbach . In 1928 he became editor of the SPD organ Volksblatt in Detmold and wrote articles against the National Socialists. These glosses, written under the pseudonym Nazi-Jüsken , led to strong hostility. He was arrested on March 11, 1933 and "shot while trying to escape" on August 7, 1933 while being transported to the Dachau concentration camp in the Kleinenberger Wald between Detmold and Warburg . Felix Fechenbach's grave is in the Jewish cemetery in Rimbeck.
On November 10, 1938, the synagogue burned down completely during the Night of the Reichspogrom , and 162 Jewish citizens from Detmold lost their lives in the course of the Nazi tyranny. The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the Victims of the National Socialist Persecution of Jews in Germany (1933–1945) lists 151 Jewish residents of Detmold who were deported and mostly murdered. Most of the approximately 600 Jews in Lippe were deported to the mass extermination camps. Only 52 of them were able to leave Germany before. The deportation began on December 13, 1941, and the first 25 were brought to Riga . The second wave of deportations with 34 Jews led to the Warsaw Ghetto on March 31, 1942 , while on July 11, 1942 seven people were sent directly to the Auschwitz extermination camp . The last transport from Lippe with 79 Jews went to the Theresienstadt concentration camp . To commemorate the persecuted, the first stumbling block was laid in May 2011 .
Alfred Meyer was Gauleiter Westphalia-Nord, Reich Governor in Lippe and essentially responsible for the planned genocide of the Jews. The highest National Socialist leader in Lippe was Adolf Wedderwille , who ruled Lippe as district leader of the NSDAP and deputy minister of state. Jürgen Stroop , born in 1895 as the son of a police sergeant in Detmold , had most of the blood on his hands . He joined the NSDAP in 1932 and quickly made a career. In the meantime he was promoted to SS Brigadefuhrer , and on April 19, 1943 he was commissioned to put down the uprising in the Warsaw Ghetto . According to Stroops, over 56,000 Jews were murdered here.
Detmold was rarely the target of bombing raids during World War II . On April 1, 1945, the Americans reached the Teutoburg Forest and, starting on Easter Monday, April 2, 1945, fired grenades primarily at the crossroads and neighboring houses in Detmold. On April 4, at around 7 p.m., the Americans entered the city with tanks via Bandelstrasse, Hans-Hinrichs-Strasse and Schillerstrasse and had occupied all the districts by late evening. After the National Socialist leaders had fled, officers of the occupying power settled in the government building and in Detmold's town hall and on April 5th appointed the factory owner Alex Hofmann , owner of the Klingenberg GmbH company , as Detmold's first post-war mayor. Its main task was initially to carry out the orders of the occupying power. After a few days, the Americans withdrew and the British took command. In the meantime, the Detmold airfield had been expanded to become a replenishment base. For this purpose, the runways were fixed with iron plates and lengthened. The heavy cargo planes landed and took off every minute.
post war period
After Lippe joined the newly formed state of North Rhine-Westphalia with the prospect of a new administrative district administrative seat in Detmold - and thus decided against joining Lower Saxony - the government in Düsseldorf , the capital of the newly formed state, decided in 1947 that Detmold became the seat of the administrative district of the same name , which includes the area of Ostwestfalen-Lippe ( Lippische Punktationen ). This is remarkable in that Detmold is the largest city in Lippe, but there are in some cases significantly larger cities in the administrative district with Bielefeld , Paderborn and Gütersloh . Detmold has also been the seat of the Lippe district administration since 1972.
With the connection to North Rhine-Westphalia, Lippe retained its state assets, such as forests, domains, state baths, as well as social and cultural institutions; a newly founded regional association Lippe was entrusted with their care and maintenance. Heinrich Drake made great contributions to this transformation process . By 1950, displaced persons and evacuees had increased the population of Detmold from 23,000 in 1938 to around 30,000. A large number of people were displaced from Silesia , so that Detmold took over the sponsorship of the Lower Silesian town of Sagan and the Sprottau district in 1954 . In 1967, in the course of unifying Europe, the northern French city of Saint-Omer was added as a twin town .
During the Cold War the city was garrison of the 20th British Armored Brigade of the British Army of the Rhine . The air base was renamed Hobart Barracks and used as a helipad, later also as a landing pad for the whiz kid Hawker Siddeley Harrier . In the neighboring parish of Herberhausen , apartments and supply facilities were built for British soldiers and their families in the 1960s and 1970s. In July 1995 the British left their garrison in Detmold and the airfield.
When the British soldiers withdrew in July 1995, there was vacant, inexpensive living space, which in the following years was mainly occupied by resettlers from the former Soviet Union and other migrants . Today about 90% of the residents are migrants from more than 20 different states. At the moment there are about 62% repatriates, 20% Kurds, 10% other nationalities and 7% Germans. Herberhausen is now a social hotspot.
At the beginning of the 21st century, the city of Detmold began planning a modern shopping center in Detmold's city center in the Lustgarten . This met with divided opinions among citizens and local politics. On June 11, 2006, there was a referendum , which failed due to the low turnout and the low number of dissenting votes.
In 2014 the redesigned, vacant Karstadt / Hertiehaus opened as a new shopping center.
History of Rail Transport
On December 31, 1880, the railway line from Herford via Lage to Detmold was opened, giving Detmold a connection to the railway network; but almost 40 years later than Bielefeld and Herford, for example . This railway line was extended to Altenbeken on June 11, 1895 , and a connection was established in the direction of Paderborn and Kassel . A few years later it was also possible to travel to Bielefeld by train via Oerlinghausen .
Between 1900 and 1954, Detmold had a tram network that, in its heyday, extended far beyond the city limits. The PESAG tram ran with overland lines via Horn to Bad Meinberg , Blomberg , Bad Lippspringe and Paderborn. Further routes led via Heidenoldendorf to the district Pivitsheide V. L. and via Heiligenkirchen to Berlebeck and Hiddesen. By 1954, all routes were gradually discontinued and replaced by bus services .
As part of the North Rhine-Westphalian regional reform , the city of Detmold and the 25 municipalities of Barkhausen, Bentrup, Berlebeck, Brokhausen, Dehlentrup, Hakedahl, Heidenoldendorf, Heiligenkirchen, Hiddesen, Hornoldendorf, Jerxen-Orbke, Leistrup-Meiersfeld, Loßbruch, Mosebeck, Niederschönhagen, Nienhagen, Niewald, Oberschönhagen, Oettern-Bremke, Pivitsheide (Vogtei Heiden), Pivitsheide (Vogtei Lage), Remmighausen, Schönemark, Spork-Eichholz and Vahlhausen merged to form the new town of Detmold.
In the Middle Ages and early modern times , Detmold only had a few hundred inhabitants. The population grew slowly and fell again and again through the numerous wars, epidemics and famine. The city was devastated during the Soest feud in 1447 and many people died. From 1625 to 1637, several plague epidemics caused over 900 deaths. Also during the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) there were population losses. It was not until the beginning of industrialization in the 19th century that the city of Detmold began to grow more rapidly.
In 1835 only around 4,000 people lived in the city, by 1900 there were almost 12,000. By 1939 this number had almost doubled to around 23,000. Even after that, the population continued to grow. Due to numerous incorporations on January 1, 1970, the population grew from 29,552 in 1969 to over 63,000 in 1970. On June 30, 2007, the official population for Detmold was 73,714 according to an update by the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics North Rhine-Westphalia (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices).
Of these, 52.6% were female and 47.4% were male. The proportion of foreigners is 6.0% and is thus below the national average. The number of people with a migration background is 21.2% and is thus slightly above the national average, as shown in the 2006 demographic report.
There are 8,562 households in Detmold with children under the age of 18. The households with one child are most strongly represented (49% of all households with children). The unemployment rate in January 2008 was around 9 to 10%.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status, with some figures also according to the current territorial status. The figures before 1818 are estimates ( 1 ), then census results ( 2 ) or official updates ( 3 ) by the State Office for Data Processing and Statistics . From 1871 and 1946 the data relate to the local population, from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the population at the place of the main residence . Before 1871, the population figures were determined using inconsistent survey methods.
Detmold according to the territorial status at that time
Detmold according to today's territorial status
The Christianization began at the time of the Saxons rule in the 8th century. Chr. And lip belonged in the Middle Ages to the Archdiocese of Paderborn and the diocese Minden . In the 16th century, the Reformation spread under the rule of Bernhard VIII. Graf zur Lippe (1536–1563) in Detmold and in the entire area and the Lutheran confession was introduced. In 1684, the first reformed church order stipulated that the sovereign could determine the denomination of his subjects. This regulation was in effect in Lippe until 1918. At the beginning of the 17th century, the Reformed Confession gained increasing influence when the sovereign converted to this belief. At that time, the head of the church was the respective regent of the principality of Lippe as the highest bishop (summus episcopus), and the spiritual director was a general superintendent . After the end of the First World War , the newly created regional church council with the general superintendent (later regional superintendent) took the place of the sovereign church regiment. In 1931 the church adopted a new constitution. Today's Lippe Regional Church , based in Detmold, has its roots in the Reformation. It includes the Evangelical Reformed and Evangelical Lutheran parishes. There is pulpit fellowship and communion between them.
It was not until 1854 that a princely edict on the initiative of Laurenz Hannibal Fischer put the Catholic Church on an equal footing with the Protestant regional church. In 1892, Bishop Hubertus Simar von Paderborn founded the first Catholic deanery in Detmold . The first dean was Karl Lillotte from 1892 to 1897. In 1897 a Catholic parish was founded by Maximilian Freiherr zu Laßberg , which raised its own church tax just four years later . In 1946 there were already 6,500 Catholics living in Detmold, many of whom were war refugees from the eastern regions. In 1953 a catholic retirement home called Bonifatius was founded. In 1973 the number of Catholics living in Detmold was just under 11,000. In 2002 the Catholic parishes celebrated their 150th anniversary.
In order to settle down, Jews in the Middle Ages had to buy letters of protection or safe conduct from the rulers of the Lippe region. The oldest Jewish protection letter from Lippe was issued in 1500. Apparently for financial reasons, Simon VI took. around 30 Jewish families in Lippe and in 1603 even approved the construction of a synagogue . After his death there was a large-scale eviction of Jews in Lippe after they had allegedly committed violations of the law. The first Jews did not return until 1647. Around 1780 over 900 Jews lived in Lippe. Leopold Zunz from Detmold strongly advocated the rights of the Jews , and in 1858 the emancipation bill was made into law. Nevertheless, in the period that followed, the Jews in Lippe were regularly accused as scapegoats for crimes they had not committed. During the November pogrom on November 10, 1938, synagogues, Jewish cemeteries and shops were destroyed by the Nazis throughout Germany . In Detmold, the synagogue built in 1907 on Lortzingstrasse burned down completely and five Jewish shops were destroyed. As far as is known today, 162 Jewish citizens from Detmold were killed during the National Socialist tyranny.
The following table shows the election results since 1975:
|Free voters (1)||2||5.34||2||5.20||3||7.59||3||7.01||3||5.58||3||6.38||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|BEGINNING C||1||2.97||1 (2)||2.31||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
The distribution of the seats in Detmold's city council after the local elections on May 25, 2014 is shown in the diagram opposite.
Mayor of Detmold is Rainer Heller (SPD). He prevailed against Stephan Grigat (CDU) in the 2009 election and against Marc Fasse (CDU) in the early election in 2014. The following table shows the results of the 2014 mayoral election:
|Surname||Political party||May 25, 2014|
Detmold belongs to the Lippe III (99) state electoral district , in which Dennis Maelzer (SPD) was elected as a direct candidate in the 2017 state elections . At the federal level, Detmold belongs to the federal constituency Höxter - Lippe II (136), in which Christian Haase (CDU) was elected as a direct candidate in 2017 .
coat of arms
|Blazon : “A silver five-pinned continuous city wall in red , decorated with two free-standing Latin crosses at both ends, behind the first and last notch a three-story, three-pinned tower with one [ (heraldically) closed ] black window opening on each floor, with a large archway in between , surmounted by a central tower with a pointed roof, decorated with a paw cross on the top and a ball oneachof the two ends of the roof, covered with a large lipped rose ( red leaves with a yellow clump ) without sepals on a silver round shield , underneath in front of the two central battlements two labels with a lipped rose without sepals in silver. "|
|Justification of the coat of arms: The city of Detmold, newly formed in 1970, adopted the coat of arms granted to the former city of Detmold on November 24, 1955 with the approval of February 23, 1970, which was determined by the council in 1954 on the basis of the oldest city seal preserved in three impressions from 1305, 1350 and 1428 . The building is the symbol of the city, the rose comes from the shield of the sovereigns.|
Detmold has five twin cities and is friends with another city. All six cities except Verona have a population similar to Detmold and are about the same age.
- The oldest partnership was concluded on May 6, 1976 with the Belgian city of Hasselt .
- The partnership with Saint-Omer (Pas-de-Calais) in France has existed since June 29, 1969 and was concluded on the basis of the Élysée Treaty of January 22, 1963.
- Another twin town has been Savonlinna in Finland since June 11, 2004 .
School exchanges and encounters between cultural and sports clubs take place with all three cities.
- An intra-German partnership with Zeitz has existed since August 18, 1990, which began with the cooperation of city councils and administrations and is now given a further facet with the exchange of associations.
- Since June 15, 2013 there has been a town partnership with the northern Greek city of Oreokastro .
- There has been a friendship between cities with Verona in Italy since May 20, 2006 as a result of a long-term school project to jointly come to terms with German-Italian history during the time of National Socialism and fascism.
The members of the city council decided in December 2002 to cut their attendance fees and allowances by 10%. The council wanted to set an example in times of tight budgets and save on itself. The compensation ordinance of the NRW Ministry of the Interior, however, provided for uniform compensation for council members. An exemption was rejected after several months. The case caused a sensation nationwide.
At the beginning of 2004, the Lippe district had the idea to apply for European Capital of Culture 2010. Since the application of a district was not possible, the city of Detmold should apply on behalf of the region. The city council rejected the project with a large majority.
Culture and sights
The Westphalian Open Air Museum is the largest of its kind in Europe with around 100 historical buildings on 90 hectares. It was opened in 1966 on the site of the former princely zoo and annually attracts an average of 250,000 visitors between April 1 and October 31. The Lippisches Landesmuseum shows exhibits on regional and cultural history, natural history and prehistory. The museum celebrated its 150th anniversary in 1985. Detmold's youngest museum was the Art Kite Museum for kite art , which opened in 2000, but closed again five years later. Less known, but of supraregional importance, is the Museum of Russian-German Cultural History . It is the first and only museum of its kind in Germany and is still under construction.
The Landestheater Detmold has five venues at its headquarters in Detmold: the Landestheater itself with 650 seats, the small stage in the Grabbe House with 80 seats, the court theater in the inner courtyard, which annually attracts 250 visitors to every performance in the open air, and the Detmold summer theater and the newly built "Kaschlupp" stage for children's and youth theater. The Landestheater Detmold is the largest travel stage in Europe, because around half of the almost 600 performances each season take place outside of Detmold. The play area covers the entire state of North Rhine-Westphalia and even extends far beyond the national borders to Belgium , Luxembourg and Switzerland .
At the instigation of Prince Leopold II , the Detmold State Theater was built in 1825. He had it built in the Rosental not far from the market square and the castle. After only seven months of construction, the curtain was raised for the first time in November 1825. On February 5, 1912, the theater burned down to the ground, but was rebuilt in the classical style during the First World War 1914–1915 according to plans by the Berlin architect Bodo Ebhardt . The new building was financed with donations from the Detmold citizens and funds from the Princely House. Like all German theaters, the theater had to close its doors on September 1, 1944 during World War II. After the end of the war, the British occupying forces set up their casino here. Play operations were moved to the Detmold summer theater. The clearance took place on July 5, 1952 and the situation normalized.
Since 1991 the city has regularly organized the European Street Theater Festival Detmold , at which German and international groups perform in downtown Detmold and in Hangar 21, a former helicopter hangar of the Rhine Army .
It is thanks in particular to the University of Music that Detmold has a rich musical offering. The master choirs Camerata Vocale and the Philharmonic Choir Lippe as well as the Detmolder Schlossspatzen are known beyond the city limits. The Lippe Philharmonic Choir has been organizing international choir festivals since 1990. Detmold has a pronounced singing culture, which is expressed in eleven member choirs of the North Rhine-Westphalia Singers Association. Choral works by the composer Albert Lortzing , who worked in Detmold, are sung by Detmold choirs. The Big Band of the Musikhochschule and the Detmold Orchestra Society are important instrumental groups in the city. There are also church choirs and trumpet choirs in many parishes.
The center of the alternative music scene is the autonomous culture and communication center Alte Pauline . In addition to concerts, political events also take place here. The association that runs the Pauline pays no rent for the municipal property. Parts of the city council have repeatedly called for the building to be sold.
The band Speed Niggs , which also has its roots in the Alte Pauline, released three albums between 1989 and 1992 and played numerous concerts all over Germany. The band Maria Perzil took part in the German preliminary decision for the Eurovision Song Contest 1998 and reached 10th place. The medieval band Duivelspack was founded in Detmold in 2000. The well-known bass baritone Thomas Quasthoff was professor of singing at the University of Music from 1996 to 2004.
Lippe State Library and State Archives
With over 400,000 volumes, the Lippische Landesbibliothek Detmold is one of the major university-free libraries in North Rhine-Westphalia. One focus of the library is the collection and provision of literature, certificates and documents about Lippe and East Westphalia in the neighboring state archive in Detmold. The library is housed in a classicist palace, which was built as a private house by Detmold merchant and building contractor Wilhelm Ebert between 1842 and 1843. After the Second World War, the library became the property of the newly founded Landesverband Lippe.
Historical old city
The historic old town forms a circle around 500 meters in diameter, the center of which is the market square. The old town is bordered in the south and east by Bruchmauerstraße, Auguststraße, Adolfstraße and Karlstraße, where fragments of the former city wall can still be seen, while the town center ends in the north and west by the Rosental and the Ameide. Within the old town about 350 partially well-preserved historic buildings to visit, especially in the Long Street, the crooked road and the Meier street . These houses date from three epochs, the late Middle Ages after the great city fire of 1547 with bourgeois half-timbered buildings , the Biedermeier period (1830–1860) with its late classicist style and the Wilhelminian era (after 1875) with historicizing, decorated facades. The house where Ferdinand Freiligrath was born and the house where Christian Dietrich Grabbe died , whose house where he was born, is also located in the street Unter der WehmeBruchstrasse can be found.
The Princely Residential Palace Detmold is located in the northwest of the historic old town and, with the palace square and moat, covers about a quarter of the city center. The Princely Residence Palace is the most important historical building in the city and represents an outstanding architectural creation of the Weser Renaissance . The palace is dominated by the medieval tower and a four-winged extension with a rich Renaissance facade, which was built between 1550–1557. In the courtyard there are four stair towers and a classic arched gallery with heraldic stones. In the 17th century, the west wing with the royal rooms was built, which contains eight large tapestries, Venetian chandeliers and a collection of hunting weapons. The palace square is surrounded by elongated wing structures with corner pavilions, which the residents of the palace used as a carriage house , stables and riding arena. The former riding arena was converted into a town hall in the 1950s. The fountain in front of the castle with its fountain was built in 1898 and equipped with spotlights in 1957. Parts of the palace are inhabited by Stephan Prinz zur Lippe and his family.
Church of the Redeemer
The Evangelical Reformed Church of the Redeemer (Market Church) is a late Gothic church building. It was destroyed after the great fire in 1547 and then rebuilt in the center of the city. A few years later the city was ready to start building a mighty tower. The year 1564 can be seen above the entrance. This date indicates the year the tower was completed. In the period around 1596 two tower guards were employed who lived as fire guards in the tower. The old fire bell from the 16th century ( chime : es 1 ) could be saved in both the First and Second World War, it is the oldest bronze bell in Detmold. In 2005, the Rincker bell foundry added the 1200 kilogram peace bell (strike tone: f 1 ) to replace the lost bell. The church was equipped with an organ as early as 1555. Today's baroque organ by Johann-Markus Oestreich was completed in 1795, renewed and expanded in 1962. In the simple interior, the pointed arched , Gothic windows and a baptismal font made of sandstone, which is decorated with leafy tendrils, impress . The five-sided pulpit stands on a simple round column and above it is a hexagonal sound cover .
The town hall was built in the classicist style between 1828 and 1830 on the north side of the market square. The double flight of stairs with the Doric portico made of sandstone in front of the building is striking . In the town hall is the hall of the city council as well as the offices of the mayor and the administrative board. In 1902 the town hall was expanded by adding an extension to the rear. The picturesque Donop fountain in front of the town hall was built in 1902 and depicts the Berlebecke as a nymph .
The New Palais was built by Count Friedrich Adolph between 1706 and 1708. It is a two-story main building with wing-like pavilions. Originally the palace served as the widow's seat of the Lippe princesses. It was rebuilt from 1849 to 1864. In front of the southern side front is a fountain from 1857 with dolphins and tritons . Today it is the seat of the University of Music . The palace garden is attached to the palace .
The Protestant Reformed Christ Church on Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz with the crypt of the Princely Family zur Lippe is a neo-Gothic church, inaugurated in January 1908, based on a design by the architect Otto Kuhlmann. As a result of damage from the Second World War, a major renovation was necessary at the beginning of the 1960s, the outer skin was extensively renewed in the 1980s, and the interior was renovated after 2000. In the warm months of the year the church is open to visitors during the day. The Christ Church is the home of the Evangelical Reformed Christians in West Detmold.
Martin Luther Church
The Evangelical Lutheran Martin Luther Church in Schülerstrasse was built in the neo-Gothic style between 1897 and 1898, largely from donations on the site of the old baroque church. Until 1721 it was forbidden to build a Lutheran church in the Reformed Detmold. It was not until the Lutheran Princess Wilhelmine von Nassau-Idenstein that the first church was built. The model of this church can be seen in the parish hall next door.
The Friedrichstaler Canal is a technical monument and a hydraulic structure that has been partially preserved to this day, which was built from 1701 to 1704 on the instructions of the then Count Friedrich Adolf. The Friedrichstaler Canal connected the now defunct country estate consisting of a pleasure palace, orangery and baroque garden with the residential palace. The canal is fed with water from the Bone Creek and flows into the moat that flows around the southern and western part of the city wall and finally fills the castle pond. The responsible client was Hindrick Kock. The canal was not used for commercial purposes, but only traveled with gondolas for pleasure trips. In 1748 shipping was stopped again. Further use took place through the construction of mills at the locks. The Obere Mühle, built in 1752/1753, was in operation until 1958 and has been used by the catering industry ever since. The three locks that were built to overcome the slope can still be seen today as waterfalls. The canal was built in connection with the construction of the palace and the eastern row of houses on the Neustadt along the canal, the first expansion of the city beyond the medieval borders. The canal system is an important and unique monument of baroque hydraulic engineering.
The palace park, also known as the palace square, was laid out in the second half of the 18th century. You can enter the square from four sides, through the main portal from Langen Straße, from the theater forecourt, from the market square through the church arch and finally via a wide staircase from the Rosental. The large fountain in front of the castle with an illuminated fountain was created around 1900. The small, octagonal fountain in the eastern part of the park probably comes from the Friedrichstal park. A portrait bust of Johannes Brahms stands near the main portal. The palace square is surrounded by elongated wing structures with corner pavilions, which the residents of the palace used as a carriage house , stables and riding arena. The former riding arena was converted into a town hall in the 1950s.
The palace garden was laid out in the early 18th century as a parterre garden in the French style, enlarged in the middle of the 19th century and transformed into an English landscape garden. The palace garden is protected as a monument and contains an old population of sequoias and other exotic trees, as well as several fountains and cascades. Nearby is a small octagonal structure that contains a turbine for operating the water features and was built in 1855. Immediately behind it on the slope of the Büchenberg is a barred sandstone portal that leads into a mountain cellar and was used by a brewery to store ice cream.
The Hermann monument was erected on the 386 meter high Grotenburg and is intended to commemorate the battle in the Teutoburg Forest and the Cheruscan prince Arminius . The 54 meter high monument was erected by Ernst von Bandel between 1838 and 1875 and inaugurated on August 16, 1875 by Kaiser Wilhelm I. Since then, it has been one of the most visited monuments in Germany with almost one million visitors annually.
The Westphalian Open Air Museum is the largest of its kind in Germany with around 100 historical buildings on 90 hectares. The open-air museum was opened in 1966 on the site of the former princely zoo and attracts an average of 250,000 visitors between April 1 and October 31. The buildings consist of historical houses that have been faithfully rebuilt, such as farms, craftsmen's houses, restaurants and village schools with complete contemporary interiors and typical gardens.
The Donoperteich is a 132 hectare nature reserve and a popular excursion destination near the Hiddesen district. The picturesque Donoperteich was created by Count Simon Heinrich in 1683 for fish farming and named after the Countess Chamberlain von Donop. In the immediate vicinity is the Hiddeser Bent , a raised bog with characteristic flora , such as cotton grass , pipe grass , peat moss , sundew and cranberries . The Hiddeser Bent was designated as a nature reserve in 1950. With a walk of about an hour over the Heidental the Bielstein can be reached, which at 393 meters is the highest point in the Detmold urban area. The Bielstein transmitter of the West German Broadcasting Corporation with its 300 meter high transmission mast is located on its summit.
The Heiligenkirchen Bird Park is home to more than 1200 birds and mammals of 200 species from all over the world. The biggest attractions are the petting area for parrots, where you can come into direct contact with the animals, and a large adventure playground for children. In addition to birds, kangaroos, monkeys and prairie dogs also live in the park.
The Adlerwarte Berlebeck is located on the Kelle mountain in Berlebeck and was founded by the falconer Adolf Deppe at the end of the 1930s with five animals. The eagle observatory is now the largest and oldest bird of prey observatory in Europe and currently houses around 180 birds of prey. It is open every day from February 16 to November 15 and offers free-flight demonstrations with eagles, vultures and falcons.
The Falkenburg ruin stands in the Berlebeck district at 373 meters on one of the highest elevations in the Teutoburg Forest. The Falkenburg was built around 1190 as the first castle of the noble lordship of Lippe by Bernhard II and withstood several sieges. In 1453 the castle burned down completely, was later rebuilt, but never regained its former importance. At the beginning of the 19th century, now in ruins, their stones were used to build the nearby pass road over the Teutoburg Forest, known as the Gausekote .
The sacrificial stones in the Leistrup forest are located on the eastern edge of the forest in the Diestelbruch district. The sacrificial stones consist of groups or rows of stones that were worked and set up by people an unknown time ago. The purpose of these presumed places of worship is also unknown. Not far from the sacrificial stones is an archaeologically developed Bronze Age barrow . From the height (288 m) of the Leistrup forest, which is lined with beech, oak and coniferous wood, you have a good view of the entire Lipperland. The educational forest trail and an apiary, laid out in 1962, are well worth seeing.
The Dreiflussstein near the Bielstein marks a special topological point in Detmold. At this point on the heights of the Teutoburg Forest, the catchment areas of the three rivers Rhine , Ems and Weser meet. A hike to the Dreiflussstein begins at the Haus des Gastes in the Hiddesen district and leads through the Heidental up to the memorial stone that was erected in 2009. The Residenzweg and the Lönspfad also lead past the Dreiflussstein.
The Externsteine , one of the largest natural attractions in Germany, are located near the Holzhausen-Externsteine district of the neighboring town of Horn-Bad Meinberg . In the vicinity of the stones that were washed out by the Wiembecke over millions of years, an area of around 140 hectares was designated as a nature reserve.
Every spring, the International Detmold Jazz Nights take place in the pedestrian zone in the city center as well as in the Kaiserkeller and in the town hall. Guests are, for example, Robin Eubanks and the big band from the Detmold University of Music regularly.
In early summer the place Short Film Festival International Short Film Festival (ISFF Detmold) instead.
In summer the Detmold Summer Stage and Lippe Culinary are organized regularly . The summer stage is a multi-day free open-air event in the city center with a main stage on the market square. Lippe Culinary offers regional and international specialties presented by the local gastronomy on a weekend in the castle garden in July / August.
Every two years, at Pentecost, the European Street Theater Festival takes place on public streets and squares . The first street theater festival in Detmold was held in 1991 under the name “1. Detmold picture disturbance ”. After more than 20 years of regular project implementation, street theater has become an integral part of the city's cultural life.
In autumn every year from the Wednesday after the Day of Repentance and Prayer until the following Sunday, the Andreas Mass takes place with around 250 exhibitors. Carousels and stalls offer a colorful program at the fair, which has been documented since 1604. The venue is the pedestrian zone and Kronenplatz. The Christmas market also takes place every year in the pedestrian zone. This event used to be just a small farmers' market.
Every first Saturday of the month from April to November there is a flea market without new goods on the Friedrichstaler Canal .
The best known specialty in Detmold is the Lippische Pickert , a kind of potato grated cake made from flour, grated potatoes, eggs, raisins, yeast, milk and water. It is traditionally eaten with beet cabbage or Lippe liver sausage, another Lippe specialty. The Lippische Pickert is also mentioned in the regionally known folk song Die Lippische Schützen, in which it says: "And when they came through the smoky city of Essen, they had their Pickert eaten with them".
Economy and Infrastructure
What is remarkable for a city of this size is that there are no four-lane roads in the urban area; the last plans for a motorway in the immediate vicinity ( A 35 from Bielefeld to Hameln / Hanover , A 36 as A 106 from Bielefeld to Hameln / Goslar ) were discarded at the end of the 1970s.
Rail and bus transport
The Detmold station lies on the railway line Herford-Altenbeken . It is served every hour by regional trains on the Herford - Lage - Detmold - Altenbeken - Paderborn ("Ostwestfalen-Bahn") and (Altenbeken-) Detmold --Lage - Oerlinghausen - Bielefeld ("Der Leineweber", Sundays only every two hours) lines .
In road passenger transport Detmold is a regional bus network connected to the region. Urban transport is by 1994 by the city traffic Detmold GmbH built city bus system done that with its eight lines partially existing until 1954 tram network corresponds. Detmold is part of the Westfalentarif tariff association .
The former air base of the British Rhine Army was disbanded on July 31, 1995 and handed over to the city of Detmold. The city is selling land and buildings on the site in order to put them to a new use. Today's Detmold airfield is a civilian special airfield and is operated by the Luftsportverein Detmold e. V. used.
The Radfernwege Romans-Lippe-Route , Wellness cycle route and the BahnRadRoute Weser-Lippe run through the city. In addition, the European cycle route R1 runs from Calais (France) to Tallinn (Estonia) in the south (Externsteine) near the city.
A pedestrian zone stretches through the historic center of Detmold, the main streets of which are Lange Straße, Bruchstraße and Schülerstraße meet in a cross shape in the market square. The castle park and the Rosental transfer station can be reached from the pedestrian zone. Footpaths connect other parts of the city with the center. The city center is connected to the network of hiking trails via the cycle and footpath along the Friedrichstaler Canal . Striking hiking trails are the E1 European long-distance hiking trail , which leads from Sweden via Lemgo through Detmold and over the Externsteine to Sicily, the Hermannsweg , which runs over the ridge of the Teutoburg Forest, and the Residenzweg .
Three free advertising papers are distributed in the city:
- Lippe currently the Oppermann Druck und Verlag GmbH & Co. KG in Detmold (Wednesday and Saturday)
- On Saturdays, the Lippische Latest News from Lippische Zeitungsverlag Giesdorf GmbH & Co. KG in Detmold is published as well
- The Detmold courier of Kurier-Verlag GmbH & Co. KG in Horn-Bad Meinberg is published a total of 15 times a year (as of 2018)
Detmold is popularly known as the city of authorities and officials. In addition to the city administration, the district administration for the Lippe district with around 400 civil servants and employees and the government of the Detmold administrative district with around 600 employees are also located there. As a district and administrative district town, Detmold is home to other authorities, such as the Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Office Ostwestfalen-Lippe in Jerxen-Orbke. Other important authorities are the Labor Agency of the Federal Employment Agency and the Detmold Tax Office .
There are four courts in Detmold, namely the regional court on Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz, the labor court , the social court and the district court . The Detmold social court has jurisdiction over the entire administrative district, while the regional court and labor court are responsible for the district area. The area of the district court in Detmold, however, includes the cities and communities Detmold, Lage, Oerlinghausen , Augustdorf, Schlangen and Horn-Bad Meinberg. In addition, Detmold is the seat of the Detmold public prosecutor's office and the Detmold prison , whose areas of responsibility coincide with that of the regional court.
Detmold is the seat of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (IHK) Lippe zu Detmold . The IHK district is the Lippe district. The city is also the seat of the German Youth Hostel Association . The Detmold City Library is located near the Hornschen Tor. The Lippe district is responsible for the local Lippe-Detmold Clinic, an important employer for the city with 755 beds in the Lippe GmbH Clinic .
The Bundeswehr maintains several specialist groups on the property of the former Bundeswehr Hospital in Detmold , which are subordinate to the Augustdorf Medical Center. The closure of the location on Heldmannstrasse is planned for the first quarter of 2014.
The Federal Agency for Technical Aid is also represented in Detmold with the largest local association of the Bielefeld managing director . A technical train with two rescue groups , a lighting specialist group and a water damage / pumps specialist group are stationed here, as is a management / communication specialist group .
Universities and research institutions
Detmold is a university town with the Detmold University of Music and the Detmold location of the Ostwestfalen-Lippe Technical University (other locations are the headquarters in Lemgo and Höxter ). The Musicology Department of the University of Paderborn is also located in Detmold .
There are 13 primary schools in Detmold, which are spread across the city.
There are two main schools in town. The Heinrich Drake Realschule was founded in 1969 as Realschule II. It was later renamed in honor of the Detmold politician Heinrich Drake. Realschule I, like the Leopoldinum and the Christian-Dietrich-Grabbe-Gymnasium, is located in the so-called small school center of Detmold in the immediate vicinity of the city center. The school building was built in the early 1950s and initially housed what was then Leopoldinum I. At the end of the 1970s, the newly founded Realschule I moved into the building after a new building had been built for Leopoldinum I. There is also the Detmold city high school , the school was founded as a daughter's school in 1830, a higher daughter's school since 1871 , and finally , through various intermediate stations, since 1950 the city's girls' grammar school, and since 1966 the city's grammar school. There is also the August-Hermann-Francke-Gymnasium.
In addition to the municipal Geschwister-Scholl-Gesamtschule, there is the private evangelical August-Hermann-Francke-Gesamtschule and the Waldorf School Detmold, which is located in the buildings of the former Actien beer brewery Falkenkrug .
Due to the strong Russian-German influence, there are elementary and secondary schools in Detmold (August-Hermann-Francke-Schools) in independent Christian sponsorship.
By 1850, Lippe was more than half a century behind in terms of industrial development compared to Bielefeld. Only at the end of the 19th century began a tentative development that could be described as the industrial expansion of the craft. The main reasons are the restrictive policies of the Lippe rulers, the adherence to traditional forms of economy and the delayed connection to the railway network.
Industrial companies initially emerged in Lippe in the economic sectors of starch processing, silk spinning, brewing, cigar production and printing. The largest company in Detmold was the Klingenberg brothers' printing company, founded in 1865, which achieved world renown with its cigar lid pictures made using stone printing . Child labor was the rule; in 1878 431 children and young people were counted in 54 factories in Lippe.
At the beginning of the 20th century, the furniture industry developed due to the large amount of wood in Lippe. The companies Hilker, Brand and Temde should be mentioned . The first German carpentry school was founded in Detmold. The food industry also opened two operations, the Detmold biscuit factory August Fricke and the biscuit factory Pecher. After the Second World War, metalworking companies such as the Weidmüller company were increasingly founded, while the furniture industry was in decline at the end of the 20th century.
One of the largest employers is Weidmüller , a manufacturer of components for electrotechnical connection technology for the transmission of energy, signals and data. Around 1850 (2012) of the 4500 employees worldwide (2016) work at the headquarters in Detmold. According to its own information, the company achieved sales of 680.4 million euros in the 2016 financial year.
The Wortmann Schuh-Holding KG is a shoe manufacturing and distributor in the world. The group of companies has its own companies at eight locations in Europe and a further eleven in the Far East and employs 1,028 people internationally. The company achieved a turnover of 999.3 million euros in the 2011/2012 financial year.
The Jowat SE , founded in 1919 in Breslau, provides adhesives for applications in the field and the wood and furniture industry, paper and packaging industry, graphic arts and bookbinding, vehicle construction, the automotive industry. Automotive supply industry and the technical textiles and textile industry. When Germany was redistributed in 1945 as a result of the Second World War, the company settled in Detmold near the woodworking industry. The company has subsidiaries for production and sales in 21 countries worldwide and employs over 1000 people. In 2014, the company achieved sales of around 250 million euros.
In the service sector, the insurance industry is important for the city of Detmold, which is the headquarters of three insurance companies, namely the Lippische Landes-Brandversicherungsanstalt with around 480 employees, as well as two subsidiaries located here from the association of insurers in the area of churches , family welfare life insurance and Pax- Family welfare health insurance with a total of around 340 employees. The insurance broker Ecclesia Holding GmbH , which employs 700 of its international 1750 employees at its headquarters in Detmold , is also assigned to the insurance sector.
Other large companies are Stadtwerke Detmold GmbH with an annual turnover of around 70 million euros, which supply around 80,000 people (as of 2005) and operate the Aqualip water park , and Sparkasse Detmold , which in 2006 had 796 employees and generated total assets of 2.905 billion euros . The local daily newspaper Lippische Landes-Zeitung appears in Lippische Zeitungsverlag Giesdorf GmbH & Co. KG . With the Strate Brewery, which was founded in 1863 and is now in its fifth generation as a family business, Detmold has a traditional beer brand. Since 2005 there has been another brewery in Detmold: Liebharts Privatbrauerei GmbH & Co. KG, which belongs to the Liebhart family group of companies around Fruchtwerk Dr. Balke GmbH in Detmold.
A well-known company formerly based in Detmold was the company founded in 1907 as Franz Hartmann Sinalco Aktiengesellschaft, which operated under changing owners and names in Detmold until 1987 and still sells Sinalco drinks within the Hövelmann drinks group today .
In 2007 there were over 69 sports clubs in Detmold, in which 80 different sports were offered. The most famous clubs are the TSV Detmold from 1911 and the Detmold gymnastics club from 1860 .
The heyday of TSV Detmold, which was founded in 1911 as FC Teutonia Detmold, began in 1946 after the Second World War. The highlight was winning the West German soccer championship on June 10, 1950. In front of 14,000 spectators, TSV won against Wuppertal-Cronenberg 5-1 on the sports field under the pine trees. In the period that followed, the TSV could no longer keep up financially with the larger clubs and more and more players migrated, so that he was relegated to the state and district leagues. In the 2010/2011 season the first soccer team will play in the district league A.
In addition to TSV Detmold, there is also Post SV Detmold. This club uses the Werresportplatz (artificial turf pitch) in the city center. When Post SV Detmold and TSV Detmold played against each other, people often talked about the Detmold local derby. After the merger of the two clubs, gaming has been continued under the name Post TSV Detmold since the beginning of the 2015/2016 game series, with the first men's team playing in the district league . In youth football, SV Eintracht Jerxen-Orbke is currently the city's strongest representative. The C-Juniors play in the regional league, the B- and A-Juniors in the district league.
The poets and writers Ferdinand Freiligrath (1810–1876) and Georg Weerth (1822–1856) are among the most famous personalities born in Detmold . Christian Dietrich Grabbe (1801–1836), one of the most important poets of Vormärz literature, also comes from Detmold . Best known internationally is Leopold Zunz (1794–1886), the founder of Jewish science and pioneer of the emancipation of Jews in Germany. Joseph Plaut (1879–1966) was an actor, performing artist, singer and local poet. Also born in Detmold are the classical philologist Manfred Fuhrmann (* 1925 in OT Hiddesen), the art historian Hans Ottomeyer (* 1946), director of the German Historical Museum in Berlin, the actress Iris Berben (* 1950), the SPD politician and 12th Federal President Frank-Walter Steinmeier (* 1956) and Andreas Voßkuhle (* 1963), the 9th President of the Federal Constitutional Court.
Important personalities who lived and worked in Detmold for a long time were the composers Albert Lortzing (1801–1851) and Johannes Brahms (1833–1897), the politician and district president Heinrich Drake (1881–1970), the resistance fighter Felix Fechenbach (1894– 1933) and the bass baritone Thomas Quasthoff (* 1959).
In addition to politicians, the city's honorary citizens also include scientists and artists who worked in Detmold. The most famous of these are the builder of the Hermann Monument, Ernst von Bandel (1871), Reich Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (1895) and Reich President Paul von Hindenburg (1917).
Further personalities of Detmold can be found in the list of personalities of the city of Detmold linked above .
Detmold as namesake
The name Detmold is found as the name of ships and aircraft. The Detmold fishing steamer was commissioned in 1949, was in service until 1961 and was scrapped in 1962. From 1959 a minesweeper of the Vegesack class was named Detmold. On October 20, 1983, an Airbus A 310 with the registration D-AICD was christened Detmold. From 1995 to 2014 the Boeing 737-300 with the registration D-ABEW carried the name Detmold.
- Heinz Stoob , Wilfried Ehbrecht (ed.): Westphalian city atlas. Volume V, 2nd part volume: Bevergern, Detmold, Freienohl, Hallenberg, Rietberg. On behalf of the Historical Commission for Westphalia and with the support of the Westphalia-Lippe Regional Association. GSV Städteatlas-Verlag, Altenbeken 1997, ISBN 3-89115-142-X .
- Herbert Stöwer: Detmold city map. GSV Städteatlas-Verlag, Dortmund-Altenbeken 1996, ISBN 3-89115-139-X .
- Christian Kuhnke : Lippe Lexicon. Places, people, landscapes, history, sights, companies. Boken Verlag, Detmold 2000, ISBN 3-935454-00-7 .
- City of Detmold (ed.): Detmold in the post-war period. Documentation of an urban history project (= special publications of the Natural Science and Historical Association for the State of Lippe eV Volume 41). Arranged by Wolfgang Müller u. a. Aisthesis-Verlag, Bielefeld 1994, ISBN 3-925670-94-7 .
- Documentation center for regional cultural and school history (ed.): Lippe in the Third Reich. The education for National Socialism. A documentation. 1933-1939. Topp and Möller, Detmold 1984; 2nd Edition. 1987, OCLC 316138855 .
- Heinz Meyer: Back then. The Second World War between Teutoburg Forest, Weser and Leine. Verlag K. W. Schütz, Preußisch Oldendorf 1980; 2., verb. Edition. ibid 1982, ISBN 3-87725-094-7 .
- Wilhelm Rinne (Ed.): Lippe. 24 tables (= regional studies in North Rhine-Westphalia in three parts. Part 1). On behalf of the Lippe Heimatbund. Greeting from Johannes Rau . Foreword by Walter Stich. Contribution by Jürgen Baral u. a. Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 1993, ISBN 3-506-76111-0 .
- Detmold: A walk through Detmold - history and art with a city map. A walk through Detmold with town map. 2nd Edition. Decard-Verlag, June 2006 (German, English).
- Homepage of the website of the city of Detmold
- Image archive - historical images of the city of Detmold
- Herbert Penke: House inscriptions in the city of Detmold. In: nhv-ahnenforschung.de. The genealogical evening. Scientific and historical association for the state of Lippe e. V.
- Detmold in the Westphalia Culture Atlas
- Information on the archive of the city of Detmold
References and comments
- Population of the municipalities of North Rhine-Westphalia on December 31, 2019 - update of the population based on the census of May 9, 2011. State Office for Information and Technology North Rhine-Westphalia (IT.NRW), accessed on June 17, 2020 . ( Help on this )
- Karl Wehrhan : Lippische Kinderlieder. II. Education, discipline, teaching and punishment. In: Journal of the Association for Rhenish and Westphalian Folklore . Volume 2, Issue 2, 1905, p. 116 ( dfg-viewer.de [digitized version of the University and City Library of Cologne , accessed on September 23, 2018]).
- Geological Service NRW: Using geothermal energy - geothermal study provides planning basis ( Memento of September 14, 2005 in the Internet Archive ). (PDF; 360 kB) In: nrw.de, accessed on March 4, 2020.
- State Office for Data Processing and Statistics North Rhine-Westphalia : Kommunalprofil Detmold, Stadt. (PDF; 314 kB) District Lippe, administrative district Detmold, type of municipality: large medium-sized town. (No longer available online.) In: it.nrw.de. September 21, 2015, p. 3 , archived from the original on January 25, 2016 ; accessed on December 3, 2018 .
- Main statutes of the city of Detmold. (PDF; 101 kB) dated December 5, 1995 (last changed by the 24th amendment by October 2, 2019). In: detmold.de, accessed on March 4, 2020.
- As of August 1, 2006 (unless otherwise stated).
- City of Detmold. Climate diagrams ( Memento from March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: stadtdetmold.de, March 4, 2016, accessed on October 5, 2016.
- Johannes Piderit: Chronicon Commitatus Lippiae, chap. II, p. 15.
- Jürgen Udolph : onenological studies on the German problem (= Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde - supplementary volumes . Volume 9). de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1994, ISBN 3-11-014138-8 , p. 588 (for a fee. Germanic antiquity online at de Gruyter ).
- Karl Baedeker : Freiburg, short city guide. Baedeker, Freiburg 1974, .
- Resident in Detmold (from 1776) ( Memento from June 3, 2006 in the Internet Archive ). In: stadtgeschichte.com, accessed on October 5, 2016.
- Lemgo still bears this traditional surname, which does not have a negative connotation.
- Names of the victims of the witch trials / witch persecution in Detmold. (PDF; 874 kB). In: anton-praetorius.de, accessed on June 17, 2016.
- Ingo Koppenborg: The social function of urban witch trials. The residence town of Detmold in Lippe 1599–1669. In: witch hunt and regional history. The county of Lippe in comparison (= studies on regional history. Volume 4; Contributions to the history of the city of Lemgo. Volume 4). Edited by Gisela Wilbertz , Gerd Schwerhoff, Jürgen Scheffler. Publishing house for regional history, Bielefeld 1994, ISBN 3-89534-109-6 , p. 184.
- Memorial Book. Search in the name directory. Search for: Detmold - Residence. In: bundesarchiv.de, accessed on October 6, 2016 (search for Detmold - residence).
- Christian Kuhnke: Lippe Lexikon. Boken Verlag, Detmold 2000, ISBN 3-935454-00-7 .
- Memory of the victims of the Nazi terror. First "stumbling block" in Detmold. In: lippe-aktuell.de, May 14, 2011, issue no. 19B, accessed December 8, 2015.
- Herberhausen district development. (No longer available online.) In: dt-herberhausen.de. 2006, archived from the original on September 10, 2007 ; Retrieved June 9, 2013 .
- City of Detmold: Results of the referendum against the Lustgarten II shopping center ( Memento from January 21, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: stadtdetmold.de, accessed on October 5, 2016.
- (sk): Lippische Landes-Zeitung : The new department store on Langen Strasse opens on September 25th. In: lz.de. Lippische Landes-Zeitung, September 17, 2014, accessed on January 20, 2016.
- City portrait of the project "Reformation cities of Europe": Reformation city of Detmold. Germany. Unity in reconciled diversity. In: reformation-cities.org/cities. accessed on November 6, 2017. For the significance of Detmold in the history of the Reformation see the sections Reformation and Thirty Years War and Christians as well as the city portrait of the project “ European Station Path ”: Lemgo. Detmold / Lemgo - Free together. In: r2017.org/europaeischer-stationweg. accessed on October 3, 2016.
- Martin Bünermann: The communities of the first reorganization program in North Rhine-Westphalia . Deutscher Gemeindeverlag, Cologne 1970, p. 104 f .
- City of Detmold: residents ( Memento from March 6, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: stadtdetmold.de, accessed on October 6, 2016.
- Demography Report City of Detmold ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). (PDF; 3.2 MB), p. 10; for primary school children 18.2%, p. 25. In: stadtdetmold.de, accessed on October 6, 2016.
- State statistical office of North Rhine-Westphalia: Municipal statistics of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Part 4: Population development 1816–1871 (= contributions to the statistics of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia. Special series of the population census. [Bg.] 1961. H. 3d). Düsseldorf 1966, , p. 211.
- State Statistical Office of North Rhine-Westphalia: Municipal statistics of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia: Population development 1871–1961 (= contributions to the statistics of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia. Special series of the population census. 1961. Issue 3c). Düsseldorf 1964, , pp. 358-359.
- State Office for Data Processing and Statistics North Rhine-Westphalia: Special series on the 1987 population census in North Rhine-Westphalia. Volume 1.1: Population, private households and employed persons. Düsseldorf 1989, , p. 110.
- Landesdatenbank NRW: Election results for the Detmold municipality code: 05766020. In: landesdatenbank.nrw.de, accessed on October 6, 2016.
- Landesbetrieb Information und Technik NRW: Election results in NRW. Local elections from 1946. In: wahlen.lsd.nrw.de, accessed on October 6, 2016.
- Bündnis 90 / DIE GRÜNEN Detmold: 20 years of Bündnis 90 / DIE GRÜNEN in Detmold. A (small) documentation ( Memento from October 17, 2004 in the Internet Archive ). (PDF; 1.8 MB). In: gruene-detmold.de, May 2002, accessed on October 6, 2016 (p. 60: election results of B'90 / DIE GRÜNEN in Detmold 1980–2000).
- Municipal data center Minden-Ravensberg / Lippe: Results of the 2014 council election. In: wahl.krz.de, accessed on October 6, 2016.
- City of Detmold. Council election May 25, 2014. Overall result. In: Wahl.krz.de, accessed on October 6, 2016.
- City of Detmold. Election of the mayor. May 25, 2014. Overall result. In: Wahl.krz.de, accessed on October 6, 2016.
- City of Detmold. Election of the mayor. May 25, 2014. Voter turnout overall result. In: Wahl.krz.de, accessed on October 6, 2016.
- For the official description of the coat of arms, see Section 2, Paragraph 1 of the Main Statute of the City of Detmold. (PDF; 101 kB) dated December 5, 1995 (last changed by the 24th amendment by October 2, 2019). In: detmold.de, accessed on March 4, 2020: “A white city fortification in red; Above a crenellated wall, which is provided with two free-standing crosses at the ends and two Lippe roses (red with yellow slugs) on shields in front of the central crenellated openings, an archway opens between two three-storey crenellated towers, which has a Lippe rose (red with yellow Slug) on a white background. Above the archway is a central tower with a pointed roof with a cross on the top and a ball on each of the two roof ends. "
- Detmold - In the middle of Europe. (No longer available online.) In: detmold.de. 2017, archived from the original on November 7, 2017 ; accessed on March 4, 2020 .
- Peter Lohmann: Avarice is illegal. In: WDR 2 . 2003.
- Ministry of the Interior ofRhine-Westphalia : Compensation for municipal representatives remains the same for everyone - No special permit for Detmold Council - Behrens: Use other ways to save. Press release. (No longer available online.) In: mik.nrw.de. July 9, 2003, archived from the original on March 12, 2014 ; accessed on December 3, 2018 .
- Kerstin Roth: Capital of Culture 2010: The Lippe District? Confident application with culture from the region. In: WDR . February 12, 2004, archived from the original on October 5, 2009 ; Retrieved March 27, 2004 .
- Detmold gives up, Braunschweig gets Stölzl. From dpa. In: Welt Online . March 27, 2004, accessed October 6, 2016.
- Alte Pauline -Homepage In: altepauline.blogsport.eu, accessed on October 6, 2016.
- Sven Koch: The city should review subsidies for its own real estate. Clubs and associations sometimes pay different fees. In: Lippische Landes-Zeitung. April 19, 2012, accessed October 6, 2016.
- No majority for the sale of the "Alte Pauline". Free voters fail with their application. In: Lippische Landes-Zeitung. February 27, 2012, accessed October 6, 2016.
- Milestones - THOMAS QUASTHOFF. Retrieved March 11, 2019 .
- Presence of the House of Lippe. Retrieved March 11, 2019 .
- Detmold. Allee with Friedrichstaler Canal ( Memento from March 11, 2014 in the Internet Archive ). In: stadtdetmold.de, accessed on October 3, 2016 (June calendar sheet [no year] with detailed historical information).
- Official website ISFF Detmold. In: fest-der-filme.de, accessed on October 3, 2016.
- History of the August-Hermann-Francke schools in Lippe. In: csv-lippe.de. Retrieved April 10, 2019 .
- Annual report 2012 ( memo from February 9, 2018 in the Internet Archive ). In: weidmueller.de, accessed on June 20, 2017.
- Annualconference 2017 ( Memento from August 14, 2018 in the Internet Archive ). In: weidmueller.de, accessed on June 20, 2017.
- Westfalen-Blatt, Bielefeld: The slightly different insurance broker . In: Supraregional / NRW / Economy . ( westfalen-blatt.de [accessed on March 14, 2018]).
- Refreshments with a point or handle: drinks from Detmold. (No longer available online.) In: lwl.org. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016 ; accessed on December 3, 2018 (on the history of the brewery). See also Sinalco homepage. In: sinalco.de, accessed on October 3, 2016.
- Founding history of TSV Detmold ( Memento of May 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) and success archive . 1947–2006 ( Memento of May 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). In: tsv-detmold.com, accessed on October 3, 2016.
- Sebastian Lucas: Post-SV Detmold and TSV Detmold want to merge. In: Lippische Landeszeitung . February 17, 2015, accessed January 31, 2016.
- Cuxhaven fish steamer and their crews! In: schifffahrtsgeschichte.de, accessed on February 12, 2020 (press report by Dieter Kokot in the Cuxhavener Nachrichten of May 7, 2016).
- Lippische Landes-Zeitung . October 21, 1983.
- Site Search. D-ABEW. In: planespotters.net, accessed March 3, 2020.
- Lippische Landes-Zeitung . 15th July 2014.