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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Kulmbach
Map of Germany, position of the city of Kulmbach highlighted

Coordinates: 50 ° 6 '  N , 11 ° 27'  E

Basic data
State : Bavaria
Administrative region : Upper Franconia
County : Kulmbach
Height : 304 m above sea level NHN
Area : 92.79 km 2
Residents: 25,866 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 279 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 95326
Area code : 09221
License plate : KU, EBS , SAN
Community key : 09 4 77 128
City structure: 76 districts

City administration address :
Marktplatz 1
95326 Kulmbach
Website : www.kulmbach.de
Lord Mayor : Ingo Lehmann ( SPD )
Location of the city of Kulmbach in the district of Kulmbach
Bayreuth Landkreis Kronach Landkreis Hof Landkreis Bayreuth Landkreis Lichtenfels Mainleus Wonsees Wirsberg Untersteinach Trebgast Thurnau Rugendorf Neuenmarkt Neudrossenfeld Kulmbach Ködnitz Kasendorf Himmelkron Harsdorf Guttenberg (Oberfranken) Grafengehaig Presseck Stadtsteinach Marktschorgast Marktleugast Ludwigschorgast Kupferberg Thüringenmap
About this picture

Kulmbach is a large district town in the Upper Franconian district of Kulmbach and the seat of the district office. It is located on the Main , about 20 km north of Bayreuth .

The city is known for the local brewery , the Plassenburg , which houses the German Museum of Pewter Figures, the largest collection of pewter figures in the world, and for the bratwurst produced in Kulmbach .


Traffic map from 1912 with Franconian Forest in the upper right corner

Geographical location

Kulmbach is located in the middle of the Bavarian administrative district of Upper Franconia, about 25 km northwest of Bayreuth . The distance to Hof , Bamberg and Coburg is about the same. On the western edge of the city, the two source rivers, the Red and the White Main , create the Main .

City structure

The city of Kulmbach is divided into 76 districts:


First settlement and Count of Schweinfurt

A small settlement in today's Spiegel district is known from around 900 AD, which consisted of a forester's yard and a reinforced courtyard to protect the Main crossing at the Grünwehr. The area later passed to the Counts of Schweinfurt , who were mostly represented by the whale pots in the exercise of power.

The name Kulmbach was first mentioned as kulma in a deed of donation in the Alcuin Bible between 1028 and 1040. The name comes from a stream that comes down from the mountain (Culmin-aha, Culmna). This brook was later renamed coal brook due to a misunderstanding.

Counts of Dießen-Andechs

Old map with the area Bamberg (below) to Kulmbach (above) from the 16th century. The map is strongly distorted to the east (top)

When the male line of the Schweinfurt counts died out, Kulmbach came to the Dießen-Andechser family through the marriage of the heiress Gisela with Count Arnold von Dießen .

The counts acquired further areas around Kulmbach, built the first fortress Plassenburg in the first third of the twelfth century and founded a market settlement and a church in what is now the Upper Town. The Andechser received in 1180 by Emperor Barbarossa the Imperial Prince, and the title of duke of Meranien after Marano between Venice and Trieste (now Marano ). Around 1231 Kulmbach received city rights. Instead of the old Plassenburg, the location of which is not certain, the dukes built a new castle on a mountain spur above Kulmbach. With the last Duke of Merania, Otto II, who died childless in 1248, the rule of the Meranians ended .

The Plassenburg from above

Orlamünder and Hohenzollern (until 1553)

After years of inheritance disputes, the rule of Plassenburg and thus Kulmbach fell to the Thuringian counts of Orlamünde in 1260 . The Orlamünder completed the new Plassenburg and founded the Himmelkron monastery . Finally they pawned the castle and town. In 1340, after the death of the last Orlamünde, the burgraves of Nuremberg from the Hohenzollern family took over Kulmbach and Plassenburg on the basis of a contract .

Until the 17th century, the Plassenburg was the residence of the burgrave office, later of the Hohenzollern principality of Kulmbach (also: Brandenburg-Kulmbach , or after 1604 Brandenburg-Bayreuth ). Due to the favorable location on the old and escort roads to Bamberg , Nuremberg , Eger , Hof and Leipzig, trade flourished in the city - guilds of cloth makers, barch weavers , dyers and silk embroiderers were formed. In the year 1398 there were 1,500 to 2,000 inhabitants in Kulmbach, this can be taken from a castle count's inventory of land, houses and taxes. The city was ruled by a stately bailiff, the mayor and a council of respected citizens.

After the transfer of the prince's privilege in 1363, the electoral dignity and the possession of the Mark Brandenburg in 1415, all Franconian Hohenzollern called themselves Margraves of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. From 1411 to 1529 Kulmbacher was Chancellor at the head of the administration of the Mark Brandenburg (Friedrich Stuhlmann, Sigismund Zehrer and Sebastian Stublinger).

On January 31, 1430, the Hussites set fire to the city.

In the course of the rebuilding of the largely destroyed city, the Petrikirche was also rebuilt in late Gothic style, in which the first Protestant service was celebrated under Margrave Georg the Pious in 1528.

Before 1573 there was a medieval leprosy in Kulmbach ; Later the Nikolaus Chapel still existed, which was enlarged in 1666.

The Konraditag

Margrave Albrecht Alcibiades wanted to bring all of Franconia under his rule and to found a Frankish duchy. With this he drew opposition from the dioceses of Bamberg and Würzburg, which allied with the Free Imperial City of Nuremberg. In the Federal State War , also called (2nd) Markgräflerkrieg, this alliance took Kulmbach on November 26th, 1553 (named after St. Konrad von Konstanz ) and plundered the city (→ Siege of Kulmbach and the Plassenburg ). On October 21, 1554, the Plassenburg, whose occupation had withstood the enemy until then, was set on fire and destroyed. The battle is re-enacted in the German Tin Figure Museum in Kulmbach.

View over Kulmbach, Plassenburg and city center

Hohenzollern (after 1553) and Prussia

From 1557 the city was rebuilt under the new Margrave Georg Friedrich, and in 1559 the reconstruction of the Plassenburg into one of the most important Renaissance buildings in Germany began. However, Georg Friedrich's successor, Margrave Christian, moved the seat of the residence to neighboring Bayreuth in 1604 , as the Plassenburg no longer met the ideas of courtly absolutism, but also completed the construction of the fortress. The residence was later moved back to Kulmbach several times, once in 1605 because of a fire in Bayreuth and then during the Thirty Years' War for security reasons. As a Protestant city, Kulmbach was also sacked by the imperial troops, but the Plassenburg turned out to be impregnable.

After the residence was finally relocated to Bayreuth in 1642, Kulmbach lost its political importance. Thus, no significant facts can be found over the following years. When Margrave Carl Friedrich Alexander sold the Margraviate Brandenburg-Bayreuth to his cousin, the King of Prussia , because of his lover Lady Elizabeth Craven , Kulmbach also became Prussian on January 16, 1791. The Plassenburg was used as a camp for French prisoners of war in the following years.

French and Bavarians (1806–1933)

Since the Plassenburg represented a strategic obstacle for the French and Bavarian troops who went to war against Prussia in 1806, the city of Kulmbach was occupied in October and November 1806. After the capitulation of their Prussian occupation, the defensive walls of the Plassenburg were razed to make it militarily worthless as a fortress. Finally, in 1810, Kulmbach was awarded Bavaria. In 1846 the city got a connection to the König- Ludwig-Süd-Nord-Bahn . This resulted in enormous economic growth because it made the export of goods much easier. The number of breweries grew to 26 by 1882.

In 1890 Kulmbach became an independent city.

time of the nationalsocialism

The NSDAP also took power in Kulmbach in 1933, and the Reich School of German Technology was established on the Plassenburg . For this, Kulmbach got a motorway connection, the beginning of today's federal motorway 70 . At the beginning of 1945, Kulmbach was taken by American troops without a fight .

After 1945

During the district reform on July 1, 1972, the districts of Kulmbach and Stadtsteinach were merged. Kulmbach was designated as the seat of the district.

21st century

In 2010 the 5th Franconian Day took place in Kulmbach , with the motto Enjoy Franconia .


On January 1, 1902, the previously independent municipality of Blaich was incorporated. On April 1, 1946, Kauernburg, Mangersreuth and Metzdorf were added. Burghaig followed on July 1, 1972. Höferänger, who was called Unterdornlach until 1955, was added on January 1, 1974. Kirchleus, Lehenthal, Lösau and Oberdornlach followed on January 1, 1976. Katschenreuth, Leuchau (excluding Langenstadt, which was incorporated on January 1, 1972) and Melkendorf completed the series of incorporations on July 1, 1976.

Population numbers / population development

  • City center: approx. 8655
  • Settlement Am Galgenberg : approx. 4224
  • Industrial area: approx. 123
  • Pörbitsch: approx. 754
  • Blaich: around 2029
  • Kauernburg: approx. 584
  • Pond: approx. 639
  • Herlas: approx. 526
  • Forstlahm: approx. 622
  • Leuchau: approx. 459
  • Wickenreuth: approx. 68
  • Mangersreuth: approx. 904
  • Donnersreuth / Gößmannsreuth: approx. 103
  • Ober- / Unterzettlitz: approx. 172
  • Windischenhaig / Hitzmain / Aff .: approx. 320
  • Katschenreuth: approx. 887
  • Melkendorf: approx. 730
  • Seidenhof: approx. 451
  • Burghaig: approx. 171
  • Petzmannsberg: approx. 1898
  • Metzdorf: approx. 723
  • Brickworks: around 1369
  • Niederndobrach: approx. 214
  • Court ringers: approx. 219
  • Lehenthal: approx. 284
  • Baumgarten: approx. 133
  • Grafendobrach: approx. 167
  • Losau: approx. 126
  • Kirchleus: approx. 288
  • Ober- / Unterdornlach: approx. 194
  • Altenreuth / Höfstätten: approx. 59

At the census on May 9, 2011, the population of the large district town of Kulmbach was 26,678.

In the period from 1988 to 2018, the population fell from 27,116 to 25,915 or by 4.4%. On December 31, 1996, the city had 28,488 inhabitants.

Historical view of Kulmbach


The incumbent Lord Mayor Lehmann (2020)

Lord Mayor

City council

The local elections since 2002 led to the following allocation of seats in parliament:

Party / list 2002 2008 2014 2020
CSU 11 10 11 9
SPD 12 9 9 8th
GREEN / Open List 1 3 2 4th
Kulmbach voter community 6th 7th 7th 6th
FDP - 1 1 1
AfD - - - 2
total 30th 30th 30th 30th
Distribution of seats
A total of 30 seats
A total of 30 seats
A total of 30 seats
A total of 30 seats

Town twinning

GermanyGermanyWith Lüneburg (Lower Saxony) is a town friendship since 1967th

Leisure, culture and sights


Flagging the old town of Kulmbach (here in Spitalgasse) on the occasion of the beer festival
  • German Tin Figure Museum Plassenburg
  • State Museums Plassenburg with
    • Army Museum of Frederick the Great
    • Landscape Museum Obermain in Plassenburg with a replica of the Ebstorf world map and the departments Reformation , destruction of Kulmbach in 1553 and reconstruction of the old royal seat . The Pörbitsch treasure , which was found again during construction work in 1912, is gold and silver crockery belonging to the wealthy Gutteter family, who had it buried in their garden during the Thirty Years' War.
  • The bath house is one of eight scientifically researched bath rooms in Germany. The areas of the bathroom, changing room and relaxation room, bathroom and boiler room have been restored and give an impression of the bathing habits of the Middle Ages. Works by young artists from the region are exhibited in an open gallery on the upper floor.
  • Bavarian Brewery and Bakery Museum : Beer has been brewed in the Kulmbacher Mönchshof for over 600 years. The former Mönchshof brewery, the Mönchshof restaurant with a large beer garden and the museum are housed on the site. Various diagrams and historical machines, bottles and other equipment give an insight into the Bavarian brewing industry. In the museum itself there is a small glass brewery, every guest receives a glass of museum beer (0.2 liters) after the visit. Since 2008, the bakery museum has also been attached, where you can find an original bakery among other things.
  • The third museum in the Kulmbacher Mönchshof is the German Spice Museum. The museum presents mysticism and magic, enjoyment and the history of spices on over 1,000 square meters of exhibition space. Spices with their aromas and scents have always been the epitome of refinement in food. Exotic spices such as pepper, cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon and vanilla have long been sought-after luxury goods. In the past, pepper was so valuable that it was outweighed by gold and gave rise to wars. In the new museum, however, visitors can walk peacefully in the footsteps of Marco Polo and the Nuremberg merchants. You will explore the route of the spices from the country of origin to the shop on the corner and experience the magic of the spices with all your senses.
  • Open-air museum "Alter Friedhof"


Old town

Since industrialization, urban redevelopments have resulted in more or less major losses of historical building fabric. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, these construction measures still applied to the establishment of industrial plants and boulevards, but in the 1960s in particular, the goal was to equip Kulmbach's city center with modern business areas and contemporary transport connections. Today it is mostly the dilapidated condition of the houses in question, which makes a renovation in line with historical monuments technically and financially difficult and thus leads to the demolition of the objects (e.g. Unteres Stadtgässchen 4). Nevertheless, the historical city center of Kulmbach has largely been preserved. The ensemble of the old town is shaped by the reconstruction from the second half of the 16th century (i.e. after the destruction in 1553) and therefore shows a remarkable stylistic unity in places. According to the fashion prevailing in the 16th century, the houses were built in the Renaissance style during the immediate reconstruction period, and if the construction time falls into the 17th century, early Baroque forms can also be found. Since the buildings were built on existing foundations and parcels, the city plan is much older than the development itself.

Buildings have been included in the following list either because of their importance for the manorial and urban life of Kulmbach or because of their architectural quality:

Romanesque / Gothic

Entrance to the hospital church
  • The Petrikirche is a former fortified church whose construction time is unsecured. A pastor's office in Kulmbach was first mentioned in 1174; it can be assumed that the pastor worked in the Petrikirche. The church tower served at times as a cannon platform , it was only later that it was given a pointed roof. After the destruction in the Hussite War in 1439, it was rebuilt as a late Gothic hall church . In 1878/80 it was given a neo-Gothic interior . The altar of Brenk and Schlehdorn as well as numerous valuable paintings are remarkable . It is the grave church of the Hohenzollern rule.
  • The city fortifications along the shooting trench and the fortress hill date from the early 14th century. Five city towers are still preserved:
    • The White Tower was built in the 14th century and remodeled in the 17th century. It was used as a guilt prison until the 19th century.
    • The Bürgerloch is only preserved as a ruin. Together with the neighboring White Tower, the Bürgerloch was a double tower gate system.
    • As an architectural feature, the Red Tower has a roof structure designed as a curved pointed helmet.
    • The Heiling sword tower from the 14th century is a round shell tower and is part of the city fortifications on the shooting trench.
    • The Fronvestenturm
    • The humpback square tower


  • The most important building is the Kulmbach Plassenburg , one of the largest fortresses of the Renaissance in Germany. It is also the origin of the legend of the White Woman .
  • Most of the castle estates of the city of Kulmbach date from the late 16th century. The Künßbergsche Schlösslein and the Burggut Waaggasse 5 are particularly noteworthy.
  • The bath house was first mentioned in a document in 1398. It has been scientifically researched and restored, today it partly serves as a gallery (see also under museums).
  • The margravial chancellery was built in 1562/1563 according to plans by Caspar Vischer . The imposing building is at the top of the Upper City.
  • Most of the town houses were built in the decades around 1600, especially if the houses are half-timbered, there are examples of remarkable designs and designs on many facades.
  • Rehturm (also called Rehbergturm), a waiting and signal tower built on the Rehberg in 1498, which was raised to 30 m in 1891 and has since been used as a lookout tower .

Baroque / Rococo / Margrave style

Catholic Church "To Our Lady" at the shooting pit, also called ULF .
Interior of the Catholic parish church "To Our Lady"
  • The Langheimer Amtshof was built by Leonhard Dientzenhofer at the end of the 17th century . Today it serves as a training center for the Academy for New Media and the vocational school for pharmaceutical-technical assistants .
  • The Zinsfelderbrunnen was built in 1660. The figure of the interest field standing on the fountain column symbolizes market freedom . This fountain originally stood on the market square, but is now on the wood market.
  • The hospital church was built in 1738/1739 in place of the Elisabethenkapelle.
  • The Kulmbach town hall was built in 1752. The plans for the rococo facade come from the Bayreuth court architect Joseph Saint-Pierre , who designed a facade for the building under the influence of the Bayreuth margrave. The previous town hall, which was later demolished, dates from between 1500 and 1530 and was destroyed in the Federal War .
    • To the left of the entrance portal, the iron Kulmbach foot (29 cm) is embedded in the wall and to the right of it the Kulmbach cubit (83 cm). They were common measures of length in earlier times.
  • Opposite the margravial chancellery is the princess house, which was built in 1722 for the margravine Christiane Sophie. She was exiled to Kulmbach because she had two illegitimate children.

Historicism / Art Nouveau

  • The Luitpold Fountain on the market square was built in Art Nouveau style in 1896–1899 based on a joint competition design by the architect Martin Dülfer and the sculptor Eduard Beyrer in honor of the Prince Regent Luitpold and inaugurated on March 12, 1899. During the time of National Socialism , the Luitpoldbrunnen was dismantled and stored and rebuilt in 1994. Surrounded by the town hall, market square, numerous cafes and shops, it forms one of the sociable focal points of Kulmbach.
  • The Catholic parish church of Our Lady was built in 1894 according to plans by Bruno Specht in neo-Gothic style. Before that, the hospital church was also open as a simultaneous church for Catholic masses.
  • In Kronacher Strasse, in Kressenstein and at Schießgraben there are richly decorated town houses and villas from the Wilhelminian era, for example the Sandlervilla.
  • The old cemetery with its gravestones from different eras reflects the history of the city. In front of it stands the memorial for those who died in the wars on a main street.


  • As almost completely preserved historical ensembles, the market square, the Obere Stadt, the Röhrenplatz, the Spitalgasse and the Oberhacken are worth seeing.
Kulmbach old town by night - Upper town, market square and central parking lot

Architectural monuments

Regular events

  • The Bavarian State Ministry of the Interior and the Upper Franconia Police Headquarters , in cooperation with Antenne Bayern and the Kulmbacher Brewery, organize a motorcycle rally to Kulmbach every spring . It is the largest motorcycle meeting in southern Germany and took place for the 18th time in 2018.
  • Kulmbacher Volksfest in May
  • Three-day old town festival, in large areas of the city center, in July
  • Blaicher Kerwa, in June
  • Kulmbacher Oldtimer-Treffen, in June, excursion with a limited number of participants, unlimited vehicle exhibition on Sunday.
  • On Gregori day in July, the students from all Kulmbach elementary schools move to the town hall square and celebrate the Gregori festival.
  • The Kulmbacher Beer Week of the Kulmbacher Brewery has been taking place at the end of July / beginning of August since 1939 .
  • Christmas market (1st Advent weekend, Friday to Sunday)
  • On Christmas Eve, Kulmbachers and former Kulmbachers meet in the morning for a morning pint in the Upper City. The road is closed and several thousand visitors come to meet friends and acquaintances who have not been seen for a long time.
  • Mönchshof Triathlon

Culinary specialties

The Kulmbach cooperative brewery Kommunbräu in an old mill

In addition to the usual Upper Franconian specialties, the Kulmbacher Bratwurst should be emphasized; it consists of a very fine meatloaf and is served in an aniseed roll, the so-called bratwurst stollen. The bratwursts are preferably eaten at one of the numerous bratwurst stands in town. The strong beer EKU 28, brewed by Kulmbacher Brauerei AG , is also known far beyond the city limits. For years it was considered the strongest beer in the world. The city of Kulmbach also owes its reputation as a food location to the Max Rubner Institute (Federal Institute for Food Safety, formerly Federal Institute for Meat Research), which has been greatly enhanced since the BSE scandal.



Kulmbach is traditionally a production location for the food and beverage industry. One of the oldest Kulmbach companies is IREKS GmbH , which was founded in 1856 and is now internationally active, with the business areas of baking ingredients for bakers and confectioners, brewing malts, flavors, ice cream products and agricultural trade. The RAPS GmbH & Co. KG in several distributed over Kulmbach works produced spices for commercial applications. Relatively new on site are the biotechnical pharmacy in the form of Axolabs GmbH (part of the British LGC Group since March 2017 ), as well as the construction and sale of hot water and air conditioning devices, heat pumps, storage and direct heating devices, such as those of Glen Dimplex Deutschland GmbH manufactures. The AGO AG is on biomass and cogeneration plants specialized and heat and refrigeration plants with power-heat-cold coupling. Until 1996 the textile industry with the Kulmbacher spinning mill was a relevant branch of industry in Kulmbach.

"Fritz" shopping center - formerly Kulmbacher spinning mill
View of the bypass and E.-C.-Baumann-Straße


The Max Hundt elementary school in Kulmbach is one of the first ten all-day schools in Bavaria. There is the Markgraf-Georg-Friedrich -Gymnasium and the Caspar-Vischer-Gymnasium as well as the Carl-von-Linde- Realschule and the schools Hans-Wilsdorf -Schule (vocational school and business school) and Adalbert-Raps belonging to the vocational school center (BSZ) -School (vocational and technical college). Further educational institutions are the technical college for structural engineering, specializing in building construction, heating, ventilation and air conditioning technology (also at the BSZ), the academy for new media, the school for pharmaceutical technical assistants, the college for food technology (lemitec) and the Kulmbach municipal music school .

On June 20, 2017, the Bavarian Cabinet in the Kulmbach town hall decided to establish a seventh faculty at the University of Bayreuth. The “Life Sciences - Food & Health” faculty aims to research the sustainability and health of nutrition and food. The faculty campus in Kulmbach is to offer 1000 study places with 20 professorships on the former freight yard area. In addition to an enormous upgrading of the educational location, the city hopes for a recovery from the population decline of recent years. Completion is planned for 2019, the first matriculations should take place in 2020.



Kulmbach town hall with the traditional beer barrels on the occasion of the beer festival

Honorary citizen

sons and daughters of the town

In alphabetic order

Persons connected with Kulmbach

  • Christian Ludwig Bachmann (1763–1813), physician and musicologist
  • Hans Edelmann (1888–1973), local history researcher, was a teacher in Kulmbach and died there
  • Thomas Fuchsberger (1957–2010), pop singer, composer, director, photographer and author, drowned in Kulmbacher Mühlbach
  • Thomas Gottschalk (* 1950), moderator, grew up in Kulmbach
  • Konrad Haderlein (1932–2012), literary historian, poet and beekeeper in Canada, grew up in Kulmbach
  • Hugo Hesse (1855–1923), natural scientist, lived in Kulmbach from 1894 and died there
  • Christian Wilhelm von Krohnemann (1636–1686), fortress commander of the Plassenburg, died in Kulmbach
  • Caspar Walter Rauh (1912–1983), painter and draftsman, lived in Kulmbach from 1955 and died there
  • Matthäus Schneider (1877–1944), SPD politician, member of the state parliament, city council and trade union functionary, died in Dachau concentration camp
  • Johann Christoph Stierlein (1759–1827), cartographer, spent the time of his military career on the Plassenburg
  • Matthias Tretzscher (1626–1686), organ builder, founded an organ workshop in Kulmbach in 1654 and died there

Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach


Name sponsorships:

Kulmbach is also the name of an Airbus A321 operated by Deutsche Lufthansa with the registration D-AIRL. The name was transferred on November 3, 1995.

There is a sponsorship for the mine-hunting boat Kulmbach of the German Navy (mine-hunting boat class 333 - mine-hunting boat Kulmbach class ); the boat was decommissioned on March 31, 2012.


Web links

Commons : Kulmbach  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Kulmbach  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. "Data 2" sheet, Statistical Report A1200C 202041 Population of the municipalities, districts and administrative districts 1st quarter 2020 (population based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
  2. http://www.bayerische-landesbibliothek-online.de/orte/ortssuche_action.html ? Anzeige=voll&modus=automat&tempus=+20111031/163632&attr=OBJ&val= 1271
  3. Table of medieval leprosories in today's Bavaria, in: "Die Klapper", magazine of the Society for Leprosy, Münster 1995, accessed on August 25, 2017. In the original chapel "extended". ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.muenster.org
  4. ^ History of the city of Kulmbach on the city homepage
  5. ^ Wilhelm Volkert (ed.): Handbook of Bavarian offices, communities and courts 1799–1980 . CH Beck, Munich 1983, ISBN 3-406-09669-7 , p. 601 .
  6. ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 692 f .
  7. ^ City of Kulmbach - final result of the city council election
  8. City of Kulmbach - overall result of the 2020 city council election
  9. ^ City of Kulmbach - twin cities ...
  10. Birgit Tuchen, Public Bath Houses in Germany and Switzerland in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era, Michael-Imhof-Verlag, Petersberg 2003, ISBN 3-935590-72-5
  11. The demolition changes the cityscape . In: inFranken.de . ( infranken.de [accessed on January 6, 2018]).
  12. ^ Petrikirche near Kulmbach Tourism and Event Service
  13. a b Kulmbacher sights in Bavaria Online
  14. Red Tower near Kulmbach Tourism and Event Service
  15. Heilingschwertturm near Kulmbach in-house culture
  16. The Kulmbacher Badhaus on the municipal website
  17. ^ Half-timbered houses in the city of Kulmbach. Retrieved January 6, 2018 (German).
  18. From Luginsland to Rehberg on the private website starks-historische-spurensuche.de
  19. Spitalkirche near Kulmbach Tourism and Event Service
  20. The Kulmbach town hall on the city homepage
  21. Town Hall Kulmbach ( Memento of the original from October 6, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. on the city homepage @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / kulmbach.bayern-online.de
  22. ^ Deutsche Bauzeitung , Volume 33, 1899, No. 70 (from September 2, 1899), p. 437 f.
  23. current website
  24. Homepage of the vocational school center Kulmbach
  25. ^ University of Bayreuth: Resolved and announced: University of Bayreuth soon with a university campus in Kulmbach. Retrieved January 6, 2018 .
  26. Kulmbach on the way to the university town: New faculty for 1000 students is to be built . In: inFranken.de . ( infranken.de [accessed on January 6, 2018]).
  27. Important Kulmbacher on the city homepage