Fichtel Mountains


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Fichtel Mountains
The Fichtel Mountains in northeast Bavaria

The Fichtel Mountains in northeast Bavaria

Fichtelgebirge (from left to right) Ochsenkopf 1024 m, Schneeberg 1051 m & Köseine 939 m

Fichtelgebirge (from left to right) Ochsenkopf 1024 m, Schneeberg 1051 m & Köseine 939 m

Highest peak Schneeberg ( 1051  m above sea  level )
location Bavaria , Czech Republic
part of Thuringian-Franconian low mountain range
Classification according to Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany
Coordinates 50 ° 3 '  N , 11 ° 51'  E Coordinates: 50 ° 3 '  N , 11 ° 51'  E
surface approx. 1,600 km²
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The Fichtelgebirge ( Czech : Smrčiny ) is a low mountain range up to 1051 meters high in north-east Bavaria and north-west Czech Republic .

In 1971 the Fichtelgebirge nature park was created on an area of ​​1020 km² . Smaller parts of it are in the Přirodní park Smrčiny (German: Nature Park Fichtelgebirge) in the north-west of the Czech Republic . The southern area of ​​the Fichtelgebirge natural area, the Steinwald, is located in the Steinwald Nature Park .

geography

location

The Fichtel Mountains cover an area of ​​around 1,600 square kilometers. The vast majority of it extends to the east of the Bavarian administrative district of Upper Franconia (districts of Wunsiedel , Hof and Bayreuth ) and in the south-east it is part of the Bavarian administrative district of Upper Palatinate ( district of Tirschenreuth ). In addition, its north and south-eastern parts extend into Czech territory (for the location in relation to the surrounding mountains, see natural spatial structure ).

mountains

In the northwestern limb of the Fichtelgebirgshufeisens are its highest mountain, the Schneeberg (1051 m), to the west the long ridge of the Hohe Heide with its eponymous summit Hohe Heide (848 m), the Waldstein with the Großer Waldstein (877 m) and the striking Epprechtstein (798 m) and the Kornberg massif with the Great Kornberg (827 m). The Selber Forest with the Wartberg (688 m) and the Liebensteiner Forest with the Kühbühl (661 m) formed a final north-east leg until 1945. Today this leg consists of the Selber Forst and the Polenská vrchovina (German: Hirschfelder Hochland) with the Goethův vrch (German: Goethestein; 670 m). In the southeastern leg are the Steinwald with the Platte (946 m), the Reichsforst with the Steinberg (705 m) and the Kohlwald with the Sieben-Linden-Berg (643 m) on the German and the Výhledy (German: Oberkunreuthberg; 656 m) on the Czech side. In the south-western part between the two legs are the Ochsenkopf (1024 m), the Kosseine (939 m), the plateau-like Königsheide with the Hohberg (863 m) and the Nasse Heide (Kreuzstein group) with the Kreuzstein (838 m) (for more For mountains see mountains in the Hohe Fichtelgebirge and mountains on the Selb-Wunsiedler plateau ).

Natural structure

Fichtel Mountains and the surrounding area - natural spaces

Together with Thuringian Forest , Thuringian mountains and Frankenwald Fichtelgebirge forms the natural spatial feature unit group Thüringisch-Fraenkisches Mountain (main unit group no. 39). The horseshoe-shaped Fichtelgebirge in the narrower sense is the main unit Hohes Fichtelgebirge (main unit no.394), which surrounds the Selb-Wunsiedler plateau (main unit no.395) with the Selber forest on it from the north-west, south-west and south-east.

The section from Kornberg with Waldstein as the north ridge (394-A), the section from Schneeberg, Ochsenkopf, Königsheide and Köseine as the west ridge (394-A), the section from the Kosseine to the Steinwald as the Pilgramsreuther Sattel (394-B ), the stone forest with Reichsforst (northern stone forest) as stone forest (394-C), the cabbage forest as Lausnitzer Randberge (394-D) and the Selb-Wunsiedler plateau in the Selb-Wunsiedler hill country (395-A) and the Selber forest ( 395-B).

Since September 2010 there has been a new design of the natural areas of northeast Bavaria, in which the Hohe Fichtelgebirge, among other things, is divided into several independent natural areas.

On the northeastern edge of the Fichtelgebirge, the Rehauer Forest and the Elstergebirge join with the transition to the Ore Mountains , on the southeastern edge the Upper Palatinate Forest follows . The Franconian Forest and the Vogtland can be clearly demarcated geologically to the northwest and north . The same applies to the Franconian Bruchschollenland in the south-west. Traditionally, at least the southeastern part of the Münchberg plateau is assigned to the Fichtelgebirge, but this is geologically structured differently than the Fichtelgebirge and is therefore viewed as an independent natural unit. Thus, the Franconian Forest does not border directly on the Fichtelgebirge.

Geomorphological classification of the Czech Republic with Smrčiny (marked in red)

In the geomorphological structure of the neighboring country Czech Republic is defined in which no Elstergebirge instead be Ašská vrchovina (German: Ash Mountain region), Hazlovská pahorkatina (German: Haslauer hills) and Chebská pahorkatina (German: Eger hills) the Fichtelgebirge as a main unit Smrčiny (I3A -1) assigned. In addition, together with the Ore Mountains, it is assigned to the Krušnohorská hornatina (Ore Mountains in the broader sense) area and, together with the Egergraben, to the subprovince Krušnohorská subprovincie (Ore Mountains subprovince). Further superordinate units (in ascending order of precedence) are the province of Bohemian Massif ( Česká vysočina ), the subsystem Hercynian Mountains (roughly comparable to the low mountain range plus the Southwest German table ) and the system Hercynian system (also includes regions above buried varisticum north of the low mountain range) .

Important localities and traffic

Overview map with mountain massifs, villages and traffic routes in the Fichtel Mountains and in the immediate vicinity

One of the most important places in the Fichtelgebirge is Wunsiedel , the capital of the district of the same name , which is actually completely in the Fichtelgebirge and also has the largest area of ​​it. The largest cities with well over 10,000 inhabitants are Marktredwitz and Selb (for other localities see cities and municipalities ). Larger cities in the immediate vicinity are Hof in the north, Bayreuth in the west, Cheb (Eger) in the east and Weiden in the south.

With the Autobahn A 72 in the north, A 9 (section Hof – Bayreuth) in the west and A 93 (section Hof – Weiden) in the east, three major traffic arteries touch or cross the Fichtelgebirge. The most important east-west axis is the B 303 ( E 48 ). It leads via Marktredwitz and connects the A 9 with the A 93. This section of the B 303 is also known as the Fichtelgebirgsstraße . From Schirnding it continues as state road 6 via Cheb to the northeast.

An important railway junction in the Fichtelgebirge is the Marktredwitz train station with connections to Hof , Bayreuth and Cheb as well as direct connections to Regensburg , Nuremberg and Munich . The Cheb – Oberkotzau railway runs via Selb-Plößberg in the northeast of the Fichtelgebirge . In addition, the Bayreuth – Warmensteinach railway is one of the seven branch lines in the Fichtelgebirge , but only to Weidenberg .

With the Hof-Plauen airfield, there is also a small regional airport near the Fichtel Mountains.

cities and communes

Bavaria

The urban areas of the independent cities Hof and Bayreuth , classified as regional centers, are already a few kilometers outside the Fichtelgebirge. The following independent municipalities limit the physical Fichtelgebirge from the outside in a counterclockwise direction, starting in the north:

In the interior of the Fichtelgebirge are the following communities (or, in the case of places marked with an asterisk, only parts of the core town) , including the entire district of Wunsiedel in the Fichtelgebirge :

Czech Republic

Locations in the Czech Republic in and on the Fichtel Mountains (all in Okres Cheb ):

Hydrography

In earlier times the Fichtelgebirge was called the “Navel of Germany” or “Heart Fountain of Europe”, because four important rivers originate there and flow in four directions:

Saalequelle
Egerquelle
Source of the Fichtelnaab
Weißmainquelle

The European main watershed between the North Sea (Saale, Eger and Main) and the Black Sea (Naab) runs across the low mountain range .

Many ponds and ponds that were created for fish farming or for the water supply of the former hammer mills and mills still exist. Artificial reservoirs, partly created for recreational purposes, are

Larger ponds or ponds are the

Numerous bogs and swamps, which are under nature protection, are valuable water collectors.

Sufficient springs provide the residents with good drinking water. Cities further away such as Hof / Saale, Bayreuth or Eger (Cheb) get drinking water from the Fichtelgebirge.

On larger raised bogs there are still:

The bog areas were previously used economically for the extraction of peat for burning purposes, they are now nature reserves.

geology

granite

Granite rocks typically formed by wool sack weathering (Rudolfstein near Weißenstadt )
Edged granite blocks in the sea ​​of ​​rocks on the Haberstein , a secondary peak of the Schneeberg

Geologically , the mountain range consists essentially of granite . The history of its orogeny begins in the Precambrian around 750–800 million years ago - almost 20% of the earth's history , which only applies to a few of the still existing Rump Mountains.

At that time the area was covered by the sea and rivers transported the sediments from the no longer existing mountains to the coast , where it was deposited in layers of clay and sand , sometimes also as limestone . At the beginning of the Cambrian (around 570 million years ago) the layers were folded and lifted out of the sea as a new mountain range. High temperatures and pressure forces during this down to the Upper Carboniferous ongoing orogeny made up the rocks metamorphic rocks , that is, they were changed in composition and structure of clay was phyllite and mica schist , of sands quartzites and from the limestones of Wunsiedler marble . Due to severe erosion (the “young” mountains may have been a few kilometers high) it soon sank again below sea ​​level .

Variscical

In the Silurian , Devonian and Lower Carboniferous , those areas of the earth's crust, which are represented by today's Fichtel Mountains and the Franconian Forest , experienced the deposition of powerful deep-sea sediments and deep-sea volcanism (with ore formation ). These deposits and volcanic rocks in their approximately original form, including fossils that can be used for dating , are particularly well preserved in the Franconian Forest, since there they were subject to no or only very low-grade metamorphosis (anchimetamorphosis). In the Upper Carboniferous 285 million years ago the final phase of the Variscan orogeny began and the sediments and volcanic rocks were folded . This orogeny is named after Hof's Latin name (and the Varisker people?) Curia variscorum . Subsequently, glowing melts penetrated the folded rocks in several bursts , where they solidified deep below the surface of the earth to form today's granites . Due to the placement of the granites, the adjacent rock was mostly only slightly overprinted with contact metamorphosis . The pegmatites , which gave collectors and scientists rich mineral deposits , as well as ore and mineral veins , the basis for mining in the Middle Ages and in the early phase of industrialization , emerged from the residual melts with their ore-containing fluids .

After the end of orogeny, during the Upper Carboniferous as well as in the Lower Permian ( Rotliegend ), large amounts of rock debris were deposited in intramontane basins and in the foreland of the mountains. The basins were created by expansion tectonics , which was accompanied by intermediate to acidic volcanism . The sediments of the Rotliegend are only exposed in a few places, but can be proven over a large area by drilling under the Mesozoic overburden southwest of the Franconian Line . The post-Variscan volcanic rocks form quartz porphyry tunnels in the Fichtel Mountains .

Connections to the formation of the Alps

In the Neogene ( Young Tertiary , beginning 26 million years ago) the tectonics increased again, just as the alpine mountain formation ( Alps , Carpathians , etc.) slowly came to an end. During this time, parts of this and other old mountains (see Bohemian-Moravian Highlands or the Bohemian Massif in the Alpine Foreland ) came under younger rocks. In the Upper Miocene , ten million years ago, basalt melts broke through in the northern Upper Palatinate during the formation of the Eger Trench . Remains of former conveyor chimneys exposed by erosion are z. B. at Rauhen Kulm or at Parkstein near Weiden . Basaltic ceilings, i.e. extensive lava pourings of thinly flowing lava , can be observed , for example, on the Teichelberg near Pechbrunn . However, these basaltic nappes should not be confused with tectonic nappes.

The image of today's landscape was created in the later Pliocene about 5 million years ago: A Franconian fault line that had developed early came under pressure again and along it rose the Fichtelgebirge, Franconian Forest , the Münchberg gneiss mass and the northern Upper Palatinate Forest . This last uplift was again subject to erosion and the rivers cut deeply into the mountains, which had already been almost leveled. This is how a plateau became today's structure: a low mountain range gnawed on all sides with a long, changeful history. It represents an Eldorado for geoscientists in various disciplines , albeit often difficult to interpret .

Most important rocks in the Fichtel Mountains

The granite (lat. Granum for grain ) and its derivatives account for about 40% of the mountain surface. This rock, which is so solid, but still containing water, built the highest elevations. Its serious character and the early developed industry shape the landscape and the people.

There are the following types of granite:

  • Porphyry granite from the Weißenstadt / Liebenstein massif with Marktleuthen / Röslau and in the Czech Republic to Haslau . The porphyry contains biotite (dark mica) and sprinkles of potassium feldspar up to eight centimeters in size .
  • The Reutgranite at Gefrees , on the other hand, is finer, with a bluish-gray color. The Selber granite (northeast of the above massif near Schwarzenhammer over the Selber Forest and the Czech Republic to Saxony / Elster Mountains ) is fine-grained, but gray.
  • Holzmühlgranit: There are only two small deposits of it at Holzmühl, three kilometers southeast of Marktleuthen and at Längenau am Wartberg, east-northeast of Selb ; it has a medium grain, higher biotite content and a non-uniform grain structure.
  • Redwitzite, also called syenite granite, in the triangle of Marktredwitz / Arzberg / Thiersheim ; Medium, also fine-grained, due to the changing mineral composition, the color is light gray, dark gray, dark green gray to almost black.
  • Edge granite (roof granite): Occurrence in all outstanding massifs of the Fichtelgebirge ( Ochsenkopf , southern part of the Schneeberg with Haberstein (Schneeberg) , Platte to Hohe Matze, Kosseine , Großer Kornberg ); the basic mass is small-grained with feldspar , quartz and biotite , with some muscovite being interspersed
  • Köseine granite: Kosseine with Burgstein, Haberstein , Schauerberg; Southern part of the Great Kornberg massif; small to medium-grained, the porphyry habit is weaker or absent; insensitive
  • Core granite in the central stock Fichtelberg / Ochsenkopf / Nußhardt and on the eastern edge of the Schneeberg; Exposure through many rock formations; medium to coarse grain
  • Kosseine and Wolfsgarten core granite. The Kosseine granite has numerous inclusions: Horn rock, centimeter-sized biotite-rich fragments and nodules of adjacent rock, rounded to rounded quartz and feldspar-rich inclusions; Occurrence in the Kösseinestock: narrow band on the north, east and south edge, small labyrinth, quarry Kleinwendern, rock groups Hirschensprung, Wolfstein, Hohenstein, Ochsenkopf, Hundslohe, Gregnitztal; Occurrence on the Kornberg: Forest department Wolfsgarten south-southwest edge of the Great Kornberg; relatively coarse, of a special character due to the blue potassium feldspars, black biotite and the richly interspersed dark foreign inclusions; the wolf garden granite is a little lighter blue.
  • Tin granite is restricted to the central stock and occurs on Rudolfstein , on the Drei Brothers almost to the summit of the Schneeberg, on the western slope of the Seehügel, between Seehügel and Platte, Fuchsbau, Zufurt west of Leupoldsdorf ; very even, medium grain; little biotite, much muscovite; light, light tone
  • Edge granite of the Steinwald massif in the western part of the Steinwald, z. B. Dachsfelsen, northwest part of the Grandfelsen; small grain
  • Stone forest granite occupies the central part with Weißenstein, Platte, Katzentrögel, Reiseneggerfelsen, Hackelstein; coarse-grained
  • Friedenfels granite is the transition facies between Steinwald granite and Falkenberger porphyry granite; it forms the base of the Pechbrunn basalt area and appears there at various points between the basalt coverings; porphyry structure, particularly rich in feldspar sprouts

Mining

Ore mining has been in operation in the Fichtelgebirge since the early Middle Ages. Above all gold , tin , iron , minerals, earth and stones ( basalt , brown coal , diabase , granite, clay, marble , soapstone , clay, peat) were mined . More recently, uranium ore deposits have been discovered . The metals were further processed in hammer mills (see place names ending with -hammer) on the Fichtelgebirge rivers, in smelting furnaces and forges. The forests of the Fichtelgebirge supplied the wood required for the production of charcoal. During the Thirty Years' War, mining was down and the ore deposits were largely exploited. Alexander von Humboldt tried in the 18th century to revive the mining industry. Many cities and towns (e.g. Wunsiedel , Weißenstadt , Arzberg , Fichtelberg-Neubau, Goldkronach ) owe their origins to mining.

Provide an insight into the mining history of the Fichtelgebirge

In Großschloppen in the Wunsiedel district , uranium ore was searched for from 1978 to 1989 - initially by Esso Erz GmbH and later by Saarberg-Interplan Uran GmbH. In 1987 plans were announced to mine uranium ore there from the end of 1990 and to build a uranium enrichment plant with an annual capacity of 500 tons. Between 1984 and 1987, 18,000 tons of uranium-containing ore had already been mined.

Traditions

Easter fountain in Marktleuthen

The Huguenots introduced the Easter decoration of the fountain ( Osterbrunnen ) in the form of a lily (emblem of the Bourbon kings) (according to an article in the Fränkische Post in April 2007 ). The Wunsiedler Brunnenfest , the largest local festival in the district town, has nothing in common with the Osterbrunnen, it has a different history. The Luisenburg Festival , which traditionally takes place on the open-air stage of the Luisenburg near Wunsiedel, dates back to the 17th century. In many cities in the Fichtelgebirge, so-called meadow festivals take place annually, which are organized by the schools with themed parades, folk dances and games.

Dialects

The dialect border between the (East) Franconian dialect in the north and west and the (North) Bavarian or Upper Palatinate dialect in the east and south runs across the Fichtel Mountains from northeast to southwest . The dialect border does not coincide with the border of the administrative districts of Upper Franconia and Upper Palatinate, but it is also z. B. in the Upper Franconian district of Wunsiedel partly spoken Bavarian. Descendants of expellees who came to the Fichtelgebirge from Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia and East Prussia after the Second World War make up a significant proportion of the population.

Economy, tourism and health

Hiking sign in the Fichtel Mountains

While mining is only of historical interest, glassware is still produced in numerous places in the Fichtelgebirge, which can also be bought cheaply there. The porcelain industry , whose center is the city of Selb, is internationally known and leading throughout Germany . Companies like Rosenthal or Hutschenreuther enjoy world-wide renown. Other companies are dedicated to the manufacture of plastics, mechanical engineering and metal production, textile processing and belong to the food industry. Stone processing companies process local and foreign granite. There are highly innovative companies in the fields of green tech and new materials.

Today tourism is the main source of income for many communities in the Fichtelgebirge. In some places, such as Bischofsgrün , tourism has a long tradition since the 1920s; After the Second World War, the influx of holiday travelers increased sharply, both in summer for hiking and in winter for winter sports. The Fichtelgebirge developed into one of the "home mountain" of West Berlin , which on that time as a transit route acting A9 could arrive. This has changed with reunification and a change in the range of low mountain holiday landscapes.

Devil's table at the Großer Waldstein

In winter, the Fichtel Mountains are also of national importance as a winter sports area. Several lifts, two chair lifts on the Ochsenkopf and groomed trails form the basis for this.

Spa and rehabilitation facilities are located in Bad Berneck (Kneipp spa), Bischofsgrün (climatic health resort), Bad Alexandersbad (mineral and mud bath) and Weißenstadt (spa hotel with radon bath). There are mineral springs in Bad Alexandersbad, Kothigenbibersbach (municipality of Thiersheim ), Blumenthal near Selb , Hohenberg an der Eger , König-Otto-Bad (Markt Wiesau ) and Kondrau (city of Waldsassen ).

Objects of geotouristic interest and hiking destinations include the Luisenburg rock labyrinth or the devil's table at the Red Castle on the Großer Waldstein.

Flora and fauna

Seven star

The seven-star is the symbol of the Fichtelgebirge.

On December 30, 2011, a camera trap on the Schneeberg provided evidence of the presence of a wolf in the Fichtel Mountains.

history

Until the 19th century, Schneeberg, Ochsenkopf with Königsheide and Kosseine were referred to as the “Central Group”, while the north-west and north-east flanks of Waldstein, Kornberg, Selber Forst and Liebensteiner Forst were called “ Waldsteiner Ketten ” and the south-east flank of Steinwald, Reichsforst and Kohlwald were called the " Weißensteiner Chain ".

Visitors

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote in a letter to Charlotte von Stein “The granite won't let me go!” The poet and scientist made three trips to the Fichtel Mountains, during which he seriously dealt with scientific problems. He combined two of his trips with trips from Weimar to Karlsbad , the last he undertook especially from Eger to the Fichtel Mountains.

First voyage in 1785

He was accompanied by Karl Ludwig von Knebel and Friedrich Gottlieb Dietrich . On June 30, 1785, the journey led from Hof via Marktleuthen to Wunsiedel , and the Katharinenberg and Alexandersbad were visited on the same day . On July 1st, we went on a walking tour from Wunsiedel via Leupoldsdorf to the Seehaus (then called Zechenhaus), to Karches and the Weißmainquelle (then called Fürstenbrunnen), then to the summit of the Ochsenkopf, where the rare sundew plant was admired on the way . The way back went over the lake hill over to the Nusshardt and the White Rock, then over Vordorfermühle and Vordorf (now part of the municipality of Tröstau) back to Wunsiedel. Goethe made some drawings of rock formations and carried out geological studies. July 2nd was a rainy day, which is why there were only a few visits to Wunsiedel. The 3rd of July was dedicated to the Luisenburg (at that time still called Luxburg) and the Burgstein rock, with some drawings of the granite weathering. The onward journey on July 4th led via Holenbrunn , Göpfersgrün, Thiersheim , Schirnding and Mühlbach to Eger. Goethe showed a lively interest in the "geological peculiarities" marble , soapstone and basalt that occurred on the route.

Second journey 1820

At the age of 71 he was again on a trip to the West Bohemian baths, a detour brought him to Alexandersbad on April 25, where he stayed in the Old Castle. After lunch he went to the Luisenburg, which was now largely accessible by paths. He explained the formation of the rock labyrinth as a very slow weathering process. On April 26th the journey to Karlsbad followed.

Third voyage 1822

On August 13th Goethe came to Marktredwitz via Eger, Waldsassen and Mitterteich to visit the famous chemical factory of Wolfgang Kaspar Fikentscher ; He was accompanied by Joseph Sebastian Grüner, magistrate and police advisor in Eger. By August 18, the mercury production was examined and the glassworks near Brand was visited, where 17 workers made large window panels; chemical and pyrotechnic experiments followed. It seems that the 73-year-old Goethe particularly liked it because of the Fikentscher daughters in Marktredwitz.

Alexander von Humboldt

The universal scholar Alexander von Humboldt was sent to the then Prussian principalities of Ansbach and Bayreuth at the age of 22 in 1792 to modernize mining. Until 1795 he worked in Arzberg , Goldkronach and Bad Steben , where he succeeded in resuming mining in a short time, renewing the mine and introducing modern mining methods. He founded mining schools in Arzberg, Goldkronach and Bad Steben and set up a mining aid fund for miners who had died in an accident.

literature

General literature

  • Irene Reif : Down there walking by the stream ...: Romantic winter trip through the Fichtel Mountains. In: Franconia - my love. Oberfränkische Verlagsanstalt, Hof 1989, ISBN 3-921615-91-7 , p. 24f.

reference books

  • Dietmar Herrmann, Helmut Süssmann: Fichtelgebirge, Bavarian Vogtland, Steinwald, Bayreuther Land: Lexicon. Ackermannverlag, Hof 2000, ISBN 3-929364-18-2 .

Illustrated books

Hiking and travel guides

  • Gernot Messarius: Fichtel Mountains: nature park between Bayreuth, Hof and Selb; Cities, places and routes. (= Goldstadt travel guide. No. 2318). Goldstadtverlag, Pforzheim 1982, ISBN 3-87269-318-2 . (Current edition: Fichtelgebirge: Steinwald, Bayreuth, Kulmbach, Hof; Travel and hiking, art and culture. Späthling, Weißenstadt-Ruppertsgrün 2014, ISBN 978-3-942668-14-9 )
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Singer , Georg Pöhlein: Fichtelgebirge: the granite horseshoe. Oberfränkische Verlagsanstalt, Hof 1983, ISBN 3-921615-54-2 .
  • Werner A. Widmann, Wilkin Spitta: Fichtelgebirge, Franconian Forest, Coburg Land. (= HB-Bildatlas Nr. 64), HB / Pegasus, Hamburg / Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-616-06064-8 (updated new edition: Helga Schnehagen: Fichtelgebirge, Franconian Forest, Coburger Land: from the upper Main valley to the Vogtland: Lichtenfels, Kulmbach, Kronach, Hof, Selb; Bayreuth with city map. (= HB-Bildatlas. No. 190). HB / Mairs Geographischer Verlag, Hamburg / Ostfildern 1998, ISBN 3-616-06290-X )
  • Godehard Schramm , Bernd-Heinz houses: Fichtelgebirge-Frankenwald-Steinwald. The most beautiful destinations. Rosenheimer Verlagshaus, Rosenheim 1992, ISBN 3-475-52732-4 .
  • Reinhard Müller, Horst Ruhl: With children in the Fichtel Mountains. Where hiking becomes an experience. Fleischhauer & Spohn Verlag, Bietigheim 1994, ISBN 3-87230-520-4 .

Hiking maps

  • Fichtelgebirge Nature Park and Steinwald Nature Park: Tourist information on the back: official hiking map of the Fichtelgebirgsverein eV and the Naturpark Fichtelgebirge eV (= Fritsch hiking map. No. 52). Fritsch Landkarten-Verlag, Hof 2016, ISBN 978-3-86116-052-6 .

Mining

  • Dietmar Herrmann: From mining in the Fichtel Mountains. (= Contributions to the history and regional studies of the Fichtelgebirge. No. 11). Part 1, Kohler, Wunsiedel 1989, DNB 891286683 .
  • Dietmar Herrmann: From mining in the Fichtel Mountains. (= Contributions to the history and regional studies of the Fichtelgebirge. No. 12). Part 2, Kohler, Wunsiedel 1990, DNB 900503610 .

Forest history

  • Karl-Heinz Mayer: The forest history of the Fichtelgebirge. (= Forest Research Reports Munich. No. 167). Frank, Munich 1998.

Flora and fauna

  • Ulrike Klugmann: Franconian Forest and Fichtel Mountains ( outside , issue 3). Hamburg 1979
  • Rainer Meier: The big home book about the animal world in the Fichtelgebirge and Steinwald . Hof 1983
  • Erich Walter: Wild plants in the Fichtelgebirge and Steinwald. Hof 1982

Hydrology

  • Dietmar Herrmann: Hydrology Fichtelgebirge. In: The Seven Star; Association magazine of the Fichtelgebirgsverein eV for home care, local history, hiking and nature conservation. Wunsiedel 2003, p. 4f. ISSN  0949-4685

Folklore

  • Karl Bedal : House and farm in the Fichtelgebirge and Franconian Forest. 3rd edition, Hof 1989

Magazines

  • The seven star . Association magazine of the Fichtelgebirgsverein eV for home care, local history, hiking and nature conservation. Has been published in Wunsiedel since 1927. ISSN  0949-4685

Individual evidence

  1. Smrčiny Nature Park
  2. ^ A b Heinrich Berghaus: The Fichtel Mountains and the Franconian Jura in: Deütschlands Höhen - Contributions to the exact knowledge of the same (1834), on books.google.de
  3. a b E. Meynen , J. Schmithüsen : Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany . Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen / Bad Godesberg 1953–1962 (9 deliveries in 8 books, updated map 1: 1,000,000 with main units 1960)
  4. a b Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )
  5. Natural subdivision
  6. ^ Karl Heinrich Vollrath: Viola in Northeast Bavaria. Pp. 132-133.
  7. The nightmare of the Fichtelgebirgs uranium in: Nordbayerischer Kurier of November 29, 2019, p. 17.
  8. Dietmar Herrmann: The seven-star - symbolic plant of the Fichtelgebirge and the Fichtelgebirgsverein.
  9. A wolf in the Fichtel Mountains. In: Frankenpost. January 20, 2012.

Web links

Commons : Fichtelgebirge  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Fichtelgebirge  - travel guide