Scientists (in Austria and Switzerland also scientists ) or researchers are people who systematically deal with science and its further development. This does not have to be a full-time job - see private scholars or research in areas such as amateur astronomy or caving . Many scientists work as researchers , often as university lecturers . As a rule, they have demonstrated their ability to work independently in academic research by completing a doctorate .
The sciences can be divided into several large areas such as
- Natural sciences
- Human sciences
- Engineering and structural sciences
- Social and Economic Sciences
The scientifically active people in them have a corresponding designation such as natural scientist or humanities scientist . Your activity can also be assigned to the areas of basic research , applied sciences or development . People active in practical professions such as doctors, teachers, lawyers or pharmacists have a scientific education, but are not counted among the scientists unless they work at universities or research institutes .
Within the five areas, numerous terms are used for the respective activity (the variety of which is particularly large in the natural sciences), for example
- Physicists (atomic physicists, geophysicists, etc.)
- Chemists (inorganic-technical chemists, biochemists, environmental chemists, etc.)
- Astronomer (astrophysicist, planetologist, etc.)
- Earth scientist , geologist , geodesist , geographer , etc.
- Biologist (molecular biologist, neuroscientist, geneticist, etc.)
However, areas also overlap, e.g. B. Physical chemistry, materials science (also physics and chemistry), seismics (earth science and physics).
The predominant activity of a scientist can therefore be:
- scientific research in its field or in the transition area to neighboring disciplines
- Teaching activity as a professor at a university
- Research as an assistant under the direction and guidance of a professor
- Applied research and development (R / D or R&D, English R&D - research & development)
- Management and / or administration of institutions for R / D or large projects .
Work in organizations
The main institutions that scientists work at are:
- Scientific universities (as professor, lecturer , lecturer , research assistant or research assistant)
- Non-university research organizations such as the Max Planck Society , the Fraunhofer Society , the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers , the Leibniz Association or the DLR
- Academy of Sciences , federal institutions , large museums , libraries and archives
- Industry (research and development departments) and civil engineers
Scientists used more frequently, especially in everyday language and in the north of the German-speaking world, while scientists is a standard language variant in Austria and Switzerland more common and is preferred by scientists in Austria and Switzerland. The Duden uses both spellings. Since Karl Kraus , it has been used against the "l" that many words with "ler" have a derogatory aftertaste. So one speaks z. B. Although generally from a "sportsman", but nobody from a " trade unionist ", "craftsman" or an "economist", and a student umbrella organization is called the Deutscher Wissenschafter-Verband (DWV).
- German Association of Scientists (DWV)
- Research and teaching in public. Lecture (lecture series with discussion) by Christian Spannagel at the University of Hamburg, May 25, 2009
- To the question What do scientists actually do? Children's program of the Alpbach Technology Talks
- Leibniz Center: World Wide Science - How professionally researchers work and publish on the Internet
- Alexandra Lenz on univie.ac.at , December 9, 2013.