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Scientists (in Austria and Switzerland also scientists ) or researchers are people who systematically deal with science and its further development. This does not have to be a full-time job - see private scholars or research in areas such as amateur astronomy or caving . Many scientists work as researchers , often as university lecturers . As a rule, they have demonstrated their ability to work independently in academic research by completing a doctorate .


The sciences can be divided into several large areas such as

The scientifically active people in them have a corresponding designation such as natural scientist or humanities scientist . Your activity can also be assigned to the areas of basic research , applied sciences or development . People active in practical professions such as doctors, teachers, lawyers or pharmacists have a scientific education, but are not counted among the scientists unless they work at universities or research institutes .

Natural sciences

Within the five areas, numerous terms are used for the respective activity (the variety of which is particularly large in the natural sciences), for example

However, areas also overlap, e.g. B. Physical chemistry, materials science (also physics and chemistry), seismics (earth science and physics).


There is also a great variety of research areas within the humanities, such as B. philosophy , pedagogy , psychology , sociology , anthropology or cultural studies .

Main activity

The predominant activity of a scientist can therefore be:

Work in organizations

The main institutions that scientists work at are:


Scientists used more frequently, especially in everyday language and in the north of the German-speaking world, while scientists is a standard language variant in Austria and Switzerland more common and is preferred by scientists in Austria and Switzerland. The Duden uses both spellings. Since Karl Kraus , it has been used against the "l" that many words with "ler" have a derogatory aftertaste. So one speaks z. B. Although generally from a "sportsman", but nobody from a " trade unionist ", "craftsman" or an "economist", and a student umbrella organization is called the Deutscher Wissenschafter-Verband (DWV).

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Scientist  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Scientists  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Alexandra Lenz on , December 9, 2013.