from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A lecturer (borrowed from Latin docēns , present participle to docēre , “to teach, to teach”) is a person who teaches or teaches at universities and educational institutions of the tertiary or quaternary area .

Lecturers at universities

The lecturers at universities include above all

Your teaching rights and obligations differ from subject to subject, from university to university and from state to state. It also depends on the universities and federal states whether there are other types of lecturers at universities. Private lecturers are mostly academic employees who have qualified as a professor or lecturers who do not hold a professorship. Scientists who have qualified as a professor have the venia legendi and are free to determine the content of their teaching.

At Swiss universities, lecturer is the usual official title for university lecturers in teaching and research; the title of professor is an honorary title and is awarded. Lecturers at Swiss universities differ between full-time lecturers with full-time positions and part-time lecturers with part-time positions.

In the GDR there were regular lecturers who were employees of the university or college with permanent contracts and who, as a rule, had habilitated. You were in possession of the teaching qualification . Extraordinary lecturers were not employees of the university, but worked in companies or research institutions, but were given teaching tasks based on their knowledge.

Lecturers outside of universities

Lecturers who work outside universities work either for professional chambers , technical academies or technical schools , professional academies , administrative and business academies or for private educational institutions and as adult education center teachers . They did not necessarily have the necessary knowledge in higher education. Practitioners from companies or managers often teach without training. Especially in the field of art , language training or technical training, masters , experienced artists or lecturers with special life experience are often employed.


For teaching activities that are billed by the Federal Employment Agency through private educational institutions, an instructor aptitude test is generally required. In general, lecturers at private educational institutions at which qualified final exams are taken (e.g. for retraining) have a higher qualification than adult education center lecturers in free seminars. Sometimes, however, there are also highly qualified specialists who use free capacities to try out new seminar contents or forms.

Freelance lecturers are listed as “self-employed teachers” under social security law and are therefore subject to full pension insurance according to SGB ​​VI . Within three months of starting this activity, you have to register yourself with the pension insurance agency and you will usually receive a contribution notification. The income (less business expenses ) is contributed with the full RV rate. The contributions can be calculated and charged retrospectively for four years. There are exceptions, e.g. B. if the activity does not generate more than 4800 € per year or if an employer function is carried out at the same time.

A health insurance is mandatory, and each self-employed must take out health insurance. This happens through a voluntary health insurance obligation (either through a statutory or a private KV).

Lecturers in Lithuania

The lecturer ( docentas ) in Lithuania is a pedagogical title and title for a university professor with a scientific degree ( doctorate ). The university senate awards the title of lecturer to scientists or recognized artists who hold the position of lecturer for the full term of office (5 years). During the term of office, it is necessary that at least one scientific article is published in a journal from the list of international scientific journals. A scientific monograph or textbook for colleges or some methodological resources must also be produced.

Lecturers in the Nordic countries

In Denmark and Norway, lecturer has traditionally been a title for an academic, ranked between full professor and associate professor, and directly comparable to the British rank of reader . The title was abolished in Denmark in 1972, but was partially revived after 1990. All lecturers in Norway received the title of full professor in 1985.

The title lecturer is also used in Finland ( dosentti in Finnish or docent in Swedish) and Sweden ( docent ), but in contrast to Denmark and Norway it is not an actual position, but rather comparable to the German habilitation .

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Lecturer  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Archive link ( Memento of the original from October 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. You want to become a freelance lecturer / freelance teacher / freelancer / solo self-employed? , Baden-Württemberg Education and Science Union  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.gew-bw.de
  2. Docentas. Visuotinė lietuvių enciklopedija , T. V (Dis-Fatva). - Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų Leidybos institutas, 2004, 44 psl.
  3. ^ Docent