University professors teach and research at a university as part of their teaching and research assignments independently and on their own responsibility.
Situation in Germany
In Germany , according to Section 42 of the Higher Education Framework Act, professors and junior professors belong to the group of university teachers, in Baden-Württemberg also university lecturers . The German University Teachers Association also includes private lecturers in this group.
In the GDR , since the university reform of 1968 , university lecturers have included professors as well as university lecturers (Hochschullehrerberungsverordnung, since November 6, 1968, Law Gazette Part II). There are also university teacher laws in other countries , including Denmark .
The group of university professors has at least half of the votes in the self-governing bodies of the universities in Germany in matters of teaching and in matters of research the majority of the votes, the so-called professors majority .
The remaining university staff includes the so-called academic mid-level staff, consisting of the scientific and artistic staff, as well as the other staff, including the technical and administrative staff.
The right of university lecturers is regulated in the university laws of the federal states. In some state university laws (e.g. Hesse), university lecturers also include academic staff who meet the requirements for appointment as professors (usually private lecturers ) and who, with the consent of the Senate, are able to carry out research and teaching tasks independently have been commissioned in their subject. According to other state university laws, however, private lecturers, guest, honorary and unscheduled professors belong to the academic mid-level .
Until the 5th amendment of the University Framework Act of 2002 came into force and its implementation in state law, salary regulations C included the official title of university lecturer. Like the senior assistant and senior engineer, he was paid according to salary group C 2 and, like these, was a temporary civil servant (six years, in the field of medicine a further four years), periods of service previously spent as senior assistant or senior engineer were counted towards the maximum period of service. In especially justified exceptional cases, a civil servant relationship for life could be established for university lecturers in accordance with Section 48 d (2) HRG.
Applicants for university lecturing positions had to meet the professorship requirements. They therefore performed official tasks in research and teaching independently, like professors, according to the details of the respective employment relationship. Not all federal states have made use of the opportunity to create positions for university lecturers.
The GDR's university teachers' appointment regulation (HBVO) recognized university professors as university lecturers and professors who were appointed to associated permanent positions at universities and scientific colleges and were paid in two graded salary groups. Thus the term “university lecturer” was ambiguous and was used with different content in both parts of Germany: in the GDR for a university professor , in the Federal Republic for a member of the academic mid-level staff (exception since 2007: Baden-Württemberg).
Situation in Austria
In Austria the term “university lecturer” is out of date.
The 2005 Higher Education Act, which refers exclusively to teacher training colleges (previously: Pedagogical Academies) and not to universities, does not use the term university teachers. It speaks generally of "teaching staff" (Section 72 sub-section 2), of "teachers" (e.g. Section 13 (2), Section 16 (2)) or, in particular, of federal teaching staff , federal contract teaching staff and lecturers (Section 18 (1) ).
Due to the gradual transformation of colleges into universities , the term "university lecturer" that was used earlier was replaced by the term "university lecturer" , which is itself a "discontinued model":
University teacher as an organizational category
According to Section 19 (2) UOG 1993 (applicable until December 31, 2003), university teachers were part of the academic staff of the universities; They were composed of the University Professors , Emeritus University professors, visiting professors , honorary professors , university lecturers , university assistants and lecturers .
The University Act 2002 , which has been fully applicable since January 1, 2004, no longer recognizes the term university teacher when classifying members of the university: According to § 94 Para. 2 University Act 2002, the academic and artistic university staff is only divided into two sub-groups: university professors and in the scientific and artistic employees in research, art and teaching, whereby the university lecturers have a special position within the latter subgroup .
University teachers as a category under personnel law
The term "university teacher" is still important in the service law of civil servants and in the labor law of transferred contract employees: According to Section 154 Civil Service Service Law 1979, university teachers within the meaning of this federal law are university professors , university lecturers , university assistants and federal teachers. Section IIa of the 1948 Contract Employees Act is based on a similar delimitation. For university staff newly admitted since January 1, 2004, however , this category is also irrelevant in accordance with Section 128 of the University Act 2002 since the collective agreement came into force on October 1, 2009.
On October 1, 2002, eight months after the reform of the German University Framework Act, a new service law also came into force at Austrian universities. In the long term, it does away with civil servants at universities by only providing for contract staff rights for newcomers. In addition, it abolished the uninterrupted university career that had previously been the norm by only providing temporary positions at the beginning of the career, for which you have to reapply: first the "research assistant in training" (limited to four years) and then the "university assistant" (limited to four to six years). Afterwards, an application for a professorship can take place, either as a “contract professor” (limited to a maximum of seven years) or as a “university professor” (unlimited). A change of university is mandatory.
Previously, after completing your doctorate, sometimes even after completing your master's degree, you applied for an assistant position, which, if the evaluation was positive, was extended by a further six years after four years and then resulted in a permanent employment relationship with a habilitation or a similar externally evaluated qualification. This offered the possibility of setting up a working group at an early stage as part of a plannable, continuous career as a prerequisite for later taking on a professorship. The fact that these evaluations mostly passed and sometimes became a formality was abused by the authors of the new service law from the point of view of the opponents in order to defame and denigrate the whole old model and the status of the scientific official.
The newly introduced fixed-term employees or assistants, as they have existed in Germany for decades, and the fixed-term contract professorships, such as the possibility of W2 professorships limited to five years in Germany, are criticized by opponents of the reform of the service law as "throwaway positions" . A large part of the academic staff will have to leave the university in middle age, as in Germany, because every four to seven years a new application, usually associated with a change of location, is necessary without guaranteeing a job advertisement in the respective specialty, and ultimately because it is much less There are professorships for life as temporary positions. As in Germany, the new qualification phase, which is associated with considerable job insecurity, violates the principles of a family-friendly personnel policy , as it makes starting a family difficult, delays or even prevents it and hits mothers particularly hard.
Situation in Switzerland
At Swiss universities, lecturer is the usual official title for university lecturers in teaching and research. In contrast, professor is a title that is acquired at universities through a habilitation and corresponding employment, at universities of applied sciences through the procedures established by them.
Lecturers at Swiss universities differ between full-time lecturers with full-time positions and part-time lecturers with part-time positions. Part-time work is particularly widespread at universities of applied sciences because it is desirable that the lecturers actively know the professional field for which they are training: Architects who regularly work in their own architectural offices train architects; Musicians who perform regularly teach prospective musicians, etc. Since practitioners do not necessarily have to be good teachers from the outset, postgraduate didactic qualifications for university teachers are of great importance in Switzerland .
In general, the interlinking of practice and training is highly valued in Switzerland, which is also reflected in the strong emphasis on dual training , the extension of which the universities of applied sciences are seen as an extension.
- Hochschullehrerberungsverordnung (HBVO) of November 6, 1968, published in the GDR Law Gazette, Part II, pp. 997-1003.
- Bachmann, University of Vienna: The service law at Austrian universities .