Junior professorship

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The junior professorship is an official title for a position in the teaching staff of a German university . This position in the group of university lecturers was introduced in 2002 with the fifth amendment of the German University Framework Act in order to enable young academics with outstanding doctorates to conduct independent research and teaching at universities without the usual habilitation and to qualify them for a full- time professorship .



The tasks of junior professors at universities do not differ significantly from those of other professors . They mainly consist in the independent implementation of university research and teaching in accordance with the Humboldt ideal of education . However, the junior professorship is a temporary qualification position, with a lower salary, fewer resources and fewer teaching duties . The teaching obligation is stipulated by state regulations and is usually four to five semester hours per week for junior professors instead of eight to nine as for other professors.

Recruitment process

A requirement for employment is usually an outstanding doctorate . In principle (in some federal states: may) the employment before the doctorate and as a postdoc together should not have been more than six years , in medicine no more than nine years, whereby the regulations in the federal states differ.

While the decision to fill habilitation positions lies with the respective professorships and does not require an advertisement, an appointment committee is responsible for filling junior professorships like other professorships ; this is intended to increase the transparency and clarity of the criteria in decision-making.

Pay and equipment

Junior professors are first for most of three years according to grade W1 tenured or employed less often. In exceptional cases, a special surcharge of up to 10% can be negotiated.

The equipment of the junior professorships can differ considerably from state to state, from university to university, from department to department and even within a department: There are civil servant junior professorships with an initial amount of 100,000 euros, two employee positions, tenure track , professor title for life and actual Independence, but also employed junior professorships without initial equipment, without employee positions, without tenure track , without professor title and with de facto subordination to a chair. Since the end of the start-up funding on December 31, 2004, “naked” junior professorships have often been advertised without any equipment and without employees: everything apart from one's own salary has to be financed through third-party funding .

Evaluations and extensions

An interim evaluation takes place before the end of the first term of office. If the result is positive, the ability to appoint a permanent professorship is determined, the employment relationship is extended to a total of six years and the salary is increased by a non-pensionable allowance of around 8% - except in Baden-Württemberg , where the basic salary is increased by 8% for the first 3 years % is reduced. In North Rhine-Westphalia there is the possibility of a further extension for a seventh year. If the result is negative, however, the junior professor is judged not to be suitable for an academic career; the employment relationship can nevertheless be extended for a further year in order to facilitate the transition to the non-university labor market.

The state higher education law can provide that a second positive evaluation before the end of his service life can take the junior professor over to a life professorship at the same university without a public advertisement if the university was changed before the junior professorship began. This process, known as the tenure track from the USA, is intended to help ensure that a scientific career can also be planned in Germany. In this case, the position is usually already advertised with tenure track and it is stipulated that in the event of a positive interim evaluation, a permanent appointment to a W2 or W3 professorship is planned.

As with other academic staff in a temporary civil service, the employment relationship of junior professors is limited to periods of leave of absence for a scientific activity (e.g. substituting for a professorship), training, further education or training carried out outside the university sector or abroad, to extend parental leave for up to three years per child, etc. During parental leave, part-time employment in the same employment relationship with the same employer for up to 30 hours per week is to be approved upon application, unless there are compelling business reasons. Some state university laws limit an extension with several children to a maximum total duration of z. B. four years. In Bavaria in 2006, the option of extending it by two years for each child in care was introduced as a “family-friendly component” (full-time, without parental leave, which is also possible with or without part-time), as is the case in Brandenburg and Rhineland-Palatinate.

Official title or title

The title of the junior professors is very inconsistent. It is " Professor " in Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Thuringia (in Thuringia with the provision of a suitable reference to the status of junior professor). It is "junior professor" in Baden-Württemberg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein, but in the first two federal states only for employees, not for civil servants. In the other cases, the state university laws do not provide for a uniform regulation: The situation there is different depending on the university. The appointment certificates often state “Professor as Junior Professor”. A broad spectrum is observed for the abbreviated title: Prof., jr.-Prof., Jun.-Prof., Jun.-Prof., Junior-Prof., Juniorprof., J.-Prof., JProf., JP, only Dr.

The inconsistency is exacerbated if a junior professor does not receive a lifetime professorship after the end of the fixed-term employment relationship, B. will continue to be employed at a third-party funded position and the question arises there whether he is still authorized to teach, take examinations and doctoral degrees, or if he even leaves the university service. According to most state university laws, the title of "professor" can continue to be used as an academic designation after the employment relationship has ended, often under the condition of a certain minimum period of service, for example five years in Hesse, six years in Bavaria and ten years in North Rhine-Westphalia. However, it is not clear whether this also applies to a “professor as junior professor” or to a junior professor who is allowed to carry the title of professor. If the teaching activity is continued, confirmed junior professors in Lower Saxony receive the designation "Extraordinary professor", while in Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate and Schleswig-Holstein junior professors can be proposed to be awarded this designation. Junior professors who have been positively evaluated can apply for the license to teach at the end of their service life in Brandenburg and Schleswig-Holstein and thus use the designation “ private lecturer ”. In Bavaria and Saxony-Anhalt, the term “private lecturer” can be used without an application after a positive interim evaluation.

When the Federal Minister for Education and Research Edelgard Bulmahn was approached at the 3rd symposium on junior professorships on September 13, 2005 in Hanover about the question of the designation after the end of the service, she suggested " retired junior professor ". Although this solution was probably intended as a joke, it cannot be completely dismissed (note in particular that “aD” does not mean “iR”); however, it may require the approval of the highest service authority, which is handled differently depending on national law.

Relationship to habilitation

In some disciplines, the habilitation will remain the standard qualification for the foreseeable future, as there the attitude towards the junior professorship ranges from wait-and-see skepticism to complete rejection. This is particularly true in the humanities, law and medicine. In other disciplines, such as In 2010, for example, in physics, alternative forms of qualification - junior professorships and other junior research group leaders - outweighed the classic habilitation at a chair.

In order to improve their career prospects, one to two thirds of junior professors are also aiming for a habilitation to be on the safe side, although according to the legislature's intention, the perception of a junior professorship should actually make writing a habilitation thesis superfluous. Normally, however, the habilitation is done as part of an employment relationship as a temporary academic councilor ( A 13) or an employment relationship as a research assistant ( TVöD / TV-L 13, which replaced BAT II a between 2005 and 2010 ). It also happens that private lecturers who have completed their habilitation quickly or who have almost completed their post-doctoral qualifications apply successfully for a junior professorship while looking for a W2 or W3 professorship.

historical development

Origin and goals

Between 1969 and 1974 some German federal states introduced an "assistant professorship". It was based on the demands of the Federal Assistant Conference at the time ("Kreuznach University Concept") and pursued similar goals as the junior professorship, but was abolished again by the first university framework law in 1976. It had met with rejection from professors and was criticized by members of the academic mid-level staff as potential candidates for this position because it was temporary and could not result in a lifelong service. In the preparatory phase of the junior professorship (the word was created by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research ), the term assistant professorship was sometimes used (from the Max Planck Society ), as well as qualification professorships (from the German Research Foundation ) and junior professorships (from the Science Council ). The Switzerland and Austria had adopted the assistant professor some years before of 2002. However, the assistant professorship in Switzerland can only be compared to the junior professorship to a limited extent: the prerequisite for attaining an assistant professorship at the University of Zurich with a habilitation or an equivalent scientific qualification exists. In Austria, the assistant professorship was replaced by the contract professorship in 2002 and created again in parallel in 2009.

Following the recommendations of the University Rectors' Conference of November 2, 1998 and the “Berlin Manifesto for a New University Policy” of December 11, 1998, the BMBF set up an expert commission “Reform of University Service Law” in June 1999, which published its report “University Service Law for the 21st century ”. There was u. a. the redesign of the qualification path for university lecturers through the introduction of the junior professorship and the elimination of the habilitation is proposed. In addition to the earlier independence of the next generation of university lecturers in research and teaching, the improvement of international connectivity, the lowering of the first appointment age, the increase in the proportion of female and foreign academics and the better planning of academic career paths were further central goals of the service law reform. The Science Council formulated similar goals in 2001 in its recommendations for the promotion of young academics, which also provide a historical overview of the development of qualification paths to become a university professor.

The observation that the first appointment age of German professors, averaging 42 years, is significantly higher than in most comparable nations, prompted the BMBF to take legal action against it. The traditional habilitation procedure with a final examination, which usually takes six years and is unusual abroad, was seen as the cause. Additional pressure arose from addressing the emigration of outstanding young scientists from Germany, among others to US universities, under the heading of talent emigration (English braindrain ). This emigration is not least due to the bypassing of the multi-year hurdle of the habilitation as well as the overall less bureaucratic research conditions there. The latter problem was also believed to be solved with a junior professorship.

Constitutional dispute

After the absolute CDU and CSU majority run free states Thuringia , Bavaria and Saxony , a method of abstract judicial review had requested the Second Senate declared the Federal Constitutional Court on 27 July 2004 with a 5: 3 majority decision, the adopted by the federal Higher Education Act of February 16, 2002 for exceeding the framework legislative competence of the federal government with Article 70, Article 75 in conjunction with Article 72 paragraph 2 of the Basic Law for incompatible and void .

However, this did not mean that the junior professorship was unconstitutional, but merely clarified the federal government's legislative leeway in educational matters. The constitutional complaint was based on the constitutionally determined distribution of competences in Germany, according to which the federal states have cultural sovereignty and the federal government only has a framework legislative competence in the field of education. The Federal Constitutional Court found the constitutional violation of a federal law to abolish the habilitation in favor of the introduction of the junior professorship and declared it null and void.

On December 31, 2004, the so-called reparation amendment (HdaVÄndG) came into force, which confirms the junior professorship as a personnel category, but leaves the federal states more leeway in structuring the junior professorship and in maintaining the habilitation, which is what many people want, than the framework law of 2002 did . With this decision, the junior professorship was not abolished. Since most of the federal states had already created state legal foundations for the junior professorship and did not revoke this after the amendment to repairs, nothing stood in the way of continuing the junior professorship; rather, the junior professorship was also incorporated into the state law of the remaining federal states.

The then President of the University Rectors ' Conference , Peter Gaehtgens , called on the day of the judgment not to fill in a “reduced framework law” with an “excessive density of regulations” at the state level; you already have a “patchwork of different regulations”. The Secretary General of the Science Council , Wedig von Heyden, also called for nationwide regulations. The state higher education laws, however, still differ in many points (see below), and after the federalism reform of September 1, 2006, an abolition of the higher education framework law was even planned in 2008, since the federal framework legislation (formerly Art. 75 GG) has lapsed and education policy largely Has become a country matter. However, this abolition was initially postponed to 2009 and then not implemented in that year either, so that the Higher Education Framework Act still exists (as of November 2015).

Development and statistics

In the first four years since the framework law came into force, almost 1,000 junior professorships were advertised at 65 of 97 universities in Germany, most of them right at the start of start-up funding from the federal and state governments: 190 in the first quarter of 2002 and around 90 each in the second and third quarters 2002. Thereafter, the number oscillated between 40 and 60 per quarter until the end of the funding period on December 31, 2004. At the beginning of 2005, the number of calls for proposals fell again to 30 per quarter, a level that was sufficient while the number of junior professorships remained constant but not to keep increasing their numbers. At the end of 2007 there were 802 junior professorships across Germany; this corresponded to 3.4% of all professorship positions at German universities (excluding universities of applied sciences). At the end of 2009, the number of junior professorships rose to 994, which corresponds to 4.1% of all professorship positions at universities (excluding universities of applied sciences), and at the end of 2013 to 1,597 junior professorships. The original BMBF target of 6,000 junior professorships by 2010 was clearly missed and already after the change of government in autumn 2005 the BMBF designated it as "obsolete". The number of habilitations by far exceeds that of newly accepted junior professorships, albeit with a downward trend: the number of habilitations per year peaked at 2302 in 2002 and has since declined approximately linearly to 1567 in 2013.

The number 6000 arose from the consideration that every year as many junior professorships (with a duration of six years as a rule) should be filled as there are around 1000 retirees nationwide (the approximately 22,000 professors are on average between 41 and 65 years of age Office). However, this does not guarantee a lifetime professorship for every junior professor, because other qualification paths to a professorship are expressly provided.

In 2009, 37% of junior professorships were held by women; the proportion of women was thus significantly higher than for the W2 / W3 professorships (22%) and those who completed their habilitation in 2009 (24%). The average age of appointment was 34 years; however, a decrease in this age was expected, as a pent-up stock of postdocs was presumably to be reduced in the first few years. In June 2006, the Center for University Development was aware of the results of 203 interim evaluations (that is about half); only five of them were negative.

In 2007, the state of Baden-Württemberg introduced a junior lecturer 's position. It essentially corresponds to the junior professorship, but focuses on teaching .

In 2016, the state of Hesse replaced the junior professorship with the qualification professorship and introduced the professorship with development commitment.

German Society Junior Professorship

In December 2003, six junior professors founded the “ Förderverein Juniorprofessur” in Clausthal-Zellerfeld , which in 2008 changed its name to Deutsche Gesellschaft Juniorprofessur eV . In 2009, a board member of the DGJ was appointed as the only nationwide representation of the interests of junior professors in the standing commission for research and young academics of the university rectors' conference and invited as an expert by the committee for education, research and technology assessment of the German Bundestag . In addition, the DGJ is regularly invited to various specialist bodies by federal and state ministries and science-related organizations.

The FJ and DGJ have been organizing regular symposia on junior professorships since 2004, in which the Federal Minister of Education and Research, the President of the German Research Foundation and other prominent personalities of the German education and research system have taken part. The last symposium in autumn 2013 was entitled Structured career paths at universities? . Participants were u. a. Ulrike Beisiegel , President of the Georg-August University of Göttingen and Daniela Wawra , Vice President of the German University Association .

Criticism of the implementation

The introduction of the junior professorship and its structure are controversial. The following are the most important points of criticism.

Fixed-term mostly without tenure track

With the junior professorship, an earlier academic independence was achieved, at least formally, but mostly not the goal of better career planning or earlier professional security (which in turn restricts actual academic freedom). This is mainly due to the fact that only 8% of the junior professorships have a tenure track (possibility of appointment to a lifetime professorship at the same university without an advertisement), although this option opened up by the University Framework Act sooner or later (e.g. Hesse only in 2007, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania only in 2009) was adopted in the state law of all federal states except Baden-Württemberg and Bremen . Even if you add a tenure track in the broader sense (the possibility of applying to a connection point advertised at the same university by relaxing the ban on domestic appointments ), which is possible in all federal states, only 12 to 18% of junior professorships have a tenure track . In the majority of cases, further employment is not provided, even with probation - probation is not even established, the employment relationship simply expires. Researchers do not understand that this uncertainty about how things will go on after entering a scientific career in a generally temporary job should lead to an increase in attractiveness or performance.

As before, junior professorships ( C 1) are limited to three years and - after a positive interim evaluation - a total of six years. Temporary extensions to the same position are only possible in exceptional cases, as are temporary continued employment in another position, since the introduction of the W salary order abolished the staff category of university lecturers ( C 2) and a maximum of 12 years was introduced (15 years in medicine) . Such exceptions are, for example, a position as a temporary academic senior counselor in Baden-Württemberg and third-party funded positions, for example a Heisenberg professorship of the German Research Foundation .

The assistant professor in the USA and ricercatore in Italy, which is comparable to the junior professor, is usually equipped with a tenure track , i.e. with the option of preferring a permanent (tenured) connection at the end of his fixed-term contract (i.e. excluding opposing candidates) at the next higher level ( Associate Professor or Professore Associato ). As a lecturer in Great Britain , as a Maître de conférences or Chargé de recherche in France , as well as as a judge or public prosecutor in Germany , you can even be employed for an unlimited period after a probationary period of one to five years, which is almost always passed. The long job insecurity up to after the age of 40 is seen as one reason why women are still underrepresented at German universities and makes a university career difficult, not only for women who want to have children. This occupational insecurity violates the principles of a family-friendly personnel policy , as it makes starting a family difficult, delays or even prevents, and hits mothers particularly hard. The introduction of the junior professorship did not resolve the crucial problem of the enormous and long-lasting uncertainty associated with an academic career in Germany.

Most academic positions at universities in the United States and the United Kingdom are open-ended and independent. At German universities, on the other hand, and with an increasing tendency, they are predominantly temporary and dependent: In 2009 there were 146 100 academic staff, 83% of whom were temporary, 53% of which for less than a year, almost 1,000 junior professors and almost 22,000 full-time professors . It is difficult to understand that the German state grants its universities and research institutions more extensive fixed-term employment options at the expense of employee protection than private companies or other public institutions. This special position of state universities and research institutions is criticized as contrary to factual, constitutional and European law: It violates Article 3 Paragraph 1 and Article 9 Paragraph 3 of the Basic Law as well as the ETUC - UNICE - CEEP framework agreement on fixed-term employment contracts of 18 March 1999, in which Germany recognized “that open-ended contracts represent and will continue to represent the usual form of employment relationship between employers and employees”. Third-party funding as a non-objective special fixed-term condition for universities and research institutions may perhaps be acceptable (but why only for state ones?), But the need for a further limited qualification position after completing a doctorate seems to be an advance, because a second qualification phase on average up to the age of 40 seems implausible and is incomparable. The real cause is presumed to be the fact that it cannot be terminated after a permanent contract in the public service, although this does not lead to a comparable avoidance of previously open-ended employment relationships in the judiciary, in schools and at foreign universities. In particular, reference is made to the situation abroad, which emerged from the said framework agreement and the part-time and temporary employment law underlying EU - Directive 1999/70 / EC on fixed-term contracts was in the United Kingdom implemented without exceptions for the universities. As in the USA and most other countries, the qualification for the university teaching profession is already proven with a good doctorate.


The W  1 tariff, according to which junior professors are paid, is often lower than starting salaries in the private sector and comparable to the A  13 tariff for high school and secondary school teachers, and in some federal states also for secondary school teachers , although a lower qualification is sufficient for teachers (state examination and 18- to 24-month legal clerkship instead of an outstanding doctorate and mostly a few years postdoc). In addition, A 13 increases with age and overtakes W 1, which is age-independent, after a few years at the latest . A junior professor therefore not only has to be content with a temporary position without any guarantee for later, while in the private sector you can usually be employed for an unlimited period after a six-month probationary period, albeit terminable, and as a teacher as a probationary civil servant after three years (following the legal traineeship, where you are a civil servant on revocation) is employed for life; a junior professor also gets a relatively modest income.

It is particularly unfavorable for the junior professor if he is not employed as a civil servant but as an employee with the same gross salary. As a result, social security contributions are incurred (in the public sector even more than in the private sector), which significantly reduce his net salary compared to a civil servant who is nominally equally paid.

Temporary civil service

With the same gross salary is a tenure of time initially attractive as a temporary appointment because the net salary due to the absence of social security contributions is significantly higher. In the majority of cases, however, there is no option: Most of the time, temporary civil servants are granted automatically, while some universities, e.g. B. the Technical University of Darmstadt and the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main , offer all new university professors only one employment. A civil service can, however, have a disadvantageous effect compared to an employment relationship with statutory unemployment , pension and health insurance if the employment does not result in a civil service for life. If no other job is found after the employment relationship has expired (the first class of junior professors was affected in 2008), there is no entitlement to unemployment benefit . Transitional allowance is paid after six years of service for only three and a half months instead of six as with the university assistants (C 1) who have been replaced by the junior professors (W 1). If you lose your civil servant status, you can take out additional pension insurance from the German Federal Pension Insurance Fund , but not from the Federal and State Pension Fund (VBL) or any other supplementary pension fund of the public service (for certain professional groups, you can apply for additional insurance not from the German Federal pension insurance, but to be carried out at the competent professional pension institution). The former employer pays the contributions in full, without dividing them into employer and employee shares; a voluntary payment of the person to be reinsured into the VBL is not possible. It is calculated that up to two thirds of the pension entitlements acquired at the time of retirement are lost in the event of subsequent insurance. In order to make the civil service on time more attractive and to facilitate a shift from the public sector into the private sector or abroad, most recently one is age Money introduced the retiring officials possible to obtain at least 85% of pension entitlements and similar to a pension after entry get paid in retirement. A retirement benefit has so far been introduced in Baden-Württemberg (since January 1, 2011), Lower Saxony (since January 1, 2013), Hesse (since March 1, 2014) and in the federal government (approved by the Federal Council on July 5, 2013). In the federal states, it was incorporated into the respective civil service provision law (corresponding draft laws exist in Hamburg and Saxony and are expected in the medium term for the majority of the federal states), while the federal government has passed its own old-age benefit law (AltGG). However, Hessen and the federal government limit the entitlement to old-age benefits to civil servants who retire during their period of service and to civil servants who leave the service voluntarily (the federal government also reduces pension entitlements by 15%).

These problems make clear possible contradictions of the civil service for a time, since the civil service has actually been conceived as a service relationship for life since its origin; compare the traditional principles of the civil service, protected by Article 33 (5) of the Basic Law . In addition, a temporary employment relationship jeopardizes the scientific freedom protected by Article 5 (3) of the Basic Law: A scientist may restrict this himself in order not to endanger his acceptance into a civil service for life, since he is subject to the opinion of his evaluating colleagues . With regard to the recently practiced first-time appointments for scientists who already have the qualification for a lifetime professorship (passed intermediate examination in a junior professorship, habilitation or habilitation-equivalent achievements), it is estimated that it should only be a matter of time before the first Proceedings before the Federal Constitutional Court on admissibility are pending, be it by submission of an administrative court, be it on the basis of a constitutional complaint based on Article 33 (5) GG and possibly also Article 5 (3) GG. It is speculated whether this assessment can also be transferred to junior professorships.

Position in the faculty

According to Section 42 of the University Framework Act, junior professors, unlike post-doctoral candidates, belong to the group of university lecturers like professors . You are unrestrictedly entitled to doctorate and have all the rights and obligations of a lifetime professor. Perhaps because of the "junior" addition and the inadequately regulated title of office, older colleagues are nevertheless sometimes of the opinion that they are legally not full professors, and they classify junior professors, for example when filling decision-making bodies against legal regulations, as well as (professional actually, however, also equally qualified) habilitation candidates as representatives of the mid-level faculty . In order to underline the full membership of the university professors' group, it was proposed to rename the junior professorship to W1 professorship. The inconsistency that (habilitated) private lecturers or unplanned professors may have lower powers than junior professors because the former do not necessarily belong to the professor group according to every state university law, although they are technically higher qualified, is a consequence of the originally not planned survival of the habilitation alongside the junior professorship and sometimes leads to conflicts.

Interim evaluation

Like the former university assistants who are doing their habilitation , junior professors are initially appointed for three years. The interim evaluation of junior professors during the third year is sometimes criticized as being too early. In particular, research projects by natural scientists and engineers who require an extensive laboratory setup could not yet be meaningfully evaluated in the course of the third year, since the results are often not yet published at this point in time; The financial resources are usually too low for this group of scientists.


The introduction of the junior professorship is seen by many as a step in the right direction, but various aspects of the design are criticized. In particular, the junior professorship is not attractive enough in an international comparison due to the lack of a tenure track option . Accordingly, the proportion of job holders that could be won by leading foreign universities is also low. When assessing the junior professorship, it must also be taken into account that there are major differences in terms of the framework conditions and equipment.

The junior professors themselves rate their situation largely positively. According to a study from 2007, more than two thirds were "somewhat satisfied" or "very satisfied" with their situation overall, while only one in nine was dissatisfied with their position. 71% of those questioned would choose the junior professorship again, while 12% would not take this path again.

Individual evidence

  1. a b Ulrike Preissler: Salaries of Junior Professors - The current overview of W1 salaries shows that the remuneration of junior professors is constitutionally alarmingly low , Research & Teaching , 4/2014.
  2. See Section 132 (2) and (5) of the Federal Civil Service Act for federal universities or the university laws and parental leave regulations of the individual federal states for all other universities.
  3. See the case law: Verwaltungsgericht Gießen , judgment of August 26, 2010, Az. 5 K 570 / 10.GI, full text ; Hessian Administrative Court, order of February 9, 2012, Az. 1 A 2166/10; Administrative Court of Giessen, judgment of July 8, 2013, Az. 5 K 997 / 12.GI.
  4. Art. 17 para. 3 BayHSchPG .
  5. GEW -Ratgeber "Compatibility of family and academic qualifications" ( Memento from November 26, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 956 kB), April 2013.
  6. BerlHG § 17 Paragraph 4 , version of July 26, 2011.
  7. HmbHG Section 17 Paragraph 4 , version of April 4, 2017.
  8. Lower Saxony Higher Education Act, Section 30, Paragraph 6 , version of February 26, 2007.
  9. Academics.de: Can the title of professor be continued after leaving the university? .
  10. See e.g. B. BerlHG Section 103 Paragraph 2 , version of July 26, 2011.
  11. Art. 65 para. 10 Bavarian Higher Education Act.
  12. Assessment from 2006 by the university management of the Free University of Berlin , reproduced in the Center for University Development , May 2007: Five years of junior professorship - second CHE survey on the status of the introduction (PDF file; 330 kB), p. 30.
  13. Albert Kümmel-Schnur, in How welcome are the offspring? New models for promoting young researchers , published by Jürgen Mittelstraß and Ulrich Rüdiger, UVK Universitätsverlag Konstanz 2011, published in Spiegel Online - UniSpiegel, April 3, 2012: Swan song for the junior professorship: It could have been so beautiful .
  14. a b c Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft , November 2010: Study on access to a university teaching career in physics at German universities: habilitation, junior professorship, junior research group leader ( memento from July 13, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) .
  15. Center for University Development , May 2007: Five Years of Junior Professorship - Second CHE survey on the status of the introduction (PDF file; 330 kB), p. 30f.
  16. More details in the section on the position situation of the post-doctoral candidates in the article Habilitation .
  17. See the section Situation in Austria - Recent Developments of the Wiki article Hochschullehrer and the section Professorships in Austria - Assistant Professors of the Wiki article Professorship .
  18. University service law for the 21st century (PDF; 86 kB) bmbf.de. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved on May 24, 2011.
  19. Recommendations for the promotion of young scientists
  20. ^ DLF: Migration of young scientists
  21. ^ Decision of the Federal Constitutional Court. In: Bverfg.de. July 27, 2004, accessed May 24, 2011 .
  22. University: Always trouble with the junior. In: Zeit.de. Retrieved May 24, 2011 .
  23. Repair amendment (HdaVÄndG) ( Memento from December 13, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  24. Patchwork of different regulations. In: Dradio.de. Retrieved May 24, 2011 .
  25. Cultural sovereignty vs Europeanization? - About the difficulties of "educational planning". In: Dradio.de. May 22, 2004, accessed May 24, 2011 .
  26. ^ Draft of a law to repeal the university framework law. (PDF; 245 kB) In: dipbt.bundestag.de. Retrieved May 24, 2011 .
  27. ↑ Start-up funding for junior professorships ( Memento from May 18, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
  28. ^ Center for University Development , September 2004: Two years of junior professorship. Analyzes and recommendations (PDF file; 171 kB), p. 10.
  29. Federal Statistical Office: University staff 2007 ( [1] )
  30. ^ Federal Statistical Office: University staff 2009, p. 40 ( PDF )
  31. ^ Federal Statistical Office: Staff at Universities, Fachserie 11, Reihe 4.4.
  32. ^ Federal Statistical Office: Staff at Universities 2009, pp. 33–35 u. P. 42 ( PDF )
  33. Martin Hellfeier: Qualification professorship and development commitments: Hessen creates new personnel category , research & teaching 7/2016.
  34. ^ Law on Universities of the State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (State University Act - LHG MV) IdFdB v. January 25, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2011 .
  35. Center for University Development , May 2007: Five Years of Junior Professorship - Second CHE survey on the status of the introduction (PDF file; 330 kB), p. 10.
  36. Eva-Jasmin Freyschmidt: "Building Bridges". Top research for Germany, top research in Germany. In: Research & Teaching . 9/2011, pages 684-685.
  37. ^ Katrin Arnold, Eva-Jasmin Freyschmidt (German Scholars Organization eV): Building Bridges. (PDF; 395 kB) Top research for Germany, top research in Germany. June 25, 2011, archived from the original on March 5, 2014 ; Retrieved February 21, 2012 .
  38. Leonie Seifert: Where is the emergency exit here? "How are you?" - we young scientists asked that. The result is alarming: four out of five researchers want to leave the university system. Why is that? In: The time . December 3, 2015, accessed April 4, 2016 .
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