Max Planck Society
|Max Planck Society
for the Advancement of Science
|legal form||registered association|
|founding||February 26, 1948|
|precursor||Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science|
|Chair||Martin Stratmann (President)|
|sales||2,497,793,785 euros (2019)|
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science e. V. ( MPG ) is one of the leading German institutions in the field of basic research . The non-profit association with its statutory seat in Berlin maintains 86 legally dependent research institutes and facilities across Germany. The general administration in Munich , which is headed by one or more general secretaries, acts as an auxiliary body for the board. According to its statutes, the Max Planck Society continues “the tradition of the former Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science e. V. continued ”.
The Max Planck Society enjoys worldwide recognition. In 2006, non-university research institutions named it the world's best non-university research institution in the Times Higher Education Supplement Ranking . According to the same academic peer review, it was ranked third in global technology research behind AT&T and the Argonne National Laboratory .
Structure and tasks
The Max Planck Society e. V. currently operates 86 (as of April 2019) legally non-independent institutes and research facilities. Most of the funding comes from federal and state public funds. Exceptions are the Max Planck Institute for Coal Research Foundation and the Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH as independent legal entities as well as the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics , which has only been funded by the Free State of Bavaria, the federal government and from Euratom funds since it was founded is financed. The Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics was a GmbH until 1970 , before it was rendered without assets and transferred to the MPG.
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science only knows scientific members - these are usually the directors of the legally dependent Max Planck Institutes as well as external scientific members - as well as sponsoring members who can be either natural persons or legal entities such as companies , which promote non-profit research in the Max Planck Institutes.
The Max Planck Society is primarily dedicated to basic research in the natural sciences, social sciences and the humanities and works in cooperation with universities , but remains independent of them. It deals with research goals which, due to their transdisciplinarity or the high resources required, cannot be achieved by other basic research institutes.
The research results serve the general public and have the aim of creating priorities for excellent research in certain research areas in addition to research at universities and other research organizations. The Harnack principle is often cited here as a defining structural approach.
The Max Planck Society is represented by its respective president in the so-called Alliance of Science Organizations, in which the heads of German research organizations regularly consult and exchange ideas.
The Max Planck Society was founded on February 26, 1948 under the presidency of Otto Hahn and the direction of Secretary General Ernst Telschow as the successor organization to the Kaiser Wilhelm Society for the Advancement of Science (KWG) in Göttingen . It was named after Max Planck , the co-founder of quantum physics . Like the emblem of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society , the emblem of the Max Planck Society shows Minerva , the Roman goddess of tactical warfare, shipbuilding and wisdom, who is revered as the guardian of knowledge and protector of poets and teachers.
This newly founded Max Planck Society initially only included the institutes of the British and American occupation zones , the so-called bizones , which still existed at the time . It was not until November 1949 that the former KWG institutes, located in the French occupation zone, joined the Max Planck Society, and in 1953 the former Berlin institutes, which had meanwhile been merged into the German Research University Foundation .
Initially, each institute was financed solely by the country in which it was based within the framework of cultural sovereignty. Even before the Federal Republic of Germany was founded, on March 24, 1949, a state agreement on the financing of scientific research institutions , the so-called Königstein State Agreement , was reached, in which transnational financing was established. This state agreement provided the direct funding for the Max Planck Society. V. sure. The agreement was initially concluded for a period of five years and then extended until 1959 and then several times until the end of 1969. Up until 1964, the federal states financed investment spending only to a limited extent. Since the end of the 1950s, the federal government has financed structural investments on the basis of grants under Section 64a of the Reich Budget Code .
From 1964 an administrative agreement was concluded between the federal government and the federal states, which provided for the equal co-financing of the federal states for investments and the federal government for current operating expenses. Since the federal government approved its grants via an administrative act - grant notification with approval conditions - and the states based on the Königstein State Agreement through the office set up for this purpose (predecessor of the BLK office and now GWK office ), the approval of the federal-state funds was not uniform and regulated differently. At the urging of the audit offices, management regulations were therefore introduced for the first time in 1968 on which the federal and state governments have applied uniformly. These funding regulations were refined over the next few years. With budgeting, there was a considerable increase in flexibility in the area of job management, coverage and the use of additional income.
With the reorganization of budget law in 1969 on the part of the federal and state governments and the addition of Basic Law , the basis was laid for the framework agreement for research funding signed in 1975 and the implementation agreement for the Max Planck Society , which sets out the funding bases and necessary coordination procedures between the federal government and countries regulates.
When it was founded in 1948, the Max Planck Society comprised 25 institutes and research centers with a budget of around seven million marks (adjusted for purchasing power in today's currency: around 18.1 million euros). In 1960 the Max Planck Society had 40 institutes and research facilities with a total of around 2,600 employees, 750 of them scientists, and had an annual budget of almost 80 million marks (around 186.5 million euros adjusted for purchasing power). By 2017, the number of institutes had risen to 84 Max Planck institutes and facilities, five of them abroad. The annual budget (almost 1.8 billion euros) and the number of employees (approx. 22,000) have also increased significantly.
After the five new federal states joined the Federal Republic of Germany, between 1990 and 2002 a total of 18 new institutes, a research center and a sub-institute were founded in the new federal states. This increased the number of institutes by around a third. Around 4,000 employees conduct research at the institutes and facilities in the new federal states. In a so-called "immediate program" after the political change , a number of working groups were set up at universities, which were, however, limited until 1998, and were then partially incorporated into universities. The expansion in the new federal states was partly financed by a shift from west to east, since 740 jobs had to be cut in the old federal states in the same period as part of the “federal consolidation program”.
The Max Planck Institute for Coal Research and the Max Planck Institute for Iron Research are legally independent.
In 2003, the Max Planck Society initiated the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Scientific Knowledge and subsequently designed an electronic archive for publications by MPG employees, the eDoc server , which currently contains a good 21,000 full texts, 9,000 of which are publicly accessible are.
Commission on the History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism (1999-2005)
In 1997, the then President of the Max Planck Society, the biologist Hubert Markl , set up the Presidential Commission “History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism” with the approval of its Board of Directors and Senate. It was chaired by two historians who do not belong to the Max Planck Society: Reinhard Rürup (Technical University Berlin) and Wolfgang Schieder (University of Cologne). Indeed, on February 26, 1948, a - legally speaking - new German scientific institution was established. With its diverse institutional and personal links, however, the Max Planck Society is a direct successor to the Kaiser Wilhelm Society founded in 1911. Their past and especially their relationship with the Nazi regime are part of the past of the Max Planck Society.
The relationship of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society to the Nazi system, the scientific, political and scientific policy actions of its representatives and scientists during the National Socialist era as well as the consequences of these actions on the Max Planck Society should be as complete as possible, unreservedly and without any institutional bias should be researched and published. For this reason, independent historians were entrusted with the chairmanship of the Presidential Commission and the steering of its work, and external scientists with the management and implementation of the research program. The commission had its own institutional “research program”, which was successively led by Doris Kaufmann , Carola Sachse , Susanne Heim and Rüdiger Hachtmann . The office of the research program was located at the MPI for the History of Science. The results of the research program have been published since 1999. The Commission finished its work at the end of 2005. The results of the commission appeared in the book series “History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism”, which comprised 18 volumes between 2000 and 2008.
Research program "The History of the Max Planck Society" (since 2015)
A research program on the history of the Max Planck Society has existed since February 2015, which is based at the Berlin Max Planck Institute for the History of Science. The new project was decided in mid-2014; it is intended to examine the history of the Max Planck Society in all its facets. Jürgen Renn (Berlin), Carsten Reinhardt (Bielefeld) and Jürgen Kocka (Berlin) make up the staff of the research program . The project manager is the science historian Florian Schmaltz. In 2017, the research program published a report on the work done since 2014. Since 2017, the "Preprints" series of the research program has published works on the history of German-Israeli academic relations, on the history of equal opportunities between 1988 and 1998 and on "Participation and codetermination in research".
The Max Planck Society often uses a quote from Max Planck as a kind of motto . Recognition must precede the application. An outline of the history of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society and MPG by Dieter Hoffmann , Birgit Kolboske and Jürgen Renn also adopts this expression. The quote reads in full:
"[It will] be in line with the aspirations of our society [i.e. Kaiser Wilhelm Society], which sees its most important task in the establishment and maintenance of scientific research institutes, if the old truth is also externally appreciated in its meetings that, As in all fields of work, so also in that which is dedicated to the forces of nature, the application of which must precede knowledge , and the finer the details are in which we can follow nature on any path, the richer and more sustainable it will become Show profit that we are able to draw from our knowledge. "
As an association, the Max Planck Society has members; On the one hand, the scientific members, who are usually also directors of a department at a Max Planck Institute, and the supporting members, who are divided into personally supporting members and corporate supporting members (e.g. companies, associations and municipalities). Scientists who cooperate closely with an MPI can be appointed as External Scientific Members.
As with its predecessor, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, the emblem of the Max Planck Society represents the head of Minerva , daughter of Jupiter and ancient Italian goddess of wisdom and the arts. It also adorns the badges of members of the Max Planck Society.
The Max Planck Institutes are assigned to one of the three sections, depending on the research direction:
- The Biological-Medical Section consists of 27 Max Planck Institutes and seven research facilities that reflect the life sciences in "their entire breadth". Despite this diversity, neurobiology , in which twelve institutes are involved, is the “overarching research focus” .
- The Chemical-Physical-Technical Section comprises 32 Max Planck Institutes, the work of which can be divided into “three broad subject areas”: Matter, Complex Interaction and Novel Light.
- The humanities, social and human sciences section comprises 19 Max Planck Institutes, including a total of eight legal institutes.
- Otto Hahn (1948 to 1960)
- Adolf Butenandt (1960 to 1972)
- Reimar Lüst (1972 to 1984)
- Heinz A. Staab (1984 to 1990)
- Hans F. Zacher (1990 to 1996)
- Hubert Markl (1996 to 2002)
- Peter Gruss (2002 to 2014)
- Martin Stratmann (since June 2014)
The general administration in Munich manages the day-to-day business of the company and supports the company's organs and, in particular, the institutes in performing their administrative tasks. It is headed by one or more General Secretaries, initially named the General Manager and Executive Member of the Board of Directors.
Previous General Secretaries:
- 1946–1960 Ernst Telschow
- 1950–1961 Otto Benecke (together with Telschow)
- 1962–1966 Hans Ballreich
- 1966–1976 Friedrich Schneider
- 1976–1987 Dietrich Ranft
- 1987–1995 Wolfgang Hasenclever
- 1995-2010 Barbara Bludau
- 2010–2017 Ludwig Kronthaler
- since 2017 Rüdiger Willems
Rules and procedures of the Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society has internal rules and procedures, some of which have been published on the Internet. Selected procedures and regulations are:
- The statutes of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science . The statutes regulate the basic structures of the Max Planck Society and the Max Planck Institutes; All institutes should also have a statute according to Section 28 (2). According to Section 1 (2) of the Articles of Association, the “institutes of society” conduct “scientific research freely and independently.”
- The document Basic Science in Orderly Responsibility. On the governance of the Max Planck Society, there is a commentary on the statutes and an explanation of the governance and legal framework of the Max Planck Society by the lawyer Wolfgang Schön from 2015.
- The rules for safeguarding good scientific practice were adopted at the end of 2000 and last changed in 2009. Related to this are the rules of procedure in the event of suspected scientific misconduct and the guidelines of the Scientific Council for the appointment of ombudspersons in the Max Planck Institutes and the sections .
Further regulations exist for the advisory board and the boards of trustees of the Max Planck Institutes; the advisory boards "represent the central instrument of the self-supported scientific evaluation of the institutes of the Max Planck Society". The boards of trustees of the Max Planck Institutes, on the other hand, are supposed to establish the “connection to the public”. A board of trustees should be set up at each institute. A directory with all 534 curators of the Max Planck Institutes was published in 2019.
The Max Planck Society is largely (2006: approx. 82%) institutionally funded through grants from the federal and state governments on the basis of the MPG implementation agreement. The income generated from the activity financed with public funds (from expert reports, equipment sales, license exploitation - see Max-Planck-Innovation GmbH) is to be estimated in the overall budget of the MPG as a reduction in the grant. The MPG e. V. as well as the two legally independent Max Planck Institutes form a so-called application group and the overall budget consists of three legally separate sub-budgets, each of which has its own management principles. In addition to this institutional funding of the community of applicants, the federal government and the co-financing states can approve so-called special funding, which, however, requires the approval of the federal government and the other states due to possible consequential charges. The federal and state governments have shared these grants equally since 1965. The amount of the subsidy is determined by the Federal-State Commission for Educational Planning and Research Funding , and since 2008 by the Joint Science Conference on the basis of the general budget to be submitted by the MPG. In legal terms, this corresponds to an application for institutional funding (cf. §§ 23, 44 BHO). Additional income includes grants for the implementation of so-called third-party funded projects, which are financed by the federal government, the federal states and the European Union on the basis of standardized approval conditions as well as through grants from industry within the framework of so-called tax-privileged contract research. The so-called private association assets of the MPG e. V. is mapped within the overall budget like a business according to § 26 BHO, without being one. The incoming donations, bequests, inheritances, the legally dependent foundations and the conference facilities of the MPG e. V. Ringberg Castle and the Harnack House are managed within the association's assets.
Due to the almost complete financing from public funds, the Max Planck Society e. V. through the state audit offices responsible for the legally dependent Max Planck Institutes based on their country of domicile and the general administration, the so-called centrally assessed funds and private assets through Bayer. Supreme Audit Office and the Federal Audit Office on the basis of §§ 91 BHO, BayHO audited. In their auditing activities, the state audit offices act as auxiliary bodies of the parliaments and, through their activities, actually control the executive, i.e. H. the science ministries, which donate the state funds to the MPG e. V. approve. To avoid double audits, the audit offices of the FRG have an audit agreement for the MPG e. V. closed.
In 2019, the total budget of the Max Planck Society was 2.498 billion euros.
Planning security through continuous budget increases is given with the Pact for Research and Innovation .
The Max Planck Foundation has existed since 2006 and uses the funds raised exclusively for research projects by the Max Planck Society.
Strategic Innovation Fund: Several programs of the Max Planck Society are financed from the "Strategic Innovation Fund", which was set up in 2002 based on the recommendations of the "International Commission for System Evaluation of the German Research Foundation and the Max Planck Society". Funded programs concern, for example, the equality of women in the “Minerva Program”, the promotion of young talent through “Open Topic Max Planck Research Groups”, the “Max Planck Fellow” program for cooperation with universities and international cooperation in “Max Planck Centers ". The volume of the Strategic Innovation Fund amounts to 90.9 million euros in 2011.
Research institutions of the Max Planck Society
The research facilities of the Max Planck Society are divided into 86 scientifically independent Max Planck institutes, research centers and working groups.
Max Planck research groups at universities
In the last few years, so-called “Max Planck Research Groups” have been set up at several universities. These temporary, transdisciplinary groups are intended to further strengthen the networking of the Max Planck Institutes with the universities. These Max Planck research groups are not research institutions of the Max Planck Society. V., but about research units at universities. The heads and staff are employed by the universities. The financing is based on usually equal grants from the budget of the MPG e. V and the university. The appointment procedure as well as the evaluation are based on the agreed regulations (joint appointments, evaluation according to the advisory board regulations of the MPG e.V.).
- Max Planck Research Group Optics, Information and Photonics at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (2004–2008), transformed into the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light from January 2009
- Max Planck Research Unit for Structural Dynamics (MPSD) at the University of Hamburg within the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science , by the end of 2012, then in the Max Planck Institute for the structure and dynamics of matter converted
- Max Planck Research Group for Systems Immunology at the University of Würzburg
- The archive of the Max Planck Society (name until 2006: Archive for the History of the Max Planck Society ) is an archive founded in 1975 in the Berlin district of Dahlem . Its task is to centrally secure, collect and access the files of two research organizations : those of the Max Planck Society founded in 1948 and its predecessor, the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (KWG) founded in 1911 .
- The Berlin office of the Max Planck Society, which is located in the WissenschaftsForum Berlin , coordinates the MPG's contacts with politics and other science organizations and is part of the general administration.
- The Max Planck Digital Library is a central facility of the Max Planck Society. It supports scientists from all Max Planck Institutes with a broad portfolio of services in the fields of information provision, publication services and research data management . The task of the MPDL is to give MPG researchers optimal access to scientific information, to provide a sustainable infrastructure for scientific information management and to support the MPG in its open access policy. The MDPL is one of the largest recipients of scientific information in Europe. It organizes access to a wide variety of scientific journals, e-books , specialist databases and extensive open access publication services. Together with the libraries at the Max Planck Institutes, it ensures the supply of scientific information and publication options.
- The Max Planck Computing & Data Facility (MPCDF) in Garching near Munich operates two state-of-the-art supercomputers and several server clusters and thus provides the infrastructure and expertise for scientific calculations and (data) services for other Max Planck institutions Available. The facility emerged from the Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in 2015 and previously operated as the Garching Computing Center (RZG).
- The Society for Scientific Data Processing mbH Göttingen (GWDG, together with the University of Göttingen )
- The "Semiconductor Laboratory of the Max Planck Society" in Munich; the laboratory was operated by two institutes until 2013.
- The Harnack House is a scientific conference and meeting place in Berlin-Dahlem and is part of the so-called private association assets of the MPG e. V., which is administered and managed separately from the publicly financed budget.
- Ringberg Castle is a conference center of the Max Planck Society and is also part of the so-called private property.
- The information exchange offices of the MPG (IVS-BM and IVS-CPT) are responsible for providing scientific information for employees and guests of the MPG.
For the patenting and exploitation of the research results, the Max Planck Society e. V. founded a collecting society in 1970, which was renamed Max-Planck-Innovation GmbH in 2008 . This is a commercial GmbH and 100% subsidiary of the MPG e. V. and exploits the inventions from the field of the Max Planck Institutes on a commission basis (in its own name, but for the account of the MPG e.V.). It receives its exploitation expenses including a taxable profit from the MPG e. V. based on a commission contract from 1980, amended in 2002, replaced. In addition, the MPG e. V. also transferred the patent administration to Max-Planck-Innovation GmbH since 1995 because of the synergy effects, which until then had been part of a patent department of the general administration. For this, Max Planck Innovation also receives payment in the form of reimbursement of expenses. An average of 130 inventions are assessed each year, 80 to 100 of which ultimately lead to a patent application.
At the beginning of 2013, the third subsidiary, the Max Planck Foundation for International Peace and the Rule of Law, was founded. The foundation provides legal advice and training in conflict areas and transition states.
The Max Planck Society and the individual Max Planck Institutes have different levels of international cooperation: On the one hand, Max Planck Institutes have existed outside of Germany for a long time: the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in Nijmegen and two art-historical ones Institutes, the Bibliotheca Hertziana and the Art History Institute in Florence (KHI). While the Bibliotheca Hertziana had been an institute of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society since 1913, the KHI Florence has been part of the Max Planck Society since 2002. The Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience (2008) in the USA and the Max Planck Institute for International Procedural Law in Luxembourg (2012) are newly established . There are also so-called Max Planck Centers in India, South Korea, Japan, USA, Israel, Switzerland and Denmark.
Partner institutes exist in Shanghai and Buenos Aires : The "CAS-MPG Partner Institute for Computational Biology" in Shanghai was founded in 2005, the "Biomedicine Research Institute of Buenos Aires - CONICET-Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society" (IBioBA-MPSP ) exists since 2011.
The individual Max Planck Institutes also have numerous international collaborations in their respective research areas.
The Max Planck Society has also been working with the Chinese Academy of Sciences since 1974 . The collaboration began with a visit by then President Reimar Lüst to China. Since then, there has been an exchange of scientists, through which around 2,000 Chinese scientists have researched at Max Planck Institutes and about the same number of German scientists have been in China.
The Max Planck Society was awarded the Prince of Asturias Prize in 2013 for its international collaboration .
The Max Planck Society also works with the US military on individual projects. In 2009 she received around 18,000 US dollars from the Department of Defense for “Offices of Lawyers”. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has been funding the “Advanced X-Ray Integrated Sources” project with 100,000 US dollars since 2012 and materials research on nanonsensors with 283,000 US dollars since 2013 .
Max Planck Schools
In September 2017 the new program of the Max Planck Schools (full name: Max Planck Schools - a joint initiative between German Universities and German Research Organizations ) was announced. The Max Planck Schools are doctoral schools that bundle “excellence across Germany” and are intended to enable “graduate training with international appeal” in Germany. In 2018, three Max Planck Schools with a five-year pilot phase are to start, the actual training will start in 2019. The three schools are: Max Planck School of Cognition, Max Planck School Matter to Life and the Max Planck School of Photonics. Numerous scientists from universities, Max Planck Institutes and other non-university institutions are involved in each of the schools.
The Max Planck Society has published a quarterly, free research magazine with the title MaxPlanckResearch since 1999 . The circulation is 85,000 copies (as of mid-2013). The English edition "Max Planck Research" has a circulation of 10,000 copies. The predecessors of “MaxPlanckResearch” were the magazines “MPG-Spiegel” (1973.2 to 1998) and “MPG-monthly mirror” (1972 to 1973.1).
With the four-page information brochures Biomax, Geomax and Techmax, the “Max series” has been published for over 15 years. It provides teaching materials for science subjects in high school classes and is intended to bring “current research results into the classroom”. The "Max series" has a circulation of around 100,000 copies. The brochures - supplemented by additional text and image material - are accessible online via the “Max-Wissen” page.
The Max Planck Society also finances the open access journal “ eLife ”, whose website has been online since the end of 2012. Other donors of "eLife" are the British Wellcome Trust and the US Howard Hughes Medical Institute .
- Series of publications and the "Research Perspectives" commission
Since 2000, the Max Planck Society has published a documentation every five years on the research perspectives of individual selected areas of science to show which areas of research the Max Planck Society considers to be particularly promising. After the “Forschungsperspektiven 2000+” - a 260-page book - the “Forschungsperspektiven 2005+” with a length of 130 pages was published in April 2005. The documentation of the “Research Perspectives 2010+” was published from the outset as a brochure with 36 subject areas and in parallel as a platform on the Internet. In addition to short texts, longer specialist texts that explain individual topics in more detail are available on the Internet. In 2011 the Max Planck Society set up its own “Presidential Commission” on the research prospects of the society.
Under the name “Minerva-FemmeNet” there is a centrally funded mentoring network that aims to facilitate the scientific career of women in the Max Planck Society at all skill levels. It was founded in May 2001 at the MPI for Biophysics in Frankfurt and institutionalized in 2009. By April 2010, another 49 Max Planck Institutes joined the network. The mentoring program, which is coordinated today at the Max Planck Institute for European Legal History, is also open to former members of the institute. Around 270 volunteer mentors work in the network, and participants can be mentors at the same time. The members network through regular meetings (“Stammtische”) in different regions of Germany and organize public events such as panel discussions at regular intervals.
The Max Planck Research Prize , which has been awarded since 1990 and which is decided jointly with the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation , has been endowed with 750,000 euros since 2004 . The prize money is made available by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research . The prize was awarded until 2016. A continuation of the Max Planck Humboldt Research Prize has been announced for 2018 ; the prize is to go to a person from abroad and will then be endowed with 1.5 million euros.
For special services to the Max Planck Society, the MPG awards the Harnack Medal , which was donated back in 1924, at the time of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society. The Zülch Prize has been awarded since 1990 for special achievements in basic neurological research . Since 1998, the Society and the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft have been awarding a “Stifterverbandspreis” for basic research projects that are successfully applied in practice . In addition, several awards are given to young researchers, including the Otto Hahn Medal . The Arches Award ("Award for Research Cooperation and High Excellence in Science") honors outstanding researchers and excellent projects in German-Israeli cooperation; it is awarded by the Minerva Foundation , a subsidiary of the Max Planck Society.
Nobel Prize Winner of the Max Planck Society
Of the scientists who have been working at the Max Planck Institutes since 1948, 18 have so far been awarded the Nobel Prize for their discoveries or research work, some of which were not during their time at the Max Planck Institutes (alphabetical order , Subject and year): Walter Bothe Physik 1954, Paul Crutzen Chemistry 1995, Johann Deisenhofer Chemistry 1988, Manfred Eigen Chemistry 1967, Gerhard Ertl Chemistry 2007, Stefan Hell Chemistry 2014, Theodor Hänsch Physics 2005, Robert Huber Chemistry 1988, Klaus von Klitzing Physics 1985, Georges Köhler medicine 1984, Konrad Lorenz medicine 1973, Feodor Lynen medicine 1964, Hartmut Michel chemistry 1988, Erwin Neher medicine 1991, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard medicine 1995, Ernst Ruska physics 1986, Bert Sakmann medicine 1991 and Karl Ziegler chemistry 1963. The “Chronicle of the KWG and MPG” also counts Ada Yonath among the Nobel Prize winners of the Max Planck Society.
Criticism - payment of doctoral students through scholarships
In 2004 the Max Planck Society faced allegations that its doctoral candidates were not being treated appropriately. Until then, foreign doctoral students were usually given a scholarship free of social insurance , whereas German doctoral students were employed subject to social insurance contributions. This discrimination was developed by the Italian physicist and PhD - student at the International Max Planck Research School (IMPRS) of the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) Bonn , Andrea Raccanelli, in 2004, before the European Commission brought. The result was a change in the “Guidelines of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science e. V. for the promotion of young scientists (in Germany) and the promotion of scientific cooperation with foreign countries ”.
The award of scholarships to doctoral students has expanded considerably in recent years, including among German doctoral students, which has also been discussed in the media. In a Bundestag hearing on March 28, 2012, the education and science union raised the question of whether the scholarships were an attempt to save on social security contributions . The union therefore called on those affected to initiate a status determination procedure with the German Pension Insurance Federation in order to secure claims in the social security systems if necessary . The President of the Max Planck Society, Peter Gruss, rejected the criticism in an article for Der Tagesspiegel on April 5, 2012.
In March 2015, the Max Planck Society announced that it would provide all doctoral students with a Max Planck funding agreement from July 2015 . In the final stage, the funds for the promotion of young talent should be increased by 50 million euros, which corresponds to additional expenditure for young people of 40%. At the same time, the Max Planck Society adopted and published guidelines for the training of doctoral candidates in 2015 .
- Eckart Henning , Marion Kazemi : Chronicle of the Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science: 1911–2011: data and sources. (Overall title: 100 Years of the Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science, Part 1), Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-428-13623-0 , ISBN 3-428-13623-3
- Eckart Henning, Marion Kazemi: Handbook on the history of the institutes of the Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science 1911–2011 - data and sources , Berlin 2016, 2 volumes, volume 1: Institutes and research centers AL ( online ), volume 2: Institutes and research centers MZ ( online ) (Overall title: 100 Years of the Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science, Part 2)
- Bernhard vom Brocke , Hubert Laitko (ed.): The Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society and its institutes. Studies on their history: the Harnack principle. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1996, ISBN 3-11-015483-8
- Rudolf Vierhaus , Bernhard vom Brocke (ed.): Research in the field of tension between politics and society. History and structure of the Kaiser Wilhelm / Max Planck Society. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1990, ISBN 3-421-02744-7
- Alison Abbott: German science starts facing up to its historical amnesia. In: Nature , Volume 403 (2000), p. 474 f. (Article on the Commission for the Clarification of the History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during National Socialism)
- Gretchen Vogel: Structure East: Max Planck's East German Experiment. In: Science , Volume 326, November 6, 2009
- Peter Gruss, Reinhard Rürup (Ed.): Places of thought. Max Planck Society and Kaiser Wilhelm Society. Breaks and continuities 1911–2011. Sandstein Verlag, Dresden 2011, ISBN 978-3-942422-01-7
- Richard E. Schneider: A (re) development under uncertain auspices: The founding history of the Max Planck Society. In: Germany Archive 8/2011, August 15, 2011 ( online )
- Literature by and about the Max Planck Society in the catalog of the German National Library
- Web presence of the Max Planck Society and its institutes
- Statutes of the Max Planck Society (PDF file; 116 kB)
- Jürgen Renn and Horst Kant: Success outside the mainstream. In: MaxPlanckResearch 3/2007
- "Max-Wissen" (website of the Max Planck Society for pupils and teachers with extensive teaching materials)
- Youtube channel of the Max Planck Society (partly German, partly English films)
- Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science eV: Prof. Dr. Martin Stratmann. Retrieved July 25, 2020 .
- Statutes of the Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science V. Version of June 14, 2012, accessed on March 3, 2017 (PDF; 132 kB; § 1: Name and purpose ).
- "World University Rankings 06 Who's up? Who's down? “ ( Memento from June 22, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Times Higher Education Supplement, June 22, 2007 (archived, website posted in June 2007) (also available as PDF)
- Max Planck Society "Facts & Figures", accessed on September 9, 2017
- Max Planck Society "Facts & Figures", accessed on June 27, 2017
- Brochure Structure East of the Max Planck Society.
- Research program "History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism"
- Research program "History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society under National Socialism" , accessed December 12, 2014
- History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society during National Socialism
- Book series "History of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in National Socialism" in the catalog of the German National Library
- The Max Planck Society is researching its own history: the research program is designed to run for seven years , notification from the MPG at the beginning of the program on February 6, 2015, accessed on July 7, 2016
- Homepage of the research program, accessed on July 7, 2016
- Page about Florian Schmaltz, project manager of the commission
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