Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (born November 7, 1903 in Vienna ; † February 27, 1989 ibid) was an Austrian zoologist , Nobel Prize winner in medicine and one of the main representatives of classical comparative behavioral research ( ethology ). He himself called this research area " animal psychology " until 1949 . Lorenz is seen as the founding father in German-speaking countries . He was an employee of the Racial Policy Office of the NSDAP and director of the Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology .
On February 27, 1989, the Spiegel called Konrad Lorenz the " Einstein of the animal soul". In 1973, together with Karl von Frisch and Nikolaas Tinbergen, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine “for their discoveries regarding the development and triggering of individual and social behavioral patterns”.
Together with Rupert Riedl and Gerhard Vollmer , Lorenz is considered to be the main proponent of evolutionary epistemology , for which his journal article Kant's theory of the apriori in the light of contemporary biology from 1941 was trend-setting. In his book The Back of the Mirror, which he sees as his main work, Konrad Lorenz rounded off his ideas about the interplay of genetic and civilizational influences on human cognitive abilities. In old age he also expressed himself as a civilizational and ecological critic of society and became a leading figure in the Green movement in Austria .
Origin and school time
Konrad Lorenz was the second son of the respected orthopedic surgeon Adolf Lorenz . Adolf Lorenz was almost fifty years old when his son was born, Konrad's mother Emma Maria (née Lecher) forty-one. His older brother Albert (1885–1970), who like his father became a successful orthopedic surgeon, was eighteen years old at the time. At the beginning of the 20th century his father was a world-famous physician who practiced not only in Vienna, but also regularly in New York for many decades and was received by Theodore Roosevelt in the White House, among others . Konrad was often called "the American" by his father.
Konrad Lorenz grew up in his parents' villa in Altenberg near Vienna . From 1909 he attended elementary school and from 1915 the Schottengymnasium in Vienna , where he graduated with distinction in 1921 . He was a childhood friend of Karl Popper . Even as a schoolboy, Lorenz was occupied with observing animals on the property in Altenberg, for example jackdaws living on the property and the goose Martina .
In 1922, at the request of his father, Konrad Lorenz began studying medicine at the Premedical School of Columbia University in New York . However, he returned to Austria in 1923, where he continued his medical studies at the University of Vienna until 1928 . In 1927 Lorenz married the medical student Margarethe Gebhardt (the sister of the later photographer Barbara Pflaum ), with whom he had been friends since he was three and whose later income as a doctor gave him financial support for his studies until 1951. The children of Margarethe and Konrad were Thomas and Agnes Lorenz.
1928 was followed, also in Vienna, the promotion for Doctor of Medicine (Dr. med. Univ.). In the same year and - after an interruption - from 1931 to 1935 he was employed as an assistant to Ferdinand Hochstetter at the II. Anatomical Institute of the University of Vienna, which was a magnet for German-national and ethnically -minded students. Hochstetter made it possible for Lorenz to pursue his ethological research at the same time . He was then banned from ethological research by Hochstetter's successor, which is why Lorenz gave up his position as assistant and pursued his interests in Altenberg, where he had set up a private zoological research station from 1928, without paying as a private scholar . The background was that at that time in Vienna “for reasons of the worldview of the ruling circles, biology was more undesirable than desirable” “and especially the direction in which Lorenz works so well”.
Konrad Lorenz first met the ornithologists Oskar Heinroth and Erwin Stresemann in Berlin in 1931 - a decisive event for his entire subsequent scientific career. In 1933 he received his doctorate for the second time in Vienna, this time as a doctor of philosophy in zoology .
In 1936 Lorenz received his habilitation , so that from 1937 he was granted the license to teach "Zoology with special consideration of comparative anatomy and animal psychology " at the University of Vienna; this was the first academic license of its kind in Austria.
Notgemeinschaft scholarship holder
Due to the rejection of his ethological research by the majority of the Viennese professorships, Konrad Lorenz applied abroad in 1937 - to the Notgemeinschaft der Deutschen Wissenschaft , the forerunner of the German Research Foundation (DFG) - to finance his studies on innate movements in duck birds . However, this application was rejected, despite an extremely positive opinion from Erwin Stresemann, as can be seen from the files received from the DFG. The reason for the rejection was that “above all, the political convictions and descent of Dr. Konrad Lorenz questioned ”. What is meant is that it was unclear whether Lorenz was of Aryan , i.e. non-Jewish descent.
Supported by the botanist Fritz von Wettstein and other academics, Konrad Lorenz again submitted an application for project funding in Germany a few months after the rejection. Wettstein now expressly certified Lorenz that he had “ never made a secret of his approval of National Socialism . […] His Aryan descent is also okay. ” Otto Antonius also wrote in his report that Lorenz“ never made a secret of his admiration for the new conditions in Germany and the achievements in all areas ”. In the same way, the Viennese professor and doctor of medicine, Alexander Pichler, confirmed:
“Lately, Dr. Lorenz repeatedly showed his growing interest in National Socialism and expressed himself positively about his idea. As far as I know his biological studies, they are in the direction of the worldview prevailing in the German Reich. "
In the second attempt, Lorenz's application for a research grant was successful. From 1938 he worked on disturbances of instinctive behavior through domestication on wild geese and crossbreeds of wild goose and domestic goose . In the following years - until 1944 - Lorenz transferred his knowledge about domestication-related changes in the behavior of animals to an increasing extent to humans.
Career in National Socialism
On June 28, 1938 - a few weeks after the annexation of Austria to the German Reich - Konrad Lorenz applied for admission to the NSDAP . In this application for admission, he confirmed the opinions of the reviewers of his research application to the "Notgemeinschaft" and noted in handwriting:
“As a German thinker and scientist, I was of course always a National Socialist and, for ideological reasons, a bitter enemy of the black regime (never donated or flagged) and because of this attitude, which also emerged from my work, had difficulties obtaining the lectureship. I developed a really successful advertising activity among academics and especially students, long before the upheaval I had succeeded in proving the biological impossibility of Marxism to socialist students and converting them to National Socialism. On my many congress and lecture trips I always and everywhere tried with all my might to counter the lies of the Jewish international press about the alleged popularity of Schuschnigg and about the alleged rape of Austria by National Socialism with compelling evidence. I did the same to all foreign work guests at my research center in Altenberg. Finally, I can say that all of my life's scientific work, which focuses on questions of ethnicity, race and social psychology, is in the service of National Socialist thought! "
Professor in Koenigsberg
On August 31, 1940 Konrad Lorenz was appointed professor of comparative psychology at the chair for psychology of the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Königsberg . In Lorenz's case, professional competence and “political qualifications” were paired optimally, since Lorenz had made sufficiently large preliminary work towards the Nazi regime and was also recognized in biology circles. The appeal was made “on the intervention of Minister Rust against the resistance of the faculty”. Supporters of the appointment were mainly Eduard Baumgarten and Otto Koehler , but also the sociologist Arnold Gehlen . In 1936 he had called for Immanuel Kant , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Johann Gottlieb Fichte to be made the basis of racial understanding under National Socialism . In 1938 Gehlen took over the renowned Kant chair at the University of Königsberg, where he was succeeded by Konrad Lorenz after Gehlen moved to the University of Vienna. Rust, the Reich Minister for Science, Education and Public Education, took up this argument and countered critics of his decision that Lorenz, through his research on "innate forms of experience", was in the best possible way linked to the epistemology of German idealism .
Konrad Lorenz 's article on Kant's doctrine of the a priori in the light of contemporary biology , whose lines of thought he expanded into evolutionary epistemology in the 1960s , also comes from this period (1941) .
Hereditary biological "studies" in occupied Poland
Konrad Lorenz's teaching activity in Königsberg ended just one year after it began, because in October 1941 he was drafted into the Wehrmacht as a soldier . After a short basic training, he was transferred to a military hospital in Poznan in German-occupied Poland from 1941 to 1944 as an army psychologist and from 1942 as a military doctor . There tasks that have not been fully clarified have been assigned to him to this day; he himself never spoke about this time. All that is documented is his participation in a racial “study” of Poznan “German-Polish mongrels” and Poles, which was carried out as part of the “suitability research” working group within the Reich Foundation for German East Research under the direction of Rudolf Hippius . The aim of the "study" was to examine the people living in the "Reichsgau Wartheland" for their "hereditary biological" suitability to remain in their home country. German immigrants from the Baltic States , Volhynia and Bessarabia as well as from the Reich were to be settled in the Wartheland ; Local residents who, on the basis of a psychological assessment, were considered to be “ anti-social ” or “hereditary biological inferior” should, however, be transferred to concentration camps . Lorenz took part in this "study", the practical implementation of which had been in progress since 1940, on a voluntary basis.
Lorenz as a racist
From Lorenz's file of appointment as professor in Königsberg it emerges that shortly after joining the NSDAP he was "an employee of the NSDAP's Racial Political Office with permission to speak", that is, he was allowed to agitate in the interests of National Socialism .
In 1939/40 Lorenz had also written several essays whose ideological proximity to the racist ideas of the Nazi regime was so conspicuous that even then they were perceived by his “closest and most loyal friends” as deliberate ingratiation and as “self-endangerment as a scientist”. Lorenz said in the journal Der Biologe, which is mainly used by teachers :
“Whether we share the fate of the dinosaurs, or whether we soar to an unimagined higher development that our current brain organization may not even be able to grasp, is exclusively a question of the biological power and the will to live of our people . In particular, the great decision currently depends on the question of whether or not we learn in good time to combat certain phenomena of decay in people and mankind caused by the lack of natural selection . Especially in this race to be or not to be, we Germans are a thousand steps ahead of all other cultural peoples. "
In another publication from 1940, Lorenz et al. a. the need for "weeding out ethically inferior" and predicts:
"If this selection fails, if the eradication of the elements afflicted with failures fails, then they penetrate the national body in a biologically very analogous manner and for just as analogous causes as the cells of a malignant tumor [...] Should there be mutation-promoting factors, then their recognition and Turning off the most important task of the breed groom at all [...] If, on the other hand, it turns out that under the conditions of domestication there is no accumulation of mutations, but only the elimination of natural selection is responsible for the increase in the number of existing mutants and the imbalance of the strains, then that should Breed care should nevertheless be concerned with an even sharper eradication of ethically inferior values than it already is today. "
Lorenz took up this choice of words again in 1973:
“The perishable growth of malignant tumors is based, as already indicated, on the fact that certain defense measures fail or are rendered ineffective by the tumor cells, by means of which the body otherwise protects itself against the appearance of 'anti-social' cells. Only if these are treated and nourished as equals by the surrounding tissue can the fatal infiltrative growth of the tumor occur. The analogy already discussed can be continued here. A person who remains in an infantile state due to the failure of the maturation of social norms of behavior necessarily becomes a parasite of society. He expects to continue to enjoy the care of the adults as a matter of course, which is only due to the child. [...] If the advancing infantilization and growing juvenile delinquency of the civilized man is actually based, as I fear, on genetic deterioration, then we are in grave danger. "
Against the "humiliation of people"
"The decay types enforce the people and the state thanks to their higher rate of reproduction and their coarse competitive methods against their conspecifics in a very short time and bring both of them to ruin for analogous biological reasons, from which the likewise asocial cells of a cancerous tumor destroy the structure of the cell state."
“Fortunately, it is easier for the people's doctor to eradicate them and less dangerous for the supra-individual organism than the surgeon's operation on the individual body. The great technical difficulty lies in recognizing them. "
In 1940, Lorenz rated the political conditions in Germany as exemplary:
“The racial idea as the basis of our form of government has already achieved an infinite amount in this direction. The Nordic movement has always been emotionally directed against the deprivation of man, all of its ideals are those that would be destroyed by the biological consequences of civilization and domestication outlined here. "
The American professor of philosophy and the history of science Theodora J. Kalikow conducted research in the 1970s at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth with the support of the National Science Foundation on the influence of other theories on Lorenz's understanding of ethology. In 1980 she described Lorenz's ideological closeness to the Nazi regime as "conscious opportunism"; She described its technical- biological basis as follows: Lorenz had “interpreted changes in the instinctive behavioral patterns of domesticated animals as symptoms of decline ”. At the same time he assumed that the same process of domestication and decline also applies to humans, “that civilization is in a process of 'decline and decline'”. Finally, Lorenz connected "the above views with racial politics and other features of the Nazi program". According to Kalikow, a review of his writings showed that both the parallel setting of the domestication of animals with the course of human civilization and their classification as a process of decline after 1945 was maintained by Lorenz.
Career after 1945
Start again in Altenberg
Here he founded an "Institute for Comparative Behavioral Research" in 1949, which belonged to the Austrian Academy of Sciences . Also in 1949 he published his book He talked to the cattle, the birds and the fish - which is still popular today - in order to finance his research. This book was shortlisted for "Best Popular Science Book of All Time," named by the Royal Institution of Great Britain in 2006. (The winner was The Periodic Table by Primo Levi ). A professorship in Graz , for which u. a. Karl von Frisch started, he was not awarded in 1950; this was partly due to his past under National Socialism, partly to the reservations in Austria against a biologist who viewed the behavior of humans and animals primarily as innate, i.e. from the perspective of evolutionary theory.
Director at the Max Planck Institute
In 1950 the German Max Planck Society in Buldern / Westphalia set up a “Research Center for Comparative Behavioral Research” especially for Konrad Lorenz, as a branch of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Biology Wilhelmshaven, u. a. to counter poaching attempts from Oxford . There had Nikolaas Tinbergen accepted a teaching position in 1949 and immediately resumed contact with Lorenz.
In 1955 the Max Planck Society began building the Max Planck Institute for Behavioral Physiology at Eßsee in Upper Bavaria; later this location was named Seewiesen . There Lorenz became deputy director under Erich von Holst and director after his death (1961–1973). In 1957 he was appointed honorary professor for zoology at the University of Munich.
In the 1950s, Lorenz was the only biologist in a group of developmental psychologists who, on behalf of the World Health Organization (WHO) as the Study Group on the Psychobiological Development of the Child, discussed the consequences of ethology for child psychology . Although he had never researched early childhood development, the phenomenon that Lorenz described above all in geese of the incorrect imprinting of newly hatched chicks (for example on a human) was discovered by him and by numerous psychologists - including Therese Benedek , John Bowlby and René A. Spitz - Transferred to the mother-child interaction: A disturbance of the maternal imprint on her newborn, which is instinctive and independent of the baby's behavior, could lead to the mother-side not developing a normal mother-child bond and this to lifelong social pathologies of the child could lead. Especially in conservative circles in the USA, this led to a biologically based justification for the traditional role of women as housewives and mothers. In retrospect, the Spanish science and philosophy historian Marga Vicedo criticized in 2009: “Lorenz's work played an important role in an emerging discourse that blamed the mother for emotional atrophy and helped him to reformulate his eugenic fears in a socially acceptable way. "
In 1963 his bestseller Das so-called Böse was published. On the natural history of aggression , in 1973 he published two more bestsellers: The eight deadly sins of civilized mankind and his main philosophical work The Back of the Mirror. Attempt at a natural history of human knowledge . In 1973, together with Karl von Frisch and Nikolaas Tinbergen, he was awarded the “ Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine” for discoveries about the organization and triggering of individual and social behavioral patterns.
In 1988 his last major work was published: "Here am I - where are you?", A precise ethological description of gray geese as a synopsis of around 60 years of intensive behavioral observation.
Commitment to environmental protection in Austria
From the 1960s onwards, Lorenz began to be interested in environmental issues, triggered by Rachel Carson's (1907–1964) book The Silent Spring (1962): “Essentially, it was Rachel Carson's book The Silent Spring that caught my attention and me to the fight against technocracy. ”Jost Herbig and Rainer Hohlfeld wrote:“ About [the] feasibility of our technical world, Lorenz correctly recognized ... we have lost the feeling for the uniqueness and irretrievability of life. Innate programs of gestalt perception - one of the supporting pillars of 'evolutionary epistemology' - could move us to insight and conversion. ... Shaped by the perception of the great harmonies of organic creation, the 'ratiomorphic' non-rational performance of gestalt perception creates an infallible 'compassion for the creature, with the fate of the individual' ... " Hoimar von Ditfurth (1921–1989) comments on Lorenz's theory as follows: "We have the a priori valid categories of thought and imagination (time, three-dimensional space, causality according to Immanuel Kant (1724–1804)) as part of the genetically anchored wealth of experience of our species." In 1978, Lorenz was immediately inherited before his 75th birthday to the figurehead of the successful Austrian referendum against the commissioning of the Zwentendorf nuclear power plant . In 1985 he was also named the Konrad Lorenz referendum (see list ) against the construction of a hydropower plant in the conservation area of the Hainburg wetlands .
Continuity in thinking and opinions on the past
His conclusion that diseased genetic material must be separated out in order to maintain a viable civilization, formed the core of his biologically determined understanding of society until his death - recognizable u. a. because his extensive reasoning for this view, published in 1943, was still referred to as the “main work” on the back cover of his popular science dtv books in the 1960s.
With regard to his membership in the NSDAP, he stated that he had never had a membership card, but admitted that in his essays from the 1940s he expressed himself “in the language of the Nazi regime that we rightly hate today ”. In a conversation with the Wiener Abendzeitung in 1973 he emphasized the continuity of his basic convictions:
“My aim was to show that the increasing domestication of humans is threatening humanity. This problem, which still concerns me intensely today, first appeared on me at that time. "
In his book The Eight Deadly Sins of Civilized Mankind , he interpreted the growing crime rate among young people that he accused of “throwing out their parents with the bath water” as a sign of genetic decay (see quote above). Lorenz said about the population development in 1988:
“It turns out that the ethical people do not have so many children and the gangsters continue to reproduce indefinitely and carelessly.” And: “... mankind has not done anything sensible against overpopulation. One could therefore get a certain sympathy for AIDS. "
Kalikow (University of Massachusetts Dartmouth) therefore came to the conclusion that the fundamental ideological elements of Lorenz were unbroken in the post-war period: "Thus, those ethologists , sociobiologists and popular science authors who have made use of Lorenz's biologistic view of society, also - consciously or unconsciously - accepts its totalitarian implications, namely that a successful society must be genetically and politically manipulated. "
On February 25, 1989, Konrad Lorenz was admitted to the polyclinic of Vienna's 9th district because of acute kidney failure , where his health deteriorated rapidly. He died here on February 27, 1989; on March 6th he was buried in the family cemetery in the local cemetery in St. Andrä-Wölker .
Awards, honors and memberships (selection)
- 1957 member of the Leopoldina , member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
- 1964 Austrian Decoration of Honor for Science and Art
- 1966 member of the National Academy of Sciences
- 1969 Kalinga Prize for popularizing science
- 1972 Large Federal Cross of Merit with a star
- 1972 Golden Medal of the Humboldt Society
- 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- 1974 member of the American Philosophical Society
- 1981 First award of the Konrad Lorenz Prize
- 1984 Big Federal Cross of Merit with star and shoulder ribbon
- 1984 Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
The honorary doctorate awarded in 1983 by the University of Salzburg - one of a total of ten honorary doctorates awarded by various universities - was posthumously revoked in 2015 because he had disseminated "essential elements of the racist ideology of National Socialism" in his publications.
Well-known Lorenz students
Well-known Lorenz students are the behavioral researcher and human ethologist Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt , the wildlife biologist Antal Festetics , the behavioral researcher Eberhard Curio , Wolfgang Schleidt , Otto Koenig , Wolfgang Wickler and the biopsychologist Norbert Bischof and the chaos researcher Otto E. Rössler . For John Bowlby , the acquaintance with Lorenz's work was an essential impetus for the theoretical foundation of his attachment theory .
Lorenz's innovative approach in animal behavioral biology
Today Konrad Lorenz is considered one of the co-founders of the biology of behavior and its most important pre-war theorist. Lorenz's epoch-making essay The Kumpan in the Bird's Environment , published in 1935 in the Journal für Ornithologie , proved to be groundbreaking for behavioral research in German-speaking countries . In the 1930s, Lorenz bundled the animal observations of various researchers in a handy, physiological "theory of instinctive movements" and thus paved the way for the comparison of behavior between different species from 1937; In 1937 Lorenz did research for the first time and for several months together with Nikolaas Tinbergen (on gray geese) in Altenberg near Vienna.
The term comparative behavioral research indicates that this research approach regards the behavior of animals as hereditary in a similar way as comparative anatomy regards the body structure of animals.
Konrad Lorenz relied less on experiments than on precise observation and description of the behavior of animals in their natural environment. "The fundamentally new approach that Lorenz brought into behavioral research [...] with this theory lies in the assumption that in the complex behavioral processes of animals, which appear so diverse and variable, there are similarly structured basic building blocks of behavior, the hereditary coordination or instinctive movements , identify. […] In contrast to the view, which was still largely accepted at the beginning of the 1930s, that animal behavior is purely reactive, Lorenz emphasizes the spontaneity of animal behavior, especially the instinctive movement. ”Lorenz himself saw in Oskar Heinroth and Charles Otis Whitman the forefathers of ethology . In North America, this role is also attributed to William Morton Wheeler .
The exact description of all observable behaviors in ethograms and the exact recording of their frequencies and sequences enabled the comparison of behaviors between different closely related species. Lorenz was able to "explain" certain behaviors of one species as modifications of behaviors of another species - especially with duck and geese species - very similar to the comparative anatomy , which often only emerged from the comparison of certain physical characteristics of related species in the course of the Can trace the tribal history of these species. In the field of behavioral research, this approach is the only way to understand the evolution of behavior, since fossil evidence for this is largely lacking; at most from trace fossils z. B. Inferences about social associations can be derived.
Lorenz 'importance lies in the fact that he, more clearly than other researchers before him, has focused in his scientific work on two genetic characteristics: on innate triggers for behavior (" key stimuli " and " innate trigger mechanisms ", AAM) and on one demonstrable developmental phase in various animal species, in which an irrevocable imprint is possible. A peculiarity of the theory represented by Lorenz was that - apart from the special case of coinage - he assumed a strict dichotomy of innate and learned behavior, whereby he considered the innate behavior to be rigid, unchangeable and, from a phylogenetic point of view, not as a preliminary stage of learned, i.e. through Experience modified behavior. Today, however, it is considered certain that innate behavior can also be changed through experience - through learning .
To illustrate his basic conviction that the behavior of animals is primarily controlled by internal instincts and less by external triggers, Konrad Lorenz developed a descriptive psychohydraulic instinct model (opposing reflex theorists and behaviorist views) and therefore accepted for decades : instinct energies can adopt this model according to - similar to the water in a water pipe network - spread in certain channels, damming up and overflowing. Today, however, this theory is considered obsolete among behavioral researchers. a. replaced by sociobiological , behavioral ecological models and models based on computer technology.
Lorenz's scientific importance is at least as much due to the fact that he made a significant contribution to establishing behavioral biology (he himself often called the field " animal psychology " until 1949 ) as an independent research area at German universities and also to public awareness of this subject to move. His various animal stories, which have been published since 1949 and are still legible today, contributed to this, in which he tried - unlike most non-fiction authors before him - to describe the behavior of animals from their own point of view rather than their behavior from that point of view of man. His instinctive theory of behavior also stimulated numerous scientists to research between 1935 and 1970, as this theory offered an explanatory model that could be checked in empirical studies. His former student Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt became one of the world's most respected researchers in the field of human ethology .
Many attempts to interpret animal behavior that Konrad Lorenz published do not stand up to today's scientific criteria, and his theory of instinct is no longer used by behavioral researchers as a working hypothesis. Since the mid-1970s, more and more researchers were moving away from Lorenz's theory of instinct and increasingly turning to behavioral and neurobiological issues. In 2011, the Swiss science historian Tania Munz wrote in a study on the goose Martina that the “scientific climate” of the 1980s had led to the research represented by Lorenz being “sidelined”. Lorenz's aversion was also due to the fact that he defended the evolutionary biologically contestable concept of species conservation (see Teleonomy ) throughout his life . As his biographers, Klaus Taschwer and Benedikt Föger , point out, his research methods have also become “rare because they are much too time-consuming before they produce results. Describing the behavioral repertoire of an animal takes years - in the research industry of the 21st century with its maxim of 'publish or perish', that is to say 'publish or lose', a sheer impossibility. "
Konrad Lorenz became known far beyond the boundaries of his specialist field in the 1950s when he made his studies (including gray geese and cichlids ), wrapped in entertaining animal stories rich in anecdotes, accessible to scientific amateurs, even children. Since the 1960s, his fame continued to rise through various committed popular science publications - including Das so-called Böse (1963) and The Eight Deadly Sins of Civilized Humanity (1973) - with the result that he was increasingly perceived by the public as a cultural pessimist and philosopher has been; These writings are shaped by his deep conviction that human behavior is largely determined by biological, phylogenetic guidelines. Konrad Lorenz has been criticized again and again because he often transferred individual phenomena from the animal world directly to human behavior and at the same time set human characteristics in analogy to individual phenomena from the animal kingdom ( anthropomorphism ). It was also criticized that his numerous human ethological publications were not underpinned by his own experiments.
- 1949: He talked to the cattle, the birds and the fish (new edition from 1998 by dtv, vol. 20225, ISBN 3-423-20225-4 )
- 1950a: This is how humans came across dogs. dtv tape 329
- 1955: About killing conspecifics. Yearbook of the Max Planck Society. Westdeutscher Verlag Dortmund, 31 pages
- 1957: Methods of behavior research. In: Kükenthals Handbuch der Zoologie, 8, 10, 1957, Liefer 1, 1–22, 282–296.
- 1963: The so-called evil . On the natural history of aggression. (New edition from 1998 by dtv: ISBN 3-423-33017-1 )
- 1954: The goose child Martina , self-published by the author
- 1965: About animal and human behavior. From the development of the theory of behavior. Collected treatises from 1931–1963. Volumes I and II: Munich, Zurich: Piper
- 1965: Evolution and Modification of Behavior. Chicago
- 1965: The flight of birds. Neske Verlag, Pfullingen
- 1968: The behavioral scientist's worldview. Three papers. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, 154 pages
- 1973: The eight deadly sins of civilized humanity . (New edition as: Serie Piper, Vol. 50. ISBN 3-492-20050-8 )
- 1973: The back of the mirror. Attempt at a natural history of human knowledge . Munich, Zurich: Piper
- 1978a: Comparative Behavioral Research. Basics of ethology . Vienna, New York: Springer.
- 1978b: The year of the greylag goose. dtv Munich (6th edition 1990, new edition 2003)
- 1983: The degradation of the human. Munich (Piper), ISBN 3-492-02833-0
- 1983: Edited by Konrad Lorenz and Franz Wuketits: The evolution of thinking. Twelve posts. Munich: Piper, ISBN 978-3-492-02793-9
- 1987: Konrad Lorenz, Kurt L. Mündl: Noah would set sail. Before us the flood. dtv Munich, ISBN 978-3-512-00682-1
- 1988: Here I am - where are you? Ethology of the greylag goose. Munich, Zurich: Piper, ISBN 978-3-492-11358-8 .
- 1992: The natural science of humans. An introduction to comparative behavioral research. The Russian manuscript 1944–1948. (Edited from the estate of Agnes von Cranach. Munich 1992)
The main work: The back of the mirror
In 1973 Konrad Lorenz published his book, The Back of the Mirror, which he called his main work . Attempt at a natural history of human knowledge . The evolutionary red thread through the book is a reconstruction of developmental steps of cognitive performance in six stages (1: Bilateria, 2: fish, reptiles, 3: mammals, 4: monkeys, 5: great apes, 6: humans), the respective layers are through the so-called “fulgurations” (Latin fulgur = lightning) are separated. In this book he discusses the interplay of genetic and civilizational influences on human cognitive abilities. He tries to show systematic relationships, interactions and laws between biological and sociocultural evolution, i.e. between genetically determined, instinctive and learned, cultural behavior. The aim of his analyzes is a comprehensive explanation of human behavior and - derived from this - perhaps even a prediction of further cultural evolution.
Today, the book is considered to be the first major systematic version of evolutionary epistemology , which was subsequently expanded by the physicist and philosopher Gerhard Vollmer and the marine biologist Rupert Riedl .
Magazine articles, lectures and essays
- 1927: Observations on jackdaws. In: Journal for Ornithology 75, pp. 511-519. Institute for Bird Research ornithological station Helgoland Wilhelmshaven.
- 1931: Contributions to the ethology of social corvids. In: Journal for Ornithology 79, pp. 67–127, Institute for Bird Research Vogelwarte Helgoland Wilhelmshaven. (Reprint in Konrad Lorenz: On animal and human behavior . Collected treatises 1965, Vol. I)
- 1932: Considerations about the recognition of the species-specific instinctual actions of birds. In: Journal for Ornithology, 80, pp. 50-98. Institute for Bird Research ornithological station Helgoland Wilhelmshaven.
- 1935: The companion in the bird's environment. The conspecific as the triggering moment of social behavior. In: Journal for Ornithology 83 (Issue 2 and 3), pp. 137–215, 289–413, Institute for Bird Research Vogelwarte Helgoland Wilhelmshaven. doi: 10.1007 / BF01905355 ( national license ) (reprinted 1965 in: About animal and human behavior , Vol. I).
- 1937a: On the concept of instinctual action. Folia Biotheoretica Ser. B. 2, pp. 17-50.
- 1937b: On the formation of the concept of instinct. Print version of the lecture on the criticism of the conceptual formation of instinct from February 17, 1936. In: Die Naturwissenschaften 25, pp. 289–300, 307–318, 325–331 (reprinted in Konrad Lorenz: About animal and human behavior . Collected treatises 1965, Vol. I)
- 1938: Konrad Lorenz and Nikolaas Tinbergen: Taxis and instinctive action in the egg rolling movement of the gray goose. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, Volume 2, pp. 1-29.
- 1939: Comparative behavioral research. In: Zoologischer Anzeiger, Supplement 12, pp. 69-102.
- 1939: About deficiency symptoms in the instinctive behavior of pets and their socio-psychological significance. In: Otto Klemm (Ed.) Character and Education. Report on the 16th congress of the German Society for Psychology in Bayreuth from 2-4. July 1939. Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag, Leipzig 1939, pp. 139–147.
- 1940a: Pair formation in the common raven. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 3, pp. 278-292.
- 1940b: Disorders of intrinsic behavior caused by domestication. In: Journal of Applied Psychology and Character Studies 59 (1, 2), pp. 2–81. (Controversial content regarding Konrad Lorenz's past as a National Socialist)
- 1941a: Comparative movement studies on anatids. Journal für Ornithologie 89, pp. 194–293 (reprinted in: Konrad Lorenz: About animal and human behavior . Collected papers, Vol. II, 1965)
- 1941b: Kant's doctrine of the a priori in the light of contemporary biology. In: Blätter für Deutsche Philosophie 15, pp. 94–125
- 1943: The innate forms of possible experience. In: Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 5 (2), pp. 235–409.
- 1950b: The Comparative Method in Studying innate Behavior Patterns. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 4, pp. 221-268, Oxford.
- 1950c: Wholeness and part in animal and human society. In: Studium Generale 3, pp. 455–499 (reprinted in Konrad Lorenz: On animal and human behavior . Collected treatises, 1965, Vol. II)
- 1953: The development of comparative behavioral research over the past 12 years. Zool. Anz., 16, Suppl., Pp. 36-58
- 1954: Morphology and behavior patterns in allied species. In: 1st Conf. on Group Proc. Josiah Macy Jr. Found. New York 1954, pp. 168-220
- 1957: The objectivistic theory of instinct. In: PP Grassé (ed.): L'Instint dans le Comportement des Animaux et de l'Homme. Paris 1956, pp. 51-76.
- 1958: The evolution of behavior. In: Scientific American, 199, 1958, pp. 67-78.
- 1959: Gestalt perception as a source of scientific knowledge. In: Journal for experimental and applied psychology 6, pp. 118–165.
- 1959: Psychology and Tribal History. In: Evolution of the Organisms ed. by G. Heberer. Stuttgart
- 1960: Principles of Comparative Behavioral Research. Advances in Zoology 12, pp. 265-294.
- 1961: Phylogenetic adaptation and adaptive modification of behavior. Z. Tierpsychol., 18, 1961, pp. 139-187
- 1962: The function of color in coral reef fishes. Proceeding of the Royal Institute of Great Britain 39;
- 1969: Innate basis of learning. In: On the Biology of Learning ed. By H. Pribram. New York 1969
- 1971: The human being, from a biological point of view: an answer to Wolfgang Schmidbauer. In: Studium Generale magazine for the unity of the sciences in connection with their concept formation and research methods 24, pp. 495-515. (edited by Karl Jaspers, among others)
- 1979: Nonanonymous, collective territoriality in a fish, the Moorish idol (Zanclus cornutus): agonistic and appeasement behaviors. In: Evolution and Cognition, 4, pp. 108-135. (Annotated manuscript, unpublished during his lifetime. Published 1998)
Posthumous editions, digital copies
- Konrad Lorenz: From animals and people , Directmedia Publishing , Berlin 2007, digital library , volume KDB 45, ISBN 978-3-89853-345-4 .
Autobiography, interviews, correspondence
- with Franz Kreuzer : Life is learning. From Immanuel Kant to Konrad Lorenz. A conversation about the life's work of the Nobel Prize winner. Piper, Munich and Zurich, 4th edition 1988, ISBN 978-3-492-10223-0 (= Piper series , volume 223).
- with Oskar Heinroth (edited by Otto Koenig ): But why do cattle have this beak? Letters from early behavior research 1930–1940 . Piper, Munich and Zurich 1988, ISBN 978-3-492-10975-8 (= Piper series , volume 975).
- My Family and Other Animals. In: Donald A. Dewsbury: Studying Animal Behavior. Autobiographies of the Founders. Chicago University Press, Chicago and London 1985, ISBN 978-0-226-14410-8 , pp. 258-287.
- I actually wanted to be a wild goose. Out of my life . Piper, Munich and Zurich 2003, ISBN 978-3-492-04540-7 . (Original title: My family and other animals , translated by Wolfgang M. Schleid, with additional essays by Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt and WM Schleidt. Autobiographical sketch previously published in English in 1974 in Les Prix Nobel ).
- Änne Bäumer : Nazi biology. Scientific publishing company, Stuttgart 1990 ISBN 3-8047-1127-8 .
- Richard W. Burkhardt: Patterns of Behavior: Konrad Lorenz, Niko Tinbergen, and the Foundation of Ethology. University of Chicago Press, 2005, ISBN 0-226-08090-0 (paperback version)
- Ute Deichmann : Biologists under Hitler - expulsion, careers, research. Frankfurt am Main and New York 1992, ISBN 3-593-34763-6 .
- Antal Festetics : Konrad Lorenz. From the world of the great natural scientist. Piper, Munich and Zurich 1983, ISBN 3-492-02855-1 ; New edition: dtv, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-423-11044-9 .
- Benedikt Föger and Klaus Taschwer : The other side of the mirror. Konrad Lorenz and National Socialism. Czernin, Vienna 2001, ISBN 3-7076-0124-2 .
- Theodora J. Kalikow: The ethological theory of Konrad Lorenz: Explanation and Ideology, 1938 to 1943. In: Herbert Mehrtens and Steffen Richter: Natural science, technology and Nazi ideology. Contributions to the history of science of the Third Reich. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1980 (stw 303), ISBN 3-518-07903-4 .
- Doris Kaufmann : Konrad Lorenz: Scientific persona, "Harnack-Pläncker" and science star in the Cold War era until the early 1970s. Results of the research program History of the Max Planck Society, Preprint 6. Berlin 2018, , doi: 10.17617 / 2.3010668 , full text (PDF) .
- Gerhard Klumbies: Konrad Lorenz 1903–1989. Behavioral researcher - Professor in Königsberg (1940–45) - Nobel Prize 1973. In: Dietrich Rauschning and Donata v. Nerée (ed.): The Albertus University of Königsberg and its professors. On the occasion of the founding of the Albertus University 450 years ago. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1995, pp. 619–628, ISBN 3-428-08546-9 (also Königsberg University: Yearbook of the Albertus University of Königsberg, Pr .: 1951–1995. Volume 29, 1994. Göttingen Working Group: Publication , No. 451.)
- Alfons Schanse: Evolutionary Epistemology and Biological Culture Theory. Konrad Lorenz under suspicion of ideology. Würzburg 2005, ISBN 3-8260-3015-X ; Online: Google Books
- Klaus Taschwer and Benedikt Föger: Konrad Lorenz. Biography. Zsolnay, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-552-05282-8 .
- Hanna-Maria Zippelius : The measured theory. A critical examination of the instinct theory of Konrad Lorenz and behavioral research practice. Vieweg, Braunschweig 1992, ISBN 3-528-06458-7 .
- Klaus Sander (Ed.): About the behavior of sociable animals. Original sound 1951-1983. Supposé 2004, 140 min., ISBN 3-932513-55-X . Lorenz speaks, among other things, about "value-philosophical aspects of evolution"; about "morally analogous behavior of sociable animals"; and with Erich von Holst about the development of animal behavior.
- This is how man came across dogs. Audio book , read by Martin Rütter , Der Audio Verlag , Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-89813-707-2 (reading, 2 CDs, 134 min.)
- He talked to the cattle, the birds, and the fish. Audio book, read by Olaf Baden , Der Audio Verlag (DAV), Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-89813-835-2 (reading, 2 CDs, 149 min.)
- Konrad Lorenz: a biologist between brown shirts and gray geese. By Karl-Heinz Wellmann . On: lernarchiv.bildung.hessen.de from February 27, 2009.
- Life is learning. Konrad Lorenz in conversation with Franz Kreuzer . 118 minutes; ORF 1980. (At the same time: Konrad Lorenz, Franz Kreuzer: Life is learning. From Immanuel Kant to Konrad Lorenz. A conversation about the life's work of the Nobel Prize winner. Piper, Munich and others 1981, ISBN 978-3-492-00523-4 )
Lorenz as a character in a novel
In spring 2008, was titled Kaltenburg at Suhrkamp a roman à clef of Marcel Beyer 's life story (the so "the great Austrian zoologist Ludwig Kaltenburg" - in which - from the perspective of Kaltenburg pupil Hermann Funk blurb ) is illuminated. In a review in the FAZ , the parallels between Kaltenburg and Lorenz were pointed out:
“In addition to the initials, they also share the year of birth and death. Both began their careers under National Socialism, held a professorship in Königsberg, were involved in 'racial studies' and were taken prisoners by Russia. Like Lorenz, who was denied a professorship in Austria because of his Nazi past, Kaltenburg went to Germany. But while Lorenz got his own research center in Westphalia in 1950 , Kaltenburg chose the GDR . There he met two SS officers again whom he knew from his time in Poznan: They are Knut Sieverding and Martin Spengler, two talented students of Hermann Funk's father. Martin, who crashes as a bomber pilot and is rescued by a nomad people in the Eurasian steppe, later causes a tremendous sensation as an artist in the West with his installations, the other, Knut, becomes a respected animal filmmaker. Joseph Beuys and Heinz Sielmann , who trained Beuys as a radio operator in 1941, can easily be recognized in both figures . [...] How deeply Lorenz's involvement in the medical crimes of the Nazis really was at that time could never be fully explained, and Beyer also leaves open whether Kaltenburg was involved in experiments with people. "
- Konrad Lorenz Medal
- Konrad Lorenz Research Center
- Konrad Lorenz Institute for Comparative Behavioral Research
- Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognitive Research
- Literature by and about Konrad Lorenz in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Konrad Lorenz in the German Digital Library
- Literature by and about Konrad Lorenz in the catalog of the Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio)
- Videos by and about Konrad Lorenz in the AV portal of the Technical Information Library
- To listen to: lectures by Konrad Lorenz in the online archive of the Austrian Media Library
- Information from the Nobel Foundation on the 1973 award ceremony for Konrad Lorenz (English) and a banquet speech (German)
- Lorenz and National Socialism at no-racism.net
- Conversation with Lorenz ( Memento from October 13, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (1973)
- ZeitZeichen : 11/07/1903 - birthday of Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz Research Institutes:
- The Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research
- Konrad Lorenz Research Center , Grünau im Almtal
- Konrad Lorenz Institute for Ethology
- Konrad-Lorenz-Haus Altenberg with numerous free, full-text publications by Konrad Lorenz
- AEIOU: Nobel Prize awarded to Konrad Lorenz
- Video: Konrad Lorenz talks about "ritualized fighting behavior" . Institute for Scientific Film (IWF) 1966, made available by the Technical Information Library (TIB), doi : 10.3203 / IWF / G-119 .
- In the original: “for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behavior patterns”; nobelprize.org Press release from the Karolinska Institute from 1973
- K. Lorenz: Kant's doctrine of the a priori in the light of contemporary biology. In: Leaves for German Philosophy. Volume 15, 1941, pp. 94-125. See also Wolfsburg City Library ( Memento from February 28, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- * January 23, 1862 (Parish St. Rochus and Sebastian, baptismal register Tom. 45, fol. 19)
- Adolf Lorenz: I was allowed to help. My life and work. (Translated and edited by Lorenz from My Life and Work. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York) L. Staackmann Verlag, Leipzig 1936; 2nd edition ibid. 1937, p. 318 and more often.
- Adolf Lorenz: I was allowed to help. My life and work. (Translated and edited by Lorenz from My Life and Work. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York) L. Staackmann Verlag, Leipzig 1936; 2nd edition, ibid. 1937, p. 318.
- Ute Deichmann: Biologists under Hitler. Displacement, careers, research. Frankfurt am Main, 1992, p. 250
- Ralf Bröer: Lorenz, Konrad. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 864.
- Fritz Knoll , Professor of Botany in Vienna, in a letter dated October 17, 1937; quoted from Deichmann, 1992, p. 251. The rejection of Lorenz's ethological research was a consequence of the rejection of Darwin's theory of evolution in academic circles “because of the power of the Catholic Church” (Deichmann, ibid.)
- Catalog slip at the University Library Vienna
- So Fritz von Wettstein in a statement dated December 14, 1937; quoted from Deichmann, 1992, p. 251. "The fact is that his wife's sister was married to a Jewish industrialist."
- Quoted from Deichmann, 1992, p. 252
- Quoted from Deichmann, 1992, p. 252.
- Leopoldina: Curriculum Vitae Prof. Dr. Konrad Zacharias Lorenz. At: leopoldina.org , accessed October 1, 2019.
- Quoted from Klaus Taschwer , Benedikt Föger : Konrad Lorenz. Biography. Vienna, 2003, pp. 84–85. For the origin of this biography and to find the quoted declaration of membership see also "The Guide of the Greylag Geese." ( Memento of February 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Ralf Bröer: Lorenz, Konrad. 2005, p. 864.
- Ulf Geuter: The professionalization of German psychology under National Socialism. Frankfurt am Main, 1984, p. 131
- Hans Thomae: Psychology in modern society. Hamburg, 1977, p. 154
- Konrad Lorenz (1941): Kant's doctrine of the a priori in the light of contemporary biology.
- Rudolf Hippius among others: Volkstum, Gesinnung und Character. Reports on psychological examinations of German-Polish mongrels and Poles in Poznan, summer 1942. Stuttgart / Prague, Verlag W. Kohlhammer, 1943. Lorenz is mentioned as a collaborator in the introduction to the book and had a copy with Hippius' handwritten dedication "Meinem Forschungskameraden" (Taschwer / Föger, 2003, p. 118).
- So the illustration in Deichmann, 1992, pp. 261–264, supported by various original sources
- For example, a lecture by Lorenz was announced for September 21, 1939 in Leipzig on "The rise and decline of humans and animals", but it was canceled because of the outbreak of war; Deichmann, 1992, p. 254
- Quoted from Taschwer / Föger, 2003, p. 99. The quotations come from a letter from Lorenz to Eduard Baumgarten and refer to " Max Hartmann , Alfred Kühn , Otto Koehler , Erich von Holst , Fritz Süffert and Gustav Kramer "
- Quoted from Änne Bäumer: NS-Biologie. Stuttgart 1990, p. 201.
- Quoted from Taschwer / Föger 2003, p. 91.
- Ute Deichmann has a detailed overview of Lorenz's demands published in scientific journals for a “presentation and improvement of people and race” as well as his plea for a “conscious, scientifically based race policy” in her standard work Biologists under Hitler on pages 254-260 compiled.
- Theodora J. Kalikow: The ethological theory of Konrad Lorenz: Explanation and Ideology, 1938 to 1943. In: Herbert Mehrtens , Steffen Richter: Naturwissenschaft, Technik und NS-Ideologie. Contributions to the history of science of the Third Reich. Frankfurt a. M., 1980, p. 189
- The Guardian: Levi's memoir beats Darwin to win science book title.
- So the statement by Erich von Holst in a letter dated February 13, 1950; quoted in: Deichmann, 1992, p. 265.
- Jürgen Kaube : He was the most famous mother of his time. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. No. 209 of September 9, 2009, p. N4, full text
- Marga Vicedo: The Nature and Nurture of Love. From Imprinting to Attachement in Cold War America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 2013, p. 57, ISBN 978-0-226-02055-6 .
- The Family, to Lorenz, Is All. Interview with Konrad Lorenz in: The New York Times. January 22, 1970, p. 39.
- Marga Vicedo: The Father of Ethology and the Foster Mother of Ducks: Konrad Lorenz as Expert on Motherhood. In: Isis. Volume 100, No. 2, 2009, pp. 263-291 [here p. 291], doi: 10.1086 / 599553 .
- Konrad Lorenz: Der Abbau des Menschlichen , 1983, p. 243.
- Konrad Lorenz (1959): Gestalt perception as a source of scientific knowledge.
- Jost Herbig, Rainer Hohlfeld (ed.): The second creation , Munich Vienna 1990, p. 169
- Hoimar von Ditfurth, interior views of a conspecific , Düsseldorf 1989, p. 249
- Konrad Lorenz: The innate forms of possible experience.
- Quoted from Taschwer / Föger 2003, p. 234.
- Konrad Lorenz in a conversation on the occasion of his 85th birthday, in: Natur , No. 11, Munich 1988.
- Kalikow 1980, p. 210.
- Taschwer / Föger, 2003, p. 286 f.
- knerger.de: The grave of Konrad Lorenz
- Member of Konrad Lorenz (with picture) at the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina , accessed on June 27, 2016.
- Member History: Konrad Lorenz. American Philosophical Society, accessed November 22, 2018 .
- University of Salzburg revokes Konrad Lorenz's honorary doctorate. On: faz.net from December 18, 2015
University revokes honorary doctorate for Konrad Lorenz. On: salzburg.orf.at of December 17, 2015 Decision of December 15 , 2015
by the Senate of the Paris Lodron University of Salzburg in agreement with the Rectorate on the withdrawal of honors.
- I. Bretherton: The origins of attachment theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. In: Developmental psychology , 1992, Vol. 28: 5, p. 762 doi: 10.1037 / 0012-16126.96.36.1999
- Oskar Heinroth : Contributions to biology, namely ethology and psychology of the anatids. In: Reports of the V. Int. Ornithologists Congress Berlin 1910, p. 559 ff.
- Konrad Lorenz: The so-called evil. On the natural history of aggression. Dr. G. Borotha-Schoeler Verlag, Vienna 1963, p. 265
- Hanna-Maria Zippelius : The measured theory. A critical examination of the instinct theory of Konrad Lorenz and behavioral research practice. Braunschweig, 1992, p. 6
- Ingo Brigandt: The Instinct Concept of the Early Konrad Lorenz. In: Journal of the History of Biology. Volume 38, 2005, pp. 571-608, 2005, doi: 10.1007 / s10739-005-6544-3 , full text (PDF) .
- John Alcock : The behavior of animals from an evolutionary perspective. G. Fischer, Stuttgart, Jena and New York 1996, p. 24, ISBN 978-3-437-20531-6 .
- Tania Munz: "My Goose Child Martina": The Multiple Uses of Geese in the Writings of Konrad Lorenz. In: Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences. Volume 41, No. 4, 2011, pp. 405-446, doi: 10.1525 / hsns.2011.41.4.405 . ,
- Taschwer / Föger 2003, p. 289.
- Further developments of this aspect with a tabular overview can be found in Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeldt (1995/3. Revised edition) The Biology of Human Behavior, Grundriß der Humanethologie, Munich, Piper, page 206 and Gerhard Medicus (2015/3. Revised edition) Was uns Connecting people - human ethological offers for communication between body and soul sciences, Berlin, VWB-Verlag, pages 64–65.
- Reviews on science.orf.at ( Memento from December 4, 2004 in the Internet Archive ) ( ORF Wissenschaft) and freitag.de (weekly newspaper Freitag)
- Marcel Beyer : Kaltenburg . Roman, Suhrkamp Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-518-46103-7 .
- Hubert Spiegel: The night in which it rained dead crows. Literature supplement to the Leipzig Book Fair, FAZ from March 12, 2008.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Lorenz, Konrad Zacharias|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian biologist (behavioral scientist) and Nobel Prize winner for medicine|
|DATE OF BIRTH||November 7, 1903|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vienna|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 27, 1989|
|Place of death||Vienna|