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Poznan Coat of Arms
Poznan Poznań (Poland)
Poznan Poznań
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Greater Poland
Powiat : District-free city
Area : 261.85  km²
Geographic location : 52 ° 24 '  N , 16 ° 55'  E Coordinates: 52 ° 24 '0 "  N , 16 ° 55' 0"  E
Height : 60 m npm
Residents : 535,802
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Postal code : 60-010 to 61-890
Telephone code : (+48) 61
License plate : PO, PY
Economy and Transport
Street : Autostrada A2
Rail route : Berlin - Warsaw
Szczecin - Wroclaw
Next international airport : Poznań-Ławica
Gminatype: Borough
Surface: 261.85 km²
Residents: 535,802
(Jun. 30, 2019)
Population density : 2046 inhabitants / km²
Community number  ( GUS ): 3064011
Administration (as of 2009)
City President : Jacek Jaśkowiak (since November 2014 )
Address: pl. Kolegiacki 17
61-841 Poznań
Website : www.poznan.pl

Posen , in Polish Poznań ( [ˈpɔznaɲ] ? / I ), is the capital of the Polish Greater Poland Voivodeship and the fifth largest Polish city with around 540,000 inhabitants . Poznan was also the capital of the Poznan Province . Audio file / audio sample

View of the Poznan old town

With the Adam Mickiewicz University , it is a center of industry, trade and research. In 2016 she ran for the election of European Capital of Culture .


The city is located in Greater Poland , the historical core of Poland, on the Warta River , about 105 km southwest of Bydgoszcz (Bromberg) .

City structure

Poznan is divided into five major districts:

City structure of Poznan Surname German name (1815-1918 and 1939-1945) Residents Area in km²
Grunwald Grunwald 125 500 36.2
Jeżyce Jersitz 81 300 57.9
Nowe Miasto Neustadt 142 200 105.1
Starlings Miasto Old town 161 200 47.1
Wilda Wilda (1940-1945 Wilde ) 63 800 15.0

Climate and Weather

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Poznan
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 0.5 2.2 6.8 13.0 18.8 22.1 23.5 23.1 18.7 13.1 6.4 2.2 O 12.6
Min. Temperature (° C) −4.8 −3.9 −0.8 2.8 7.7 11.2 12.5 12.2 9.0 5.3 1.2 −2.6 O 4.2
Precipitation ( mm ) 30th 24 27 36 53 60 69 57 43 39 39 38 Σ 515
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 1.3 2.2 3.5 5.1 7.1 7.2 7.0 6.6 4.6 3.3 1.3 1.0 O 4.2
Rainy days ( d ) 8th 7th 7th 7th 8th 9 9 9 7th 7th 9 10 Σ 97
Humidity ( % ) 87 85 78 71 68 71 72 73 78 83 87 89 O 78.5
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: wetterkontor.de


The city of Poznan on a map of the province of Poznan from 1905 (areas marked in yellow indicate areas with a predominantly Polish- speaking population at the time )

Prehistory and the Middle Ages

The earliest traces of settlement are 12,000 years old. The location on both sides of the Warta , on the ancient trade routes between Eastern and Western Europe , enabled Posen to develop steadily. During the Great Migration Period , the East Germanic Burgundians left this area and Slavic tribes from the East settled.

The first mention of Poznan coincides with the mention of the city as the first Polish bishopric in 968 (see Archdiocese of Poznan ). The first previous building of the Poznań Cathedral also dates from this time . The first rulers of Poland were buried in the cathedral. Another mention is made in the Thietmar Chronicle from the year 1005. This, as well as excavation finds, show that Poznan was one of the most developed fortresses in Poland when it became a kingdom under Bolesław I. Chrobry from the Piast dynasty .

In 1038, Bohemia invaded the Piast land, kidnapped the precious relics of St. Adalbert and occupied Silesia . The incursion of the Bohemian prince Břetislav I could not stop the economic development of Poznan, just like the relocation of the Polish capital from Gniezno to Cracow by Casimir I the innovator . The first castle and the oldest settlements in Poznan were on the right bank of the Warta and on the Cybina. At the turn of the 12th to the 13th century, Posen was transformed from a fortified castle and a prince's seat into a city based on Western European models. Under Przemysł I , German immigrants founded a settlement under Magdeburg law in 1253 opposite the old town on the left bank of the Warta . His son Przemysł II resided in the city as King of Poland (1295–1296) at the Poznan Royal Castle .

Poznan from the 16th century to the Second Partition of Poland in 1793

Poznan around 1617
Jesuit college , built around 1571

The city flourished in the 16th century and became one of the most important trading centers of the then Polish state. In 1519, Bishop Jan Lubrański founded a college , which over time was named Lubrański Academy . In the years 1550 to 1560, the Ticino builder Gianbattista Quadro , who later also redesigned the Warsaw Royal Castle , rebuilt the town hall . The Jesuit College in Poznan was founded in 1571. In the 16th century, Poznan had about 30,000 inhabitants.

In the 17th and 18th centuries, fires, floods and wars as well as changed trade routes hampered the development of the city. The situation did not change until the reign of King Stanisław August in the second half of the 18th century. The commission of good order set up by the king for the fundamental reform of the Polish state , together with the city authorities, achieved the reconstruction of Poznan and the revival of trade and handicrafts. At the end of the 18th century the city of Poznan again had 15,000 inhabitants.

Prussian period (1793-1918)

City map around 1905
Poznan City Hall (1910)

In the course of the Second Partition of Poland , Prussian troops marched into Posen on January 30, 1793. The city was then part of the new province of South Prussia of the Kingdom of Prussia . After more than 500 years of formal coexistence, the two sub-towns of Posen were united in 1793.

In the first years of Prussian rule, the Polish inhabitants had the same rights as the Prussian. Equal treatment also applied to the language, so that Polish was used in schools and authorities, although efforts were made to increase the proportion of the German population through preferential treatment when settling.

On December 11, 1806, during the Napoleonic Wars , Saxony was elevated to a kingdom with the signing of a peace treaty in Posen between France and Saxony .

The city of Poznan was affected by two recent changes of area. After the defeat of Prussia against Napoleonic France , Greater Poland and Poznan became part of the short-lived Pro-Napoleonic Duchy of Warsaw from 1807 to 1815 . At the Congress of Vienna , Poznan was finally returned to the Kingdom of Prussia as part of the Grand Duchy of Poznan . The Polish nobleman Anton Radziwiłł was appointed governor in the provincial capital of Poznan. The city government was taken over by Prussian officials and the Polish official language was replaced by German, which was only the beginning of Germanization .

After the November uprising of 1830, the special position of the Grand Duchy within the Prussian state was largely eliminated. After the March Revolution of 1848, the area was only called Posen Province . From the second half of the 19th century, the Polish language came under increasing political pressure. For example, Polish-language school teaching was systematically pushed back. In addition, there was the Kulturkampf with cultural, denominational (the Polish population was almost entirely Catholic) and economic repression as well as other state-supported anti-polonisms, such as that of the German Ostmarkenverein , which was founded in Posen in 1894 and became the predecessor organization of the Federation of German East .

During this time, some important buildings were built, such as the Raczyński Library (1829), the Hotel “Bazar” (1841) and the City Theater (1875). The “ Society of Friends of Science ” (1857) was an intellectual center of the Polish educated elite. The Hipolyt Cegielskis machine factory was particularly decisive for industrialization .

The opera house , built around 1910

After the Prussian fortifications built a century earlier had been torn down in 1902, Joseph Stübben , one of the most famous German urban planners of his time, was able to design a representative city quarter. In the following years a number of public buildings were realized in different architectural styles: in 1904 the new building of the Kaiser-Friedrich-Museum, founded in 1857 as a museum for Polish and Slavic antiquity on Wilhelmsplatz , today the National Museum on plac Wolności (Freedom Square) , the Royal Academy (1905– 1910 by Eduard Fürstenau , today Collegium Minus ), the residential palace (1905–1910 by Franz Heinrich Schwechten ) with complete neo-Byzantine gold mosaic of the palace chapel by August Oetken and the opera (1910 by Max Littmann ).

At the beginning of the 20th century, Poznan had 15 Catholic and three Protestant churches and several synagogues .

Polish interwar period (1918–1939)

At the end of the First World War , strong ethnic tensions arose in the city. The Polish-speaking majority saw the looming military defeat of the German Empire as a chance for the city to be integrated into the re-established Polish state. Their Wielkopolska Uprising , from December 27, 1918 to February 1919, which extended from the city of Posen to the province, achieved its goal: Posen and large parts of the Prussian province of Posen became the restored Polish state without a prior referendum as part of the Versailles Treaty affiliated. In the years 1919 to 1923 50,000 of the approximately 60,000 Germans left the city, but this did not lead to a reduction in the number of inhabitants.

During the entire interwar period, Poznan experienced a diverse development. In 1919 Poznan University and Poznan University of Technology were established . During the Polish-Soviet War , both the Poznan units and the money from the Poznan banks had a major impact on the outcome. From 1921 the Poznan trade fairs took place, which from 1925 also attracted international attention. This not only influenced the construction of the exhibition halls, but also indirectly that of other representative buildings and some theaters as well as the construction of villa settlements such as Dębiec and Ostroroga and medium-sized settlements such as Główna, Starołęka, Komandoria, Rataje and Winiary. Industrial development in the twenties reached a high point with the General State Exhibition of 1929. With industrialization, the communication infrastructure of the city and the standard of living of its residents grew at the same time. The population has almost doubled since 1919 and reached 275,000 in 1939 (6,000 of them were Germans).

Poznan under German occupation (1939–1945)

The badly damaged town hall after the end of the Second World War in 1945

During the attack on Poland , the Wehrmacht occupied Poznan on September 10, 1939, and the city was declared the capital of the newly created " Reichsgau Wartheland ". The Polish population was subjected to systematic terror from the beginning of September 1939. These included executions and mass arrests of civilians. In the first phase, Polish scientists, members of the intelligentsia and participants in the 1918/1919 uprising were the victims who were killed in Fort VII in Poznan ; a total of around 20,000 people were murdered there between October 1939 and February 1945. A large part of the remaining Polish population, around 100,000 people, was expelled or deported to other concentration camps . About 10,000 more Poznan people perished. There were other concentration and labor camps in and around Poznan, namely in Krzesiny (German: Kreising) (for around 10,000 prisoners), Smochowice (for around 2,000 prisoners), Dębiec (for around 2,000 prisoners), Zabikowo (for approx. 2,000 prisoners) and a prisoner of war camp, where around 7,000 French, British and Soviets were imprisoned from 1940 to 1945.

Mainly Baltic Germans were settled as new citizens of Posen . Under the Lord Mayor Gerhard Scheffler and the planner Walther Bangert, drafts for a far-reaching redesign and expansion of Poznan were completed, but these were not carried out due to the war.
Under the Nazi Gauleiter Arthur Greiser , the entrance area and the interior of the palace were converted into the first and only "Führer residence" of the German Reich from 1933 to 1945 . The castle chapel, one of the largest neo-Byzantine mosaic total works of art in Europe, was demolished.

The National Socialists founded the University of Posen in April 1941 . The Polish universities had been closed since September 1939, but the Poznan professors continued to teach underground at the Uniwersytet Ziem Zachodnich UZZ (“University of the Western Regions”).

On October 4, 1943, a meeting of SS commanders took place in Posen, and on October 6, another meeting of Reich and Gauleiter took place. On these occasions the Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler gave his two speeches in Poznan , in which he openly discussed the regime's secret extermination actions.

On May 29, 1944, the city, then populated by 28.3% Germans, was the target of an Allied air raid, including on the factories of Focke-Wulf and the AFA . On February 23, 1945, the city was captured by units of the Red Army under General Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov in the Battle of Poznan .

History since 1945

Next to the Adam Mickiewicz monument, a cross memorial commemorates the Poznan uprising of 1956 ( location )

After the city was captured, almost the entire German-speaking population of Poznan was expelled from 1945 to 1947. She had to leave her possessions behind. The following period was marked by the reconstruction of the city, which had been destroyed during the war. In particular, the town hall, which was badly damaged in the war, and the historic market square are now a major tourist attraction.

Immediately after the end of the war, the West Institute was founded and expanded to become the leading body for Polish research on Germany.

In June 1956 the strikes of the workers in the city developed into the momentous Poznan uprising , which took place on 28/29. On June 6th the Polish People's Army was bloodily suppressed.

In 1983 and 1997 Pope John Paul II visited the city.

In 1998, as part of the Weimar Triangle, Chancellor Helmut Kohl met with the Presidents of France and Poland, Jacques Chirac and Aleksander Kwaśniewski , in Poznan.

2003 marked the 750th anniversary of the granting of city rights to Poznan by the Piast princes Przemysł I and Bolesław the Pious. The city administration and the “750 Years of Poznan City Rights” foundation organized a large number of political and cultural events on this occasion, which were under the patronage of Aleksander Kwaśniewski.


City President

Who stands at the head of the administration Mayor . It has been Jacek Jaśkowiak from Platforma Obywatelska since 2014 . The 2018 election led to the following result:

Jaskowiak was thus re-elected in the first ballot.

City council

The city council consists of 34 members and is directly elected. The 2018 city council election led to the following result:


Population development until 1945
year Residents Remarks
1793 012,538 7,437 Catholics, 3,021 Jews, 1,918 Evangelicals, 115 Calvinists and 47 Greek Orthodox
1800 0 15,253 including 2,478 Jews
1816 018,211 at 2,175 fireplaces, 5,000 of them Jews
1837 032,456 , including 6,828 Jews
1843 035,763
1858 047,540 including 6,284 military personnel, including 30,813 Germans and 16,727 Poles ; 17,892 speak only German, 4,966 only Polish and 24,682 both German and Polish
1861 051,253 in December, including 7,353 soldiers (after 7,263 others), including 34,580 Germans and 16,673 Poles; 22,390 speak Polish as well as German , 21,008 only German and 7,755 only Polish
1864 052,484 on December 3, including 45,143 civilians (22,924 Catholics, 14,826 Protestants and 7,361 Jews) and 7,341 military personnel (5,724 Protestants, 1,559 Catholics and 58 Jews)
1875 060,998
1880 065,713
1885 0 86,315
1890 069,627 thereof 23,102 Protestants, 40,188 Catholics, 6,166 Jews and 171 others (35,000 Poles )
1900 117.033 thereof 37,412 Protestants, 73,415 Catholics and 6,206 others including Jews
1905 136,808 including u. a. A garrison accommodating 6,381 active military personnel (a grenadier regiment No. 1, two infantry regiments No. 46 and 47, a regiment Königsjäger on horseback No. 1, a field artillery regiment No. 20, a foot artillery regiment No. 5 and a training battalion No. 5), of which 43,082 Protestants, 87,613 Catholics and 5,761 Jews (58,552 Germans, 78,309 with Polish and 206 with another mother tongue)
1910 156.691 thereof 49,456 Evangelicals, 101,073 Catholics and 6,162 others including Jews
1931 248,608
Population since the end of the Second World War
year Residents Remarks
2015 544.612 in June



Old market with the old town hall and the shopkeepers

The old town with the old town hall and the old market as well as the cathedral , which is located on the cathedral island, are worth seeing . It is dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul. The National Museum (Muzeum Narodowe) is outstanding ; Here are several valuable and well-known works (triptych “ Allegory Model of the World and the Danzig Society”, “Allegory of Wealth” and “Allegory of Pride”, 1600) by Anton Möller (1563–1611, famous as the “Painter of Danzig "). The National Museum also has branches outside the city, including in the Greater Poland castles of Rogalin , Gołuchów and Śmiełów . In the center of the city is the Stary Browar , a cultural and business center that opened in 2003 and was set up in the building of a former brewery. The most famous characteristic of the city is the fair.

One of the striking newer buildings is the former imperial residential palace . It was used as the town hall after 1945 and is now the “Zamek” cultural center. It was built between 1905 and 1910 by the architect Franz Heinrich Schwechten on behalf of the German Emperor Wilhelm II . The church painter and mosaicist August Oetken is one of the numerous contemporary artists who designed the magnificent interior of the palace, who created the magnificent palace chapel, which was demolished in 1943 on the orders of NS Gauleiter Arthur Greiser . The "Imperial Palace Posen / Zamek cesarski w Poznaniu" was the subject of a double exhibition in 2003 in Potsdam and Poznań.

The Route of Kings and Emperors connects the city's main attractions.

Poznan is the only city in Poland to have two zoos , the Old Zoo, founded in 1874, and the New Zoo , which opened a hundred years later in 1974 .


The Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge ( Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge) established a war cemetery with 14,645 German war dead (December 2011 figure).


Poznan Cathedral , seat of the bishop since the Middle Ages

The first bishop of the Diocese of Poznan was Mission Bishop Jordanes , who was directly subordinate to the Pope in Rome. Most likely the baptism of the Polish prince Mieszkos I , who initiated the Christianization of Poland, took place in Poznan in the 10th century . In the 16th century the Jesuits came to Poznan, who not only shaped the religious development of the city until the end of the 18th century. From the beginning of the 19th century, when the city became part of Prussia, the Protestant church of the city gained new believers through the German immigrants. During the time of the Kulturkampf , the Protestant Church received special state support, while the Catholic Church came under great pressure. After 1918, however, the number of Protestant believers in Poznan fell sharply and since around 1924 has been the national average in Poland. One of the main churches of the Protestant community was the Church of the Redeemer .


The Collegium Minus of the Adam Mickiewicz University

The city of Poznan is home to a. the following universities:


The international film and music festival Transatlantyk was first held in August 2011.


Poznan has two well-known football clubs, the first division club KKS Lech Posen and the traditional club Warta Poznań , which currently plays in the second-class first division .

Poznań is a national hockey stronghold: With Warta Poznań , WKS Grunwald Poznań , KS Pocztowiec Poznań and AZS AWF Poznań , the city is home to four top clubs. The regatta course on the Jezioro Maltańskie (Lake Malta) is known in Poznan . Among other things, the rowing world championships took place here in 2009.

Culinary specialties

Traditionally for Poznan is the Poznan Martinshörnchen , which according to the law can only be made in the city and its surroundings.


A population group with Franconian ancestors has lived in today's Poznan city area since the 18th century . It is called Bambrzy , this name goes back to the city of Bamberg .


Poznan is known throughout Poland for its dialect. She was u. a. influenced by German. Probably the best known Poznan word is pyry instead of kartofle / ziemniaki for potatoes. Further examples:

Poznan dialect German Polish
gira leg noga
bimba tram tramwaj
szczun boy chłopak
tytka Paper bag torebka papierowa

Economy and Infrastructure

View from the station bridge to the entrance to the Poznań International Fair

Poznan is one of the most important Central and Eastern European business locations. It is one of the most important locations for industry, services and trade in Poland. Important industrial sectors are mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, brewing and the metal industry. The Volkswagen plant poses in 1993 from a joint venture of Volkswagen AG with the Polish car manufacturer Tarpan emerged. It has been a wholly-owned subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group since 1996. The Poznan plant produces components for the group as well as commercial vehicles (Caddy, T6) and is Poland's second largest exporter.

Gastronomy, culture, football ( EM 2012 ) and congress tourism have also contributed significantly to the upswing in recent years. Unemployment is the second lowest in Poland (after Warsaw).

Exhibition industry

Poznan is an important international trade fair location . The first Poznań Fair privilege comes from 1254 and was designed by Przemysł I. adopted. In 1921 the first modern Poznan fair took place. Since 1925 the fair has had an international character; it was reopened in 1947 after the war. The focus is on consumer goods. Mention should be made of the food and agricultural fairs POLAGRA-Food, POLAGRA-Gastro and POLAGRA-Premiery, the construction and construction machinery industry fairs BUDMA and BUMASZ, as well as fairs for the woodworking and furniture industry, machine tools, logistics and packaging as well as environmental protection. Since 2013 the CEDE trade fair for dental technology has moved from Łódź to Poznan. The dental technology market in Poland is very dynamic.

Automotive industry

Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles operates an automobile plant in Poznan, where 6,800 employees manufacture the VW Caddy and some variants of the VW T6 transporter . MAN Truck & Bus , a company of the MAN group belonging to VW , builds city ​​buses in Poznan .


Poznań Główny ,
Poznań's main railway station
Moderus Gamma Tram in Poznan
Jordan Bishops Bridge

Poznan is the most important transport hub in western Poland. The A2 motorway and the DK92 trunk road run here from the German to the Belarusian border via Warsaw. Other important roads are the DK5 and DK11 .

The Poznań Główny Railway Station is an important railway junction with connections to Berlin ( railway line Frankfurt (Oder) -Poznań ), Warsaw- Minsk - Moscow ( railway Warszawa-Poznań ), Gdansk , Olsztyn , Kolberg , Katowice , Wroclaw ( railway Wrocław-Poznań ) and Szczecin ( Poznań – Szczecin railway line ).

In the district Ławica in Poznan are an international airport and in Krzesiny the military airport Poznań-Krzesiny .

In local transport, the Posener Verkehrsbetriebe (MPK) operates 56 bus lines and 18 tram lines in the daytime network and 21 bus lines and one tram line in the night network.

The nearby motorsport racetrack Tor Poznań is FIA approved, but amateur races are also held. In some cases, training for cars and motorcycles is also possible without registration.

Town twinning

Posen's twin cities are:



  • Heinrich Wuttke : City book of the country Posen. Codex diplomaticus: General history of the cities in the region of Poznan. Historical news from 149 individual cities . Leipzig 1864, pp. 391-417.
  • Emil Oelschlaeger: Posen. A brief history and description of the city of Posen. An illustrated guide for locals and foreigners . Poznan 1864 ( e-copy ).
  • A. Bäck: The province or the Grand Duchy of Poznan in geographical, statistical and topographical relation . Posen / Berlin / Bromberg 1847, pp. 82–90, no. 83.
  • Frieder Monzer: Posen, Thorn, Bromberg, with Greater Poland, Kujawia and Southeast Pomerania . Trescher, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-89794-201-1 .
  • Wilfried Gerke : Poznan biographical lexicon. Lüneburg 1975 (72 pages).
  • Wilfried Gerke: The St. Pauli parish in Posen. Lüneburg 1999 (72 p. With ill.).
  • Gotthold Rhode : History of the City of Posen , 1953.
  • A. Angermann: The Protestant Churches of the Posener Land since 1772, the Posener Hauptverein decreed for the general meeting of the Gustav Adolf Verein in Posen, 23-28 September 1912 . We are seated.
  • Martin Sprungala: The history of the Poznan districts and independent cities . Bad Bevensen 2007.
  • Poznan Imperial Castle - Zamek cesarski w Poznaniu. From the “fortress in the east” to the “Zamek” cultural center - Od pruskiej “warowni na wschodzie” do Centrum Kultury “Zamek”. Exhibition catalog. Prussian Palaces and Gardens Foundation Berlin-Brandenburg / Centrum Kultury Zamek w Poznaniu, Potsdam / Poznań 2003, ISBN 83-89313-17-0 (242 pages with numerous illustrations).
  • Cornelia Östreich: "Regardless of the rough winter ..." The emigration of Poznan Jews to America in the 19th century , Hamburg 1997.
  • Anna Moskal: In the area of ​​tension between region and nation. The polonization of the city of Poznan after 1918 and 1945 . Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2013, ISBN 978-3-447-06755-3 .
  • Rudolf Jaworski , Witold Molik (ed.): Monuments in Kiel and Posen: Parallels and Contrasts. Ludwig, Kiel 2002, ISBN 3-933598-41-9 ( limited preview in the Google book search).

Web links

Portal: Poznan  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the topic of Poznan
Commons : Poznań  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Poses  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikivoyage: Poznan  Travel Guide

Individual evidence

  1. a b population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
  2. Od 1 sierpnia wyróżnik PY na tablicach rejestracyjnych. In: epoznan.pl. July 24, 2013, accessed January 19, 2015 (Polish).
  3. ^ Withold Maisel: The sources of German law in medieval Posen , in: Dietmar Willoweit and Winfried Schich (eds.): Studies on the history of Saxon-Magdeburg law in Germany and Poland. Lang, Frankfurt 1980. pp. 116ff.
  4. a b Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 16, Leipzig / Vienna 1908, pp. 203–205.
  5. According to the 1910 census, the city of Poznan, including the garrison, had 156,696 inhabitants, of which 57.1% or 89,473 Poles and 42.9% or 67,223 Germans
  6. Antoni Zubinski: Poznań w latach 1919-1939 . Poznan 2000.
  7. Population in 1919: 158,185, of which approx. 60,000 are German; 1924: 193,228, of which around 10,000 are Germans.
  8. ^ Marian Olszewski: Fort VII w Poznaniu . Poznań 1974.
  9. Daniel Ast, Jürgen Ast: Hitler's Castle in Posen - The last "Führer Residence". Documentary film, D, 2011, 45 min.
  10. As of April 1, 1944 323,747 inhabitants, 71.1% of them Poles; 28.3% Germans; 0.6% others.
  11. ^ Result on the website of the election commission, accessed on July 20, 2020.
  12. ^ Result on the website of the election commission, accessed on July 20, 2020.
  13. ^ Heinrich Wuttke : City book of the country of Posen. Codex diplomaticus: General history of the cities in the region of Poznan. Historical news from 149 individual cities . Leipzig 1864, p. 411.
  14. ^ Heinrich Wuttke : City book of the country of Posen. Codex diplomaticus: General history of the cities in the region of Poznan. Historical news from 149 individual cities . Leipzig 1864, p. 413.
  15. ^ A b c d Heinrich Wuttke : City book of the country of Posen. Codex diplomaticus: General history of the cities in the region of Poznan. Historical news from 149 individual cities . Leipzig 1864, pp. 414-415.
  16. ACA Friederich: Historical-Geographical Representation of Old and New Poland . Berlin 1839, p. 569.
  17. The Orient. Reports, Studies, and Reviews for Jewish History and Literature . Quarterly magazine, 1st quarter. Leipzig 1840, p. 69.
  18. ^ A b Emil Oelschlaeger: Posen. Brief history and description of the city of Poznan. An illustrated guide for locals and foreigners . Posen 1864, p. 164.
  19. a b c d e f g Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. pos_posen.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  20. ^ The Poznan Bamberg - a German-Polish story , essay by Natasza Stelmaszyk , Poland News , German-Polish Society of the Federal Republic of Germany .
  21. Poznań w 3 dni - Piotr Maluśkiewicz, ISBN 83-7319-542-4
  22. Accessed June 27, 2013 The Volkswagen Plant Poznan ( Memento from November 7, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) In: volkswagen.de
  23. Johannes Ritter: Volkswagen is planning a new plant in Poland. In: FAZ.net . January 22, 2014, accessed January 19, 2015 .
  24. ^ Miasta partnerskie: Wprowadzenie. In: poznan.pl. Retrieved January 19, 2015 (Polish).