A gmina [ 'gmina ], in the plural Gminy , is an administrative unit in Poland . It forms the third level of local self-government. It stands below the Powiat unit ('Landkreis' or 'Stadtkreis') and above the Sołectwo unit ('Schulzenamt').
The term comes from the German word municipality , which is also close to the administrative structure. In contrast to German practice, it is however not considered a real local identity, but merely as an administrative unit, similar to the Rhineland-Palatinate municipality . For example, the place names and not those of the municipalities are used primarily for the official address or place of birth information.
In 2006 there were 2478 Gminas in Poland , which are assigned to three different types of municipality.
Gminas were formed in 1972 to replace the smaller gromadas .
A Gmina miejska ('Stadtgemeinde', literally: 'Urban Municipality') consists of a single city . This city can also be the seat of a Gmina wiejska 'rural community' in the surrounding area. Due to the legal identity of the city and Gmina , Gminy miejskie are usually referred to only with the name of the city. In the big cities and for historical reasons in some other municipalities, the mayor Prezydent miasta calls himself 'City President', in smaller municipalities he is called Burmistrz . In 2006, 307 Gminas had the status of Gmina miejska .
A Gmina miejsko-wiejska ('city-and-rural community', literally: 'urban-rural community') consists of a city and several villages that have limited self-administration skills. With the exception of the municipality of Skalmierzyce , this town is also the administrative seat of Gmina . Most of the time, the city is too small to form an independent 'city municipality' ( Gmina miejska ) . The name of Gmina , headed by a Burmistrz 'mayor', is derived from the name of the administrative center. In 2006 582 Gminas had this status .
A Gmina wiejska ('rural community', literally: 'rural community') consists exclusively of villages. In some cases, the administrative headquarters are located in a town in the center of Gmina , which as Gmina miejska 'municipality' is not part of Gmina wiejska . If there is no city within the municipality, one of the larger villages is the seat of the Gmina and the municipality head Wójt (from ' Vogt '). In this case the Gmina is also named after this place. In 2006 there were 1589 of these Gminas in Poland , 160 of them with administrative headquarters outside the Gmina , i.e. in a city that forms its own municipality and sometimes also its own urban district.
Self-government of the municipalities
The residents of each municipality form a self-governing body. The municipalities have a legal personality.
The municipalities fulfilled all the tasks of territorial self-government that are not reserved for other regional authorities, including a .: Spatial planning , real estate management , environmental and nature protection , water management , municipal roads, water supply and water supply, local passenger traffic, health protection , social assistance , culture, public order , community development, cross-border cooperation.
The executive organs of the municipalities are the municipal council and the municipality leader (mayor or mayor).
The municipalities' income includes their own income, general subsidies and special-purpose grants from the state budget. Income from local taxes (such as forest, property, motor vehicle, dog, inheritance and gift tax, tax on civil law acts, trade tax for natural persons) is referred to as tax revenue.
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- Comparative analysis of the structures of public administration in the Republic of Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany. Pp. 59-60
- Administrative system in Poland
- Comparative analysis of the structures of public administration in the Republic of Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany. P. 63