natural reserve

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The term nature protection includes measures to preserve ecosystems and to restore disturbed ecological relationships. The basis is an ascribed own value of nature or certain habitats and the knowledge that an overexploitation and destruction of nature and landscape as well as the associated reduction in biodiversity and species diversity have dramatic and catastrophic consequences for the natural balance and ultimately also for the usability by humansmay have. Therefore a long-term and sustainable strengthening of the communities is sought.

In the German Federal Nature Conservation Act , the following three objectives are distinguished under Section 1:

  • The preservation of the diversity, uniqueness and beauty of nature, landscape and wilderness (aesthetic-cultural reasons; nature as a symbol),
  • the preservation of the efficiency of the ecosystem , whereby a sustainable usability of nature by humans is aimed for (nature as resource and service provider), as well as
  • the conservation of nature, especially biodiversity at the species level, based on its own worth (nature as self-worth / moral object).

In terms of method, nature conservation can be broken down into biotope protection , species protection and process protection , whereby the transitions are fluid.

Goals of nature conservation in Germany

The aim of nature conservation is to preserve nature and the landscape on the basis of their own value and as the basis for human existence ( Section 1 of the Federal Nature Conservation Act). Conservation of nature is thus a public task and serves the state objective anchored in Art. 20a of the Basic Law . In Switzerland it is regulated by Article 78 of the Constitution and the Federal Law on Nature Conservation and Heritage Protection (NHG), which is based on the constitutional article. Many people who work in nature conservation or who support its work also associate it with further expectations and motives that arise from the spiritual history of nature conservation. These include B. ethical reasons such as animal welfare or emotional such as homeland. As a social movement, nature conservation is strongly supported by volunteering. Conservation is z. B. in the areas of the implementation of cultural landscape programs, area planning and the implementation of federal projects also a separate professional field.

Arguments for nature conservation

The botanist Otti Wilmanns formulates five arguments for nature conservation:

  1. Ethical argument : Since humans can decide whether or not to be of all other species, for ethical reasons they have the right of all organisms to respect life.
  2. Theoretical-scientific argument : Individual species, biocenoses and landscapes are the subject of our quest for knowledge. In principle, very many interrelationships can only be studied in undisturbed living spaces. Current and future problems of mankind can only be solved from the corresponding research results.
  3. Pragmatic argument : Since humans need natural goods for their survival, they must be preserved for the present and for future generations. Wild forms or local varieties of cultivated plants for resistance breeding are to be preserved. Plants or their ingredients can be of pharmaceutical importance for future generations.
  4. Anthropobiological argument : Man needs nature as a balance and stimulus. The bond to a home landscape is part of the identity consciousness of every individual.
  5. Historical-cultural argument : nature protection refers to parts of the landscape that have arisen through centuries of rural use. These landscapes are documents of human culture and are therefore worth preserving, similar to works of art.

Protected goods of nature conservation

The natural balance includes abiotic and biotic components of the natural balance and their interactions. Soils , bodies of water , seas ( marine protection ), climate , air , biotopes and the landscape are viewed as abiotic . Biotic components of the natural balance are fauna and vegetation . Interactions take place between the components as complex interactions ( landscape ecology ). The individual components of this complex system of the natural balance must be protected because otherwise they can no longer fulfill their function. Restricted or lost functions can have serious effects on humans. Functions of the natural balance for humans are settlement areas and business locations (food, raw materials, processing, transport), recreation, health.

Practical nature conservation: For the reintroduction of bats, the forest youth brings appropriate wooden boxes.

Important objects of nature protection are natural and cultural landscapes , natural monuments and the like. a. Protected areas and landscape components, as well as rare plants , animals and biotopes that are endangered in their existence , in their ecosystems and with their locations. Nature conservation therefore also deals with the location factors: soil protection , microclimate , air pollution control and noise protection as well as other potentially harmful influences such as light, movement, fragmentation and isolation of habitats . In the last few decades, nature conservation within human settlements and on agricultural land has also gained in importance.

The practical nature conservation work is mainly done at regional and local level. In many countries, however, the legal instruments of nature conservation are anchored at national level. Within the European Union , Europe-wide programs and regulations are also gaining in importance (e.g. Natura 2000 , or the European Water Framework Directive , which will indirectly have a major impact on nature conservation). There are different currents / movements within nature conservation. This is shown e.g. For example, because a majority is committed to achieving the maximum possible biodiversity by promoting rich land use / landscape management , but not a few fight uncompromisingly for process protection , which under Central European conditions leads to the development of natural forests, which, however, depending on the type of vegetation, are relatively species-poor could be. Different interests of the nature conservationists often lead to serious conflicting goals, because measures that serve certain types of vegetation can possibly be unfavorable for some of the ancestral bird life.

The paradigm shift in scientific ecology , which in the second half of the 20th century gave up the idea of ecological balance and developed a dynamic understanding of nature within the framework of disturbance ecology , also had an impact on the foundations of nature conservation. The idea of ​​a constantly adapting nature seemed to stand in opposition to conservation in the sense of biotope protection . The development of environmental history as a scientific discipline, which introduced a longer-term perspective, was also influential .

The concept of resilience is increasingly being used as a mediating position in the 21st century . The task of nature conservation is therefore to increase the resilience of ecosystems or to limit the extent of disturbances in such a way that the dynamic of the system is below its resistance to disturbances. The concept was started by Crawford Stanley Holling in the 1970s and has been further developed since then.

Consequences for the local population

The consequences of the establishment of large protected areas on the local population are assessed differently. The view that large protected areas deprive the inhabitants of their economic basis is contrary to the view that their establishment has a positive effect on the economic situation of the population. Negative consequences for the local population are seen in restrictions of use, resettlements and evictions from certain protected zones and the associated dissolution of traditional economic practices and social structures. In some countries, remnants of traditional ways of life would become exotic accessories due to the tourist development of the protected areas. Overall, the protective measures would make self-sufficient structures dependent on external factors, e.g. B. Replaces international funding. On the other hand, positive consequences are seen in the fact that large protected areas are economically attractive, so that population growth takes place around twice as high as the average of the large region to which the protected area belongs. The reasons are the funds that the international community makes available for the establishment of protected areas and through which the infrastructure and the security situation are improved, as well as income from tourism .

Difference to environmental protection

Nature conservation considers all uses of soil and water that can affect its interests; these can also be those that are of no interest to people (e.g. in the case of wasteland). The Environmental Protection will consider all human activities, with a threat to ecosystems and biodiversity could be connected. While nature conservation focuses on the ecosystem as a whole and wants to combat harmful human influences where they act, environmental protection rather aims at combating the human activities that are the cause of environmental damage.

  • When it comes to climate, nature conservation is mostly concerned with the microclimate / existing climate and its preservation as an important factor in ecosystems. The climate protection of environmental protection, however, deals with the large-scale climate . When it comes to the question of whether small hydropower plants or wind turbines tend to protect the environment or tend to harm it, there are often differences of opinion between environmentalists and nature conservationists.
  • While environmental protection tries to curb the dying of forests through air pollution control , nature conservation tries to restore and preserve the damaged forests . In the last case in particular, it becomes clear that nature conservation must act locally in order to convince landowners, farmers and foresters of the project; he has to select suitable plants that do justice to the changed environmental conditions; he has to take other measures to combat the damage caused by forest dieback.

Legal instruments of nature protection

In Germany, the basis for nature conservation is anchored in Art. 20a of the Basic Law . As a result, the legislative competence for nature conservation is divided between the federal and state governments. Before the federalism reform , the federal government had only one competence to frame laws gebung, due to which he, the Federal Nature Conservation Act enacted. The states each have their own state nature conservation laws , which have replaced the Reich Nature Conservation Act of 1935, which previously continued to apply as state law . Today the federation has the legislative competence in the field of nature protection, but the states have the authority to deviate ( Art. 72 Abs. 3 GG). In addition to the national regulations, there are numerous international agreements as well as programs and individual directives of the European Union . The Federal Agency for Nature Conservation is the central scientific authority of the federal government for national and international nature conservation .

In Switzerland, the federal and cantons have shared responsibility for landscape protection (Art. 78 Paragraphs 1 and 2 BV); In the area of ​​actual nature conservation (biotope and species protection), on the other hand, the federal government has extensive legislative competence (Art. 78 Para. 4 and 5 BV), which it has largely exhausted (Art. 18 ff. of the Nature and Heritage Protection Act).

Shield nature reserve in Germany

Nature conservation as a study and profession

Realizing the goals of nature conservation is the task of a landscape planner . Graduates of landscape planning or "related courses" work in the specialist authorities. This includes in particular biology and forest science .

As is common in many other state areas, the non-sovereign tasks of nature conservation are predominantly processed outside the authorities. For most professional tasks, such as B. Maintenance plans (management plans) for nature reserves, the authorities usually commission external, mostly freelance landscape planners or biologists or corresponding specialist offices. Due to the limited financial resources that are available for nature conservation, activities directly for nature conservation are usually only a small part of their field of activity for these professional fields. As a rule, more important are the planning management of the consequences of intervention in the context of environmental impact assessments , accompanying landscape conservation plans, the intervention regulation according to the Federal Nature Conservation Act or environmental reports (according to the Building Code). A large part of the practical nature conservation work is done unpaid and on a voluntary basis by nature conservation associations. In some cases, as part of the professionalization of their work, these have started to hire full-time workers. Other sponsors of publicly funded nature conservation projects such as B. Nature park associations, regional authorities, etc. the like employ specialist staff for this purpose.

The only non-academic profession with state recognition in nature conservation is the “nature and landscape maintenance”, who is usually referred to as a “ ranger ”.

History of nature conservation in Germany

Drachenfels and Wolkenburg (around 1880)

The history of nature conservation in Germany cannot be reduced to a single origin, as the nature conservation concept was influenced in the 18th and 19th centuries by several ideological currents such as utilitarianism or naturalism , but also by religious and aesthetic ideals. The natural scientist and forest scientist Johann Matthäus Bechstein (1757–1822) is seen as one of the first sponsors . The natural scientist Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), who achieved great popularity with his work Kosmos and to whom the concept of the natural monument goes back, was influential . In his descriptions, he transferred the idea of ​​the cultural-historical monument, which arose around 1800, to objects of nature. The first act of practical nature conservation in Germany was the purchase of the Drachenfels in the Siebengebirge in 1836 under the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm III. , which prevented the further dismantling of the Drachenfels trachyte for the construction of Cologne Cathedral. The main motivation was to preserve a “romantically charged national symbol”. The Drachenfels and the castle complex were not officially placed under nature protection until 1922.

In the course of the 19th century - parallel to the utilization and use of natural resources through technical progress, industrialization and urbanization - the social awareness of the need to protect nature grew.

By Ernst Rudorff before deforestation rescued oaks - Allee behind the boys Castle in Weserbergland ;
Colored postcard around 1900

The natural scientist Philipp Leopold Martin was the first to use the term “nature conservation” in its current meaning in 1871 in his series of articles “The German Empire and International Animal Protection”; this publication can also be regarded as the first German-language programmatic nature conservation publication.

As in 1886, the centuries-old oak trees - Avenue at the foot of Crow hill behind the boys Castle in Weserbergland for a land consolidation should be like, the Berlin composer bought Ernst Rudorff , the end of the 19th century, the boys castle often as a summer residence used, the entire avenue ado the responsible magistrate in Lauenstein to save the trees from deforestation . This act "represents one of the earliest civil society actions for nature conservation."

In the 19th century, the first nature conservation associations were established in Germany. At the turn of the 19th to the 20th century, nature conservationists advocated larger protected areas, large-scale landscape conservation that went beyond species protection and made demands for legal regulations. With the establishment of the State Agency for the Preservation of Natural Monuments in Prussia, 1906 marks the beginning of state nature conservation in Germany. During the Weimar Republic, ideas of nature conservation law were included in the constitution with Art. 150 WRV , but remained without further elaboration due to the dispute over property issues and competencies in federalism .

Nazi era

Construction of the KdF home on the formerly wooded and protected mountain range Prora on Rügen (1937)

It was not until 1934 with the Reich Hunting Act and in 1935 with the Reich Nature Conservation Act that the Nazi regime asserted itself centrally against the states. The Nature Conservation in National Socialism , first coined the 1935 enacted Reich Nature Protection Act, a comprehensive legal regulation, which was considered a major step forward. The clearly National Socialist law was influenced in particular by Hans Klose , one of the most important conservationists of the Weimar Republic, National Socialism and the early Federal Republic. This was a member of the NSDAP. Walther Schoenichen , who headed the Reich Agency for Nature Conservation until 1938 , showed even more racist traits . The leading nature conservation associations such as the Reich Association for Bird Protection and the Association for Nature Conservation in Bavaria willingly submitted to National Socialism. Alwin Seifert , the so-called “Reichslandschaftsanwalt”, was just as close to leading Nazi politicians and worked closely with Fritz Todt and Albert Speer . It was initially about the greening and integration of the Reichsautobahn into the landscape, but then also about the green camouflage of the west wall . The landscape lawyers closely associated with him were given the task of camouflaging other military structures such as barracks or the Führer headquarters through their contact with the Wehrmacht and SS . Their competence flowed into the creation of “German military landscapes” in Eastern Europe, into the so-called General Plan East , a criminal, partially implemented plan. Landscape lawyers were also active in Auschwitz and, among other things, planted the surroundings of the concentration camps in the sense of a green privacy screen. The competition between the individual branches of National Socialist nature conservation led to a definition of the spheres of influence in 1942. While the conservationists were given the task of the so-called Altreich, the landscape conservationists were supposed to redesign the allegedly decrepit areas occupied by the Wehrmacht and SS, especially in Eastern Europe. Scientifically, Reinhold Tüxen, with the help of the National Socialists, brought plant sociology to a breakthrough through good contact with Fritz Todt as a basis for nature conservation. Accordingly, National Socialism was an "Axial Age" of nature conservation, and not just the years 1935–1939, which Klose still described in 1957 as the "high time".

In contrast, there were the effects of National Socialist modernization and the war economy on nature and the landscape. The intensification of land and forest use, the draining of moors and industrial and, in particular, military interventions resulted in massive destruction of nature. Direct destruction of already designated protection areas for monumental buildings also occurred, for example during the construction of the Kdf-Heim in Prora on Rügen in 1936 , which destroyed significant parts of the Schmale Heide nature reserve .

After 1945

After the end of the Second World War, conservationists who were burdened by the National Socialists continued to work in the Soviet Zone / GDR as well as in West Germany, as did employees of the General Plan East such as Konrad Meyer or Heinrich Wiepking-Jürgensmann . In Bund Naturschutz in Bavaria until the early 1960s, numerous Nazi party members and functionaries were active in the association line. The Munich publisher Hans Hohenester, a National Socialist from the very beginning and "Fuhrer" of the BN from 1938 to 1945, was a member of the BN's committee until the early 1960s. Other committee members of the BN who were active well into the post-war period also belonged to the NSDAP, such as Otto Kraus , Hans Stadler and Max Dingler . The former landscape attorney Alwin Seifert was BN chairman from 1958 to 1963.

In the GDR, the political integration and objectives of nature conservation changed. The most influential planners such as Georg Pniower or Reinhold Lingner were politically unencumbered by the Nazi era and loyal to the SED. Little changed in the practical work of landscape planning. The tasks remained the same, the guiding principle was still the intensification of land use, for which specialists from the time of National Socialism, including former members of the NSDAP, were used; often these came from Alwin Seifert's environment .

In West Germany there were only isolated denazification proceedings; leading figures from the time of National Socialism such as Heinrich Wiepking-Jürgensmann , Konrad Meyer and Erhard Mäding held high positions again after 1945. The Reich Nature Conservation Act continued to apply until the Federal Nature Conservation Act (BNatSchG) was passed in 1976.


In Switzerland, nature conservation is legally regulated in the Nature and Heritage Protection Act (NHG) at the federal level. In the area of ​​actual nature conservation (biotope and species protection), the federal government has extensive legislative competence (Art. 78 Para. 4 and 5 BV), which it has largely exhausted (Art. 18 ff. Of the Nature and Heritage Protection Act). Partial regulations also exist in the forest and agriculture legislation of the Confederation and the cantons. In the area of ​​landscape protection, the federal and cantons have shared responsibility (Art. 78 Paragraphs 1 and 2 BV).

Private organizations involved in local nature conservation are, for example, Pro Natura or Swiss Bird Protection .

United States

The book Man and Nature (1864) by George Perkins Marsh was extremely influential in the development of nature conservation in the USA . March, who was inspired by the work of Alexander von Humboldt , studied historical and current descriptions of landscapes and forms of agricultural use in many countries and supplemented the reading with his own observations in Europe. He recognized the risks of human encroachment on nature through overfishing of the waters, pollution from industry or deforestation. The world's first national park was Yellowstone National Park (1872), but the protection of wildlife in particular was inefficient. Born in Scotland, John Muir continued Marsh's work in the USA, initiating the National Park Protection Act (1894) and the creation of the first national parks in California.

In the last few decades the conservatives in the USA have developed into opponents of nature conservation, which has become a point of contention in the cultural war between liberals and conservatives. The subject of conservative criticism is the alleged or actual role of nature and species protection, which hinders investment.

See also

Portal: Environment and nature protection  - Overview of Wikipedia content on the subject of environmental and nature protection


Scientific literature

  • Michael Succow , Hans Dieter Knapp, Lebrecht Jeschke (all ed.): Nature conservation in Germany: retrospectives - insights - outlooks. Chr. Links-Verlag, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-86153-686-4 .
  • Arne Andersen: Homeland Security. Conservation movement. In: F.-J. Brüggemeier, Th. Rommelspacher (Ed.): Besiegte Natur. History of the environment in the 19th and 20th centuries . Beck, Munich 1986, pp. 143-157.
  • Richard Hölzl, Environmentalism in Germany since 1900: an Overview, in: G. Dürbeck, ua (ed.), Ecological Thought in German Literature and Culture, Lanham MD 2017, pp. 213-230.
  • Richard Hölzl, nature conservation in Bavaria between the state and civil society. From the liberal awakening to integration into the Nazi regime, 1913 to 1945, in: Bund Naturschutzforschung, number 11, 2013, pp. 21-60.
  • Otti Wilmanns: Nature conservation. Mitt. Bath. National association In: Naturkunde u. Natural reserve. NF 14 (2), 1987, pp. 477-481.
  • Harald Plachter : Nature conservation . Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart / Jena 1991, ISBN 3-437-20456-4 .
  • Joachim Radkau , Frank Uekötter (Ed.): Nature conservation and National Socialism . Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-593-37354-8 .
  • Friedemann Schmoll : Memory of nature. The history of nature conservation in the German Empire . Campus, Frankfurt am Main 2004, ISBN 3-593-37355-6 .
  • Hans Mattern : Poet of the Swabian Romanticism as a forerunner of the nature conservation idea. In: Stuttgart work on German studies. Volume 423, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-88099-428-5 , pp. 307-317.
  • John Alexander Williams: Protecting Nature Between Democracy and Dictatorship: The Changing Ideology of the Bourgeois Conservationist Movement, 1925-1935. In: Thomas Lekan, Thomas Zeller (Eds.): Germany's Nature: New Approaches to Environmental History . Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick 2005, pp. 183-206.
  • Hans Werner Frohn, Friedemann Schmoll (Ed.): Nature and State. State nature conservation in Germany 1906–2006 . Landwirtschaftsverlag, Münster 2006, ISBN 3-7843-3935-2 .
  • Reinhard Piechocki: Genesis of the protection terms: 3. - Nature protection (1888). In: Nature and Landscape. 82 (3), 2007, pp. 110-111, ISSN  0028-0615
  • Oliver Kersten: The Friends of Nature movement in the Berlin-Brandenburg region 1908–1989 / 90. Continuities and breaks. Naturfreunde-Verlag Freizeit und Wander, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-925311-31-4 , pp. 40 f., 51 f., 88 f., 131 f., 234 f .; Fig, p. 184. (Additional dissertation Free University of Berlin 2004)
  • Klaus-Dieter Hupke: Nature conservation. A critical approach. Springer Spectrum, Heidelberg 2015, ISBN 978-3-662-46903-3 .
  • Nicolas Schoof, Rainer Luick , Guy Beaufoy, Gwyn Jones, Petar Einarsson, Javier Ruiz, Vyara Stefanova, Daniel Fuchs, Tobias Windmaißer, Hermann Hötker, Heike Jeromin, Herbert Nickel, Jochen Schumacher, Mariya Ukhanova (2019): Grassland Protection in Germany: Drivers biodiversity, influence of agri-environmental and climate measures, regulatory law, dairy industry and effects of climate and energy policy. BfN script 539. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn Bad-Godesberg. 257 pp. ISBN 978-3-89624-277-8 . ( Online )

Popular scientific literature

  • Wolf-Eberhard Barth : Nature Conservation: The Feasible. Practical environmental and nature protection for everyone. A guide. Paul Parey, Hamburg 1995, ISBN 3-490-11418-3 .
  • Uwe Wegener : Nature conservation in the cultural landscape: protection and maintenance of habitats. Spectrum Academic Publishing House, 1998, ISBN 3-8274-0877-6 .

Web links

Wiktionary: Nature conservation  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. See § 1 of the Federal Nature Conservation Act ; Reinhard Piechocki: Landscape - Home - Wilderness. Protection of nature - but which one and why? Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-54152-0 , summarized, pp. 31-39.
  2. ^ O. Wilmanns (1987)
  4. a b Liam Heneghan: Out of kilter , Aeon Magazine, October 9, 2012.
  5. ^ Klaus Pedersen: Nature conservation and profit. People between displacement and the destruction of nature . Unrast-Verlag, Münster 2008. Introduction
  6. ^ Helga Jäger: Nature parks and spatial planning. Working reports of the urban planning and landscape planning department, issue 77. Kassel 1988, p. 90 ff.
  7. George Wittemyer, Justin S. Brashares et al: Accelerated Human Population Growth at Protected Area Edges. In: Science , 2008/321, p. 123 ff.
  8. Art 20a: The state also takes responsibility for future generations and protects the natural foundations of life and animals within the framework of the constitutional order through legislation and in accordance with the law and justice through the executive and the judiciary.
  9. Directive 92/43 / EEC in the consolidated version of January 1, 2007
  10. Directive 79/409 / EEC in the consolidated version of January 1, 2007 Birds Directive
  11. Nature and landscape conservationist ,
  12. On the joint historical development of the protection of natural and cultural monuments ( Memento from June 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  13. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation: One Hundred Years of State Nature Conservation in Germany (PDF; 88 kB), accessed on April 19, 2010.
  14. Gerhard Hachmann and Rainer Koch (eds.): Against the rational management! Texts and sources on the development of German nature conservation. On the occasion of the 200th birthday of Philipp Leopold Martin (1815–1885) ( Memento from March 30, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) . Bonn (Federal Agency for Nature Conservation) 2015. (= BfN-Skripten, 417). 89 + 279 pages, ISBN 978-3-89624-152-8 ; (PDF; 68 MB), January 30, 2017.
  15. Astrid Schwarz, Angela Krewani, Jutta Weisel (contact person): Image cultures of ecological research / 2. Eichenallee on the page Image cultures of ecological research of the Technical University of Darmstadt in cooperation with the Philipps University of Marburg , with the enlargeable digitized (front) of a colored postcard around 1900 from the Museum for the History of Nature Conservation
  16. See e.g. BM Klein: Nature conservation in the Third Reich. Mainz, 1999. pp. 311-314. Also on Klose: The protection of the landscape according to Section 5 of the Reich Nature Conservation Act. In: Reichsstelle für Naturschutz (Ed.): The protection of the landscape according to the Reichsnaturschutzgesetz. Lectures at the First Reichstag for Nature Conservation in Berlin on November 14, 1936 by Dr. Hans Klose, Professor Hans Schwenkel, Professor Dr. Werner Weber. Berlin, 1937. pp. 5-20. He described himself (p. 16) as a National Socialist. He was also personally responsible for the ousting of Jewish conservationists from the Volksbund Naturschutz . See Landesarchiv Berlin A. Pr. Br. Rep. 030-04. No. 1780 / H. Eissing, Who wrote the “Green Charter of Mainau”? Influences of National Socialist thought. In: Nature conservation and landscape planning 46 (8), 2014, pp. 247–252. ISSN  0940-6808
  17. See e.g. BM Klein: Nature conservation in the Third Reich. Mainz 1999. pp. 304-311
  18. ^ Nils Franke: Nature conservation as a national task. In: Michael Fahlbusch et al. (Ed.): Handbook of the Volkish Sciences. 2nd Edition. Berlin, De Gruyter 2017, pp. 1073-1079
  19. Cf. N. Franke: The West Wall in the landscape. Activities of nature conservation in the time of National Socialism and its actors. Mainz 2015. ISBN 978-3-00-049532-8 .
  20. ^ J. Wolschke-Bulmahn, G. Gröning: On the relationship between landscape planning and National Socialism. Depicted on developments during the Second World War in the "integrated eastern regions ". In: Stiftung Naturschutzgeschichte (Ed.): Nature conservation has history. Opening of the museum on the history of nature conservation. Symposium "Nature conservation has a history". (Publications of the Nature Conservation History Foundation, Vol. 4). Essen 2003. pp. 163–172.
  21. Cf. Nils Franke: Trees for Auschwitz: The ominous alliance between nature conservationists and National Socialists. In: Time history. Issue 1/2016. Pp. 66-71.
  22. ^ N. Franke: The role of nature conservation in planning and building the west wall. In: N. Franke, K. Work: Nature conservation on the former Westwall. Large-scale Nazi systems in discourse. (Geisenheimer Contributions to the Cultural Landscape, Vol. 1). Geisenheim 2016. p. 42. ISBN 978-3-934742-72-7 .
  23. ^ N. Franke: The role of nature conservation in planning and building the west wall. In: N. Franke, K. Work: Nature conservation on the former Westwall. Large-scale Nazi systems in discourse. (Geisenheimer Contributions to the Cultural Landscape, Vol. 1). Geisenheim 2016. p. 34, ISBN 978-3-934742-72-7 .
  24. ^ Federal Agency for Nature Conservation and Landscape Management (Ed.): Fifty years of state nature conservation. A look back at the path of the German nature conservation movement. State Agency for the Preservation of Natural Monuments - Reich Agency for Nature Conservation - Federal Agency for Nature Conservation and Landscape Management. Edit v. H. Klose. Giessen 1957. p. 34.
  25. Cf. N. Franke, Uwe Pfenning (Ed.): Continuities in nature conservation. On the continuity of nature conservation power elites 1945 to 1970. Baden-Baden 2014. ISBN 978-3-8487-0556-6 .
  26. ^ Richard Hölzl: Nature conservation in Bavaria between the state and civil society. From the liberal awakening to integration into the Nazi regime, 1913 to 1945 . In: Bund Naturschutzforschung . tape 11 , 2013, p. 21-60 .
  27. ^ Andreas Dix: After the end of the 'thousand years': Landscape planning in the Soviet occupation zone and early GDR. In: Joachim Radkau, Frank Uekötter (Ed.): Nature conservation and National Socialism. Campus-Verlag, Frankfurt / New York 2003, p. 359 f.
  28. Johannes Kuhn: Republicans against rare species , in:, August 13, 2018.