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The landscaping includes all measures, the diversity, uniqueness and beauty to make sure the landscape and the sustainable use of natural resources.

The term can be found in the full title of the German Federal Nature Conservation Act (BNatSchG) ( Act on Nature Conservation and Landscape Management ).

In addition to the active measures that have a shaping or nurturing effect, landscape conservation, in accordance with the objectives of the Federal Nature Conservation Act, also includes passive nature conservation measures ( Section 1, Paragraph 3, No. 6 BNatSchG), as required above all by process protection , which excludes maintenance measures and only one natural Development ( succession ) includes such. B. in the context of the so-called "wilderness development" .


The goals of nature conservation and landscape management are to protect nature and the landscape on the basis of their own value and as the basis for human life and health, also taking responsibility for future generations in populated and unpopulated areas, so that biological diversity , performance - and the functionality of the natural balance, including the ability to regenerate and sustainably use the natural assets, as well as the diversity, uniqueness and beauty as well as the recreational value of nature and landscape are secured in the long term; Protection also includes the maintenance, development and, if necessary, the restoration of nature and the landscape ( Section 1 BNatSchG).


Since people settled down, they have been shaping their environment. In Central Europe, at the latest in the early Middle Ages, they began to consciously transform the landscape for their benefit. Humans cleared forests to create settlements, fields and pastures. Rivers were straightened and bogs drained to reclaim more land. In the search for raw materials, entire stretches of land were dug up, tunneled under or removed. A natural landscape became a cultural landscape . In this cultural landscape, new habitats were initially created in which many animals and plants, sometimes even from remote areas such as the steppes of Eastern Europe, settled. It was a landscape with enormous biodiversity. With the technical achievements of modern civilization, humans were able to use the landscape more intensively. The increasing population required more settlement space, industrial areas and roads.

At the beginning of the 20th century there was a rapid decline in the diversity of habitats and, at the same time, species extinction . The trend continues to this day and has accelerated significantly over the past few decades. The Lechheiden are a good example of this . Where orchids bloomed and the woodlark sang until a hundred years ago , there are fields, streets and new housing estates today. Today only 1% of the former heathland is left.

Landscape maintenance takes care of the preservation of habitats that were largely created by humans, for example landscape maintenance workers mow poor grass , put a hedge "on the stick" or cut polluted willows . In this way, it not only protects species and biotopes , but also protects our cultural heritage , similar to the preservation of monuments . In addition, landscape conservation is about maintaining an attractive landscape and thus maintaining the recreational value of our landscape.

Action areas

Landscape maintenance is classically divided into four areas of action. The German Association for Landscape Management has formulated a fifth area due to the current situation.

  • Maintaining care

Maintenance measures are mainly carried out for habitats of the historically grown cultural landscape . The natural succession is to be stopped in order to preserve a special biodiversity, special animal and plant species or a particularly expressive landscape . Hedges , littered meadows , semi- arid lawns , heaths, orchards and humpback meadows are, for example, biotopes that require maintenance to protect them. Possible measures are the average of willows , the sheep grazing on Huteflächen or fruit tree and fruit meadow maintenance.

  • Optimizing care

Optimizing maintenance aims to restore, improve or develop habitats and biotope types . This type of maintenance is necessary , for example, when water accumulates in drained raised bogs or when de-bushing has fallen fallow semi- arid lawns .

  • Protection and security

All measures aimed at avoiding undesirable human influences and interventions as well as concrete help for individual species can be summarized under protection and security. This includes, for example, the installation of road barriers or the construction of amphibious guidance systems.

  • Redesign

The redesign includes all measures that are geared towards the (re) establishment of habitats, such as the creation of a meadow orchard or small bodies of still water such as ponds.

  • Exploitation and marketing of landscape maintenance products

In connection with landscape maintenance, agricultural products are often created that can be processed and marketed. In many counties, for example, initiatives have been set up to market apple juice from local orchards. The regional marketing of meat from grazing animals and the green material from extensive meadows are also part of this area. In addition to the economic performance from the sale of these products, these initiatives also benefit from the positive effect of this marketing in the public.

Maintenance procedures

Sheep as landscape maintenance in the Hersbrucker Alb
  • Biological process

The most important biological process for keeping the landscape open is grazing . "Animal landscape maintenance" such as goats, sheep, cattle, horses or unusual species such as water buffalo are at work here. The professional burning of excess grass, for example on steep slopes, is used less often ( fire ecology ).

  • Manual procedures

Manual procedures are rarely used due to the high costs. Examples are mowing with a scythe from steep slopes or very wet locations.

  • Machine processes

In landscape management, as in agriculture, mechanical processes have established themselves. The mowing of extensive meadows or the maintenance of hedges is carried out with special equipment.

Execution of landscaping work

With the implementation of landscape maintenance and design measures, the responsible authorities should, if possible, agricultural and forestry companies, associations in which municipalities or associations of municipalities, farmers and associations that primarily promote the goals of nature conservation and landscape maintenance are equally represented ( landscape maintenance associations ) , commission recognized nature conservation associations or nature park sponsors ( Section 3 (4) BNatSchG).

In many federal states, the landscape conservation associations are responsible for planning, coordinating and awarding landscape conservation measures. In Baden-Württemberg it is the landscape conservation associations, in North Rhine-Westphalia the biological stations and in Schleswig-Holstein the local actions. The implementation of the practical landscape maintenance is mainly carried out by farmers.

Even conservation organizations such as the NABU and the BUND , foundations, machinery rings , foresters, gardening and landscaping businesses, farming cooperatives, and individuals committed to the preservation of the cultural landscape through landscaping.

Examples of practical landscape management

In the Stadtwald Augsburg grazing project , Przewalski horses and red deer have grazed part of the sparse pine forests and heather in the Stadtwald Augsburg nature reserve since 2007. The hat forest project in the Solling-Vogler Nature Park has existed since 2000.

Financing options

The remuneration for ecological achievements in agriculture takes place predominantly through state funding programs or, for targeted nature conservation measures, through contractual nature conservation programs .

The European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) supports so-called landscape maintenance programs in the federal states, which contribute to the preservation of the natural and cultural heritage. They are used to finance one-off measures, for example clearing a lean lawn to enable grazing again. This also includes the creation of Natura 2000 management plans, measures for near-natural water development, the purchase of land for nature or water protection purposes and the creation of protective plantings. Measures to raise public awareness as well as studies, concepts and planning for nature conservation purposes can also be funded. In addition to land users, funding recipients can also be associations or municipalities.

The landscape conservation programs are designed differently depending on the federal state.

Landscape conservation as a study and profession

Landscape maintenance is part of the " Landscape Planning and Landscape Architecture " courses . For the direct instruction in landscape maintenance work and as a mediator between the specialist planning of nature conservation and the individual farmer, the advanced training for certified nature and landscape maintenance was created.

Position on landscape planning

Landscape planning was introduced nationwide in 1976 with the Federal Nature Conservation Act. It is the central planning instrument for nature conservation and landscape management and concretizes their goals at local and regional level. Landscape planning ( § 8 BNatSchG) and landscape maintenance ( § 1 ) BNatSchG are sub-areas of land maintenance .

The presentation of the requirements and measures for the realization of nature conservation and landscape management found for example in country programs , landscape plans (according to § 10 BNatSchG), landscape plans (according to § 8 BNatSchG) and green space plans (according to § 11 BNatSchG) instead.

Metaphorical use

In a figurative sense, in politics and business, “landscape maintenance” also denotes questionable contributions to decision-makers and even corruption , since in this case it is a matter of the so-called political landscape. The term feeding is also used in Austria .

See also


  • German Association for Landscape Management (DVL) e. V. (2012): Protecting Nature, Developing Regions - A Guide for More Nature Conservation in Rural Development (PDF; 4.2 MB), DVL series of publications "Landscape as Habitat", issue 19
  • German Association for Landscape Management (DVL) e. V. (2006): Landscape Elements in the Agricultural Structure - Creation, New Creation and Preservation, DVL series of publications "Landscape as Habitat", Volume 9
  • ANL - Bavarian Academy for Nature Conservation and Landscape Management (2005): Preservation through dynamism: Landscape management, process protection, grazing - practical focus on horse grazing. Laufener seminar papers 1/05, Laufen
  • Jedicke et al. (1996): Practical Landscape Management - Basics and Measures. Eugen Ulmer, Hohenheim

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Buchwald, K. & Engelhardt, W. (1978): Handbook for planning, design and protection of the environment, Vol. 3: 4. - FSVO: Munich
  2. ^ Landscape Management Association of the City of Augsburg - Landscape Management . Website of the Landscape Management Association Augsburg. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
  3. ^ Landscape Management Association of the City of Augsburg - Landscape Management . Website of the Landscape Management Association Augsburg. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
  4. Hundsdorfer, M. (1988): Active landscape maintenance - content, implementation, collection of planning data and cost calculation. - Chair for economics in horticulture at the Technical University of Munich-Weihenstephan, studies in economics and organization in the Landespflege, volume 2, self-published, Munich.
  5. a b Jedicke et al. (1996): Practical Landscape Management - Basics and Measures. Eugen Ulmer, Hohenheim
  6. a b c d e f German Landscape Management Association (DVL) e. V. (2000): Training to become a certified nature and landscape conservationist - activity, areas of application and perspectives in landscape conservation, BfN-Skripten 24, Bonn - Bad Godesberg
  7. a b Baals, C. (2010): Quality management in active landscape management - taking into account its development in the Free State of Bavaria. Herbert Utz Verlag - Science, Munich
  8. ^ " Landschaftspflegeverband Stadt Augsburg" - grazing with wild horses and deer . Website of the Landscape Management Association Augsburg. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
  9. ^ German Association for Landscape Management (DVL) e. V. (2008): Nature as a motor of rural development, DVL publication series "Landscape as a living space", issue 14
  10. Jedicke et al. (1996): Practical Landscape Management - Basics and Measures. Eugen Ulmer, Hohenheim, pp. 50-78