Orchard meadow

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Orchard meadow
Orchard meadow in spring
Apple trees on a meadow orchard in autumn
Blossoming cherry trees on an orchard meadow on the Lower Moselle below the Moselle valley bridge

The orchard meadow, also known in the region as an orchard, orchard, Bitz, Bangert, Bongert or Bungert , is a traditional form of fruit growing . Scattered tall fruit trees are mostly of different ages and different types and varieties . In contrast, modern, intensive fruit growing is characterized by low-stemmed fruit varieties in monoculture ( orchards ).

Concept development

Fruit tree planting on the Reichsstraße to Melk (around 1900)
Potato harvest in the orchard (probably around 1960)
Fruit tree grafting in a meadow orchard in the foothills (May 1979)

The common name used to be an orchard , it is still used in some regions today. In the new federal states , until the reunification , they said an orchard or a grass garden.

The terms orchards and orchards have developed from the term fruit growing in scattered areas . According to current knowledge, the term fruit trees and willows in scattered areas was first used by Rinaldini in 1924 for Romania / Transylvania , but only again in 1940 by Knauer for the tall fruit growing in Schleswig-Holstein and in 1941 by Spreng in Switzerland .

The term orchard was first used by Zeller in 1953, then in the 1950s it was often used in a negative way, as compared to half and low-stem fruit growing, which was also increasingly widespread in Germany . The term “ orchard meadow ” only originated in 1975 . He was shaped by the ornithologist Ullrich , who in a publication pointed out the special importance of the orchards in the foothills of the Alb for bird protection.

The terms meadow orchards and fruit trees have nothing to do with the wet, acidic litter meadows and the litter in the stables . Rather, they refer to the large distance between the scattered trees.


Orchards are the best-known form of orchards (also known as orchards ). This is characterized by multiple use: the trees are used for fruit production ("overuse"); Since the trees are loosely positioned, the areas also serve as grassland ("underuse"), either as a hay meadow for haymaking or directly as pasture for cattle . Orchards are a special form that was still widespread in Germany in Franconia, southern Baden, Saxony-Anhalt, southern Brandenburg and Lallinger Winkel , and was widespread throughout Central Europe well into the 20th century. In addition, fruit alleys and individual trees are also part of the orchard cultivation. The fruit grown in orchards is called orchard.

The cultivation of orchards was of great cultural, social, landscape and ecological importance in the 19th and first half of the 20th century . Due to the intensification of agriculture as well as construction and settlement, however, meadow orchards were severely decimated in the second half of the 20th century. Today they are among the most endangered biotopes in Central Europe (see also the Red List of Biotope Types ). The beekeeping plays an important role in pollination.

Larger orchards that characterize the landscape can still be found in Austria , in southern Germany , on the northern slopes of the Kyffhäuser Mountains and in Switzerland . The largest stocks can be found at the foot of the Swabian Alb . Large orchards of orchards by BirdLife International are named as Important Bird Areas there and are registered with the EU as bird protection areas by the state of Baden-Württemberg according to the EU Bird Protection Directive . The large orchards of Lower Austria's Mostviertel lie around the widely scattered farmsteads . They are the core area for the production of apple and pear must .

On the initiative of the Association of Horticultural Associations in Germany (VGiD), the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection agreed with the speakers of the federal states on a definition of the term fruit cultivation proposed by the VGiD . On this basis, the following definition was adopted in 2008:

“Orchard growing is a form of extensive fruit growing, in which mostly strong-growing, tall-stemmed and large-crowned fruit trees are spaced widely. Regular underuse as permanent grassland is characteristic of orchards. There are also orchards with agricultural or horticultural underuse, orchards and other linear plantings. Often orchards are made up of fruit trees of different types and varieties, age and size classes, they should cover a minimum area of ​​0.15 ha. In contrast to modern dense plantings with closed, uniform plantings, the individual tree is always recognizable in orchards.

The use of synthetic pesticides is unusual. At the nationwide meeting of the fruit surcharge marketers, the criterion of not using pesticides was therefore included in the definition of fruit for the first time in 1996 and repeatedly in 2001, 2007 and 2014. Brockhaus adopted this in 2004 in the lexical definition of high-stem fruit growing without the use of synthetic treatment agents .

History of fruit growing

Antiquity and the Middle Ages

Large-fruited rose plants such as sloe were already used in Central Europe before the Stone Age, although it cannot be said whether they are cultivated plants or cultivated plants (see also pioneer plants ). Their distribution areas were in the vicinity of human settlements. The kernels of the Zibarte plum variety were also found in the settlements during this period .

Above all, the Romans brought the non-native apple trees , pear trees , plums and sweet cherries , but also walnuts and sweet chestnuts to Central Europe. Here these types of fruit , which were already cultivated in ancient Greece, could only thrive in climatically favored areas. Trees grown from the seeds of these pear and apple trees had different properties; some could also be grown in the rougher mountain areas. Fruit growing has been practiced in the Moselle region since the 2nd century, and in Lallinger Winkel since the 8th century. Alternatively, the could Zibarte grafted plums even in the rougher mountainous regions thrive, but grew only smaller trees.

The breeding of more robust and less demanding varieties was practiced by the medieval monasteries, such as the Niederaltaich monastery . Late-blooming and frost-resistant varieties were selected for rough mountainous areas, dried fruit, fruit that can be stored for a long time, yield and taste. In Württemberg also in the palace gardeners. The creation of orchards and vineyards was encouraged by numerous edicts, and the first larger orchards were created near the monasteries. Techniques and varieties were adopted from Tyrol , Upper Austria and Bohemia . Orchards as a special form, in which the soil is not used as grassland but rather plowed, have mainly developed in Franconia .

16th to 18th century

The advancement of breeding in modern times enabled the expansion of fruit growing throughout Central Europe, especially in Austria, the Czech Republic , southern Germany and Switzerland, even on low-yield and shallow soils on the slopes. In this way, grassland management became sustainable through soil definition.

In the 17th, but above all in the 18th century, fruit growing outside the gardens and villages was politically promoted by the absolutist states and in some cases forced. This epoch can be seen as the actual origin of orchard cultivation, which is by no means a particularly old form of economy. Fruit growing played a bigger role in supplying the population from around the 18th century.

With the increasing expansion of the road network , avenues were also planted between the settlements in order to use the transport options . Common areas such as courtyards with fruit trees were also created and harvested together.

Orchards surrounded and linked the villages and towns in a scenic way, as evidenced by a large number of sources by contemporary authors. They became indispensable for the supply of the population; the knowledge of their care and the processing of the fruit was an integral part of the teaching of agriculture and housekeeping .

19th and 20th centuries

The abandonment of viticulture in large areas around 1800 led in many places to the fact that fruit trees were planted on the former vineyards. Fruit growing outside the settlements continued to expand from the middle of the 19th century when, as a result of the artificial fertilization that was now possible, agriculture became possible on poorly nutrient-poor soils and, in return, hard-to-work slopes were planted with fruit trees.

The use of meadows and pastures in the orchards (instead of the use of arable fields) received a great boom at the beginning of the 20th century when the dairy industry emerged and as a result, grassland management became more profitable. The orchard culture had its peak around the 20s and 30s of the 20th century, at a time when the orchard economy had already begun.

As a result of progressive scientific development, more than 6000 types of fruit were produced by the 20th century, including at least 2700 apple, 800 pear, 400 sweet cherry and 400 plum types , which enabled fruit to be grown even at high altitudes in the low mountain range. Special varieties for use as dessert fruit , juice , must and brandy up to and including baked fruit have been refined regionally.

For the further development of orchard cultivation see below: Decline in the 20th century as well as marketing and maintenance .

Fruit varieties from the orchards

The old varieties, which are still traditionally used in orchards today, were developed at a time when pesticides were not available at all or only to a very limited extent. They are therefore to be classified as particularly robust against diseases and harmful pathogens. The individual varieties were created region-specifically, such as the Mostviertel wood apple or the Erbachhofer , the north German boiken apple , the Rhenish crooked apple and the Rhenish bean apple . The distribution of some varieties has even been limited to a few villages; so-called local varieties emerged . While today's cultivars that are used in intensive fruit growing go back to largely identical parent varieties, the typical old fruit varieties of the orchard meadow, which have been developed site-specifically over centuries, thus represent a great genetic potential.

The Karcher pear is also suitable for adverse climatic layers which blood bulb is because of their red marbled flesh a pomological special. Date plums are suitable as a hedge if they are planted without rooting ( unprocessed ) . Of the cherries , Dolleseppler is particularly suitable for fruit brandy ( cherry brandy ).

See also: List of apple varieties See also: List of the most common cider pear varieties

The ecology of the orchards

Hollow apple tree in bloom in Upper Swabia

Only robust, grafted tall trunks with low demands on care and location are suitable for the orchard meadow . However , due to their origin, the wild forms usually have high demands on soil and climate , so special, resistant varieties were bred that are almost perfectly adapted to the respective conditions. The variety of varieties therefore always has a regional reference; traditional species composition and variety selection show a very high degree of specialization for different locations and uses. Of the more than 3000 apple varieties in Central Europe, only about 60 are in German retail. However, many old regional varieties can still be found on orchards . They therefore represent an important reservoir for the gene pool of cultivated apples . The typical orchard meadow does not exist.

The diverse forms are also an expression of landscape protection aspects: fruit trees can protect the soil on slopes from erosion , so that pasture management is sustainable. The orchards typical of the settlements in the 18th century also acted as wind protection. Extreme temperatures are weakened and the wind speed reduced. With their different growth forms , blooming times and colors and autumn colors , they also have a creative function. A pomologist can make the right selection for the local variations in the orchards , and these specialists should also carry out quality assurance for the respective plantings of compensatory measures in order to ensure the composition of adapted varieties for the respective location.

On extensively managed orchards, depending on the species composition, location factors and secondary use (pasture, meadow, field), a species-rich animal world (fauna) completes the community ( biocenosis ). In particular, the orchard meadow is an important habitat for birds and arthropods such as insects and spiders. Orchards have only two distinct “floors”: the canopy of the fruit trees and the herbaceous layer, which consists of grasses, herbs and, in some cases, lower shrubs . Due to the wide position of the light-crowned trees, the herb layer is sunny and very vital. In contrast to orchards, even if insecticides and herbicides are not used there, orchards are much richer in species. This also applies to the comparison of organically managed low-stem plants, the ecology of which is more similar to conventionally or integrated low-stem plants than orchards (“ecological gradient”).

The density of trees on orchards is between 60 and 120 trees per hectare, depending on the type of fruit. This is little compared to orchards, where up to 3000 trees per hectare are common. As a rule, 10 × 10 m area is planned for a fully grown tall trunk , while in intensive cultivation only 1–2 m² are required for a slim spindle .

Herb layer

Autumn crocus

The herb layer of a meadow orchard, which is dominated by grasses , often also has a large number of flowering meadow herbs, which are composed differently depending on the site conditions. Species-rich flora was favored in the classic way of use, above all by extensive grazing with cattle or sheep . Some of the plant species that belong to the orchard biotope are:


Between 2000 and 5000 animal species can be at home in orchards or find their food there. Insects such as beetles, wasps, bumblebees and bees make up the largest share. The variety of arachnids and millipedes is also great.


Honey bee on an apple blossom

The honey bee plays the key role in pollinating the fruit trees. By overwintering as a complete bee colony with more than 10,000 individual bees, they are able to provide most of the pollination service.


Garden spider

Because of the favorable microclimate, spiders are very common in orchards. You will find an ideal living space here. Common are:

Mainly in the herb layer are found:

The following types of indicator can be considered:

Amphibians and reptiles

Tree frog , cub

With their small-scale alternation of sunny and (semi) shady, dry and damp places, wood and cut material storage areas, grass / shrubbery and woody plants, orchards are also valuable summer and winter habitats for various amphibians and reptile species , including depending on the region:

Examples of reptiles are:


Fluffed robin in winter
Marsh tit

For many Central European bird species , old orchards are ideal breeding grounds due to their abundance of caves and dead wood . Their food source are the arthropods ( Arthropoda ), such as spiders, insects and millipedes , which in habitat are often orchard.

Studies of the frequency of bird overflights and bird influxes between orchards and intensive orchards have made the ecological position of orchards clear: In a given period of time, an average of 326 birds fly over an orchard (intensive fruit cultivation: 180 birds), of which 209 are in the orchard (intensive food cultivation: 22) go.

Indicator species for the ecological value are for example the little owl ( Athene noctua ) and the wryneck ( Jynx torquilla ). Other bird species are:


Numerous species of mammals also benefit from the rich flora and fauna and the generally good conditions for rearing young animals in fragile old trees interspersed with caves :

Typical cultural followers of a structurally rich, semi-open landscape are:

Decline in the 20th century and until today

Numerous local and regional surveys show a decline in orchards in Germany and Central Europe between 1965 and 2010 by 70–75 percent. This applies to both the area and the number of fruit trees. According to NABU estimates, there are only around 400,000 hectares of orchards left in Germany. The remaining stocks are in parts gaps and aging , as existing stocks are maintained less and less. In addition, the species composition has changed with use. The new plantings, which have been increasing again since the 1980s (in 1981, the Ludwigsburg district was the first public institution in Europe to start paying out funds for the new planting of standard fruit trees) were and are often of poor quality , especially when planting as part of compensatory measures. In individual cases, even with large compensatory plantings, significantly more than half of the trees have died after a few years. The situation is better for the federal states' funding programs as part of agri-environmental measures ( ÖPUL in Austria , cultural landscape programs in Germany , and plantings funded by the federal government and cantons in Switzerland) and municipal funding programs that require the farmers to contribute themselves. The increasing number of new plantings has meant that in the 21st century the mere decline in stocks could be stopped in many regions. However, from the point of view of raw material security as well as from the point of view of nature conservation there is currently a threat of a stock gap: Due to the roughly 30-year-old plant gap with tall trunks between 1950/1960 (mostly before the Second World War ) and 1985/1990, the old trees are gradually dying off, while at the same time the young trees slowly come into full yield and only then become particularly interested in nature conservation . The decline also continues, such as B. a 2013 study in four orchards in the Rhein-Sieg district showed. From 1990 to 2013, the area of ​​the orchards decreased by 48%, from around 520 to 270 hectares and the number of fruit trees by 43%. As a new problem, mistletoe infestation occurs in a third of the areas in this district , which must be consistently combated.

Causes of the decline

Agricultural policy

In the 1920s, the trend towards fruit plantation began in Europe. The vast assortment of pome fruit should be limited to three apple and three pear varieties each and promoted by the title “ Reichsobstsorte ”. The Second World War ruined these plans.

A sharp decline in the West German orchards was sealed by the Emser decision of the Federal Ministry of Food on October 15, 1953 : “ There will be no more room for tall and half-trunks. Scattered cultivation , street cultivation and mixed culture should be discarded . " The trend towards plantation cultivation spread across the entire European Community (EC). In order to promote the orchards, the EC paid clearing premiums for each standard fruit tree until 1974 . Orchards on more fertile soils were often converted into orchards by these subsidies. The result was a drastic reduction in the number of orchards. The same applies to Austria. Only in the GDR and Switzerland did this change take place more slowly. In the GDR, orchards were often converted into orchards after the agricultural areas were merged into LPGs . Smaller, privately managed orchards were preserved, the underuse was often by cattle or sheep of the cooperative. In Switzerland, the state price supports that still exist today have ensured a moderate decline in orchards (mostly called field fruit growing there), and in 2007 there was also controversial but heavy clearing in connection with fire blight infestation . In general, for decades, public agricultural policy unilaterally promoted low-stem fruit growing in research, cultivation promotion, marketing and advertising. According to estimates by the NABU Federal Committee of Orchards, the German orchards fell from around 1.5 million hectares in 1950 to around 300,000–400,000 hectares in 2008.

Orchards require a significantly higher amount of work during harvest than in low-trunk systems. In addition, tall trunks usually only achieve full yield after 10 years, and low trunks as early as the third or fifth year after planting. However, full-time and part-time farmers in particular have been cultivating their areas with special harvesting and shaking machines on ever larger areas since the 1990s, starting in Eastern Switzerland. In the Passau area, the lease price rose to around 750 euros / ha through a clever combination of direct marketing of fruit and apple juice based on clear criteria (no synthetic treatment, replanting requirement, only standard trees ...) and fruit picking machines to around 750 euros / ha, which is higher than the lease price for grain or maize. This shows that orchards can still be profitable today.

Particularly successful and Europe-wide as a model for good cooperation between nature conservation and agriculture is the fruit surcharge marketing .

Orchards at marginal yield locations were often abandoned, used as pure grassland or afforested . The avenues on paths and rows of trees on the edges of fields were often cleared in the course of land consolidation . Some remaining stocks in the eastern federal states of Germany are still dying today due to the negative marginal influences of the fields cultivated by large farms.

In 2019 in Bavaria, in anticipation of a referendum, Save the Bees, with the aim of converting orchards with a size of more than 2,500 m² into legally protected biotopes, the fruit farmers affected increased the number of trees felled on orchards in order to ensure that the affected agricultural areas can continue to be cultivated.

Construction and settlement

Apple alley in autumn

The orchards, which were predominantly in the settlement area, were often in the way of new residential and commercial areas . The spatial planning principle of wanting to save space through subsequent structural densification has led and still leads to a subordinate classification of the orchards despite nature conservation concerns. The same was true for the road expansion . As a maintenance measure, a number of fruit trees were removed as part of the traffic safety obligation .

Marketing and Maintenance

Replanted old system, in front of Posterstein Castle
Information board in Halver
Information board in the otter biotope Lunestedt (municipality of Beverstedt)

From efforts to preserve this high-quality cultural landscape in terms of nature and landscape protection (as well as tourism today) , the slogan "Most drinkers are nature conservationists" emerged, which the DBV youth (today nature conservation youth in NABU ) as a synonym for cooperation from 1982 on spread between agriculture and nature conservation. In 1987, another paradigm shift began with the start of the fruit surcharge marketing by BUND groups in Upper Swabia and on Lake Constance. In 1988 the NABU quality mark for fruit orchards was introduced. This development resulted in the demand of nature conservation “fair prices also for orchards”.

More than 100 wine presses or fruit-growing associations, often supported by the German Nature Conservation Union (NABU) and the Association for the Environment and Nature Conservation Germany (BUND), organize a higher, "fair" price for the fruit - usually between 14 and 20 euros / dz. For this purpose, standards are adhered to, which the fruit surcharge marketer set at their nationwide meetings in 1996, 2001 and 2007. This includes the separate recording of the standard fruit that was produced without synthetic treatment agents, as well as a maintenance and replanting requirement for the standard fruit trees. Regionally, there are numerous additional requirements, for example on the use of meadows, the use of liquid manure or the maintenance and promotion of landscape elements in the orchards. The end product - more than 90% apple juice but increasingly also innovative, effervescent beverages ( cider ) and combinations with pears, cherries and plums - priced accordingly 10 to 20 cents more per liter.

In 2013 there were around 120 surcharges for orchards in Germany and some good approaches in Austria, Switzerland and Luxembourg. The market value of the products sold in this way is between 20 and 30 million euros. At the same time, there is a high demand for organic orchards, especially in southern Germany, which are accepted by large wineries and then partly marketed internationally.

But the decidedly larger share of orchards is still at risk due to insufficient profitability, the unwillingness of many consumers to pay a surcharge for orchards, and the unilateral funding policy of the agricultural ministries (especially for so-called integrated fruit growing ).

In Austria, the direct marketing of must, sometimes professionally linked to tourism marketing, as in the Lower Austrian Mostviertel with its must gallery , has led to a strong renaissance in fruit growing . In Switzerland there are still state-guaranteed purchase prices and, in comparison with the EU countries, high maintenance subsidies for high trunks.

A niche market for orchards is restaurants with cider pubs. Normally one does not fall back on the modern apple varieties, but on the more acidic older varieties from the orchard cultivation.

In addition to the NABU Federal Expert Committee for Streuobst, the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Streuobst Österreich as well as Hochstamm Schweiz and Hochstamm Suisse as organizations exclusively focused on orchards and the variety of fruit varieties at the national level, there are numerous local and regional development associations that deal with the preservation of orchards, among other things with environmental education Have set events and marketing activities as their goal.

With the orchard variety of the year , endangered or particularly well-preserved cultivated plants are brought into the spotlight. Municipalities are again trying to create new orchards in the context of wedding meadows.


  • Lydia Bünger, Doris Kölbach: Orchards - the link between nature conservation and agriculture. Edited by the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Documentation Nature and Landscape, Bibliography No. 69, 1995.
  • Corinna Dierichs & Klaus Weddeling: Orchards: Are you still on the decline? - Development of the population in four municipalities in the Rhein-Sieg district between 1990 and 2013. - Nature in NRW 2/2018, 12-16. Full text as pdf
  • Dieter Grill, Herbert Keppel: Old apple and pear varieties for orchards. Leopold Stocker Verlag , Graz 2005, ISBN 3-7020-1087-4 .
  • Ambros Hänggi, Edi Stöckli, Wolfgang Nentwig: Habitat of Central European Spiders. (= Miscellanea Faunistica Helvetiae. 4). Center suisse de cartographie de la faune, Neuchatel 1995, ISBN 2-88414-008-5 .
  • Walter Hartmann , Eckhart Fritz: Color Atlas Old Fruit Types. 3. Edition. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-3173-0 .
  • Hansjörg Küster : History of the Landscape in Central Europe - From the Ice Age to the Present. Beck, Munich 1995, ISBN 3-406-39525-2 .
  • Hans-Joachim Mader: The animal world of the orchards and intensively cultivated orchards in a quantitative comparison In: Natur u. Landscape. 11/1982, Kohlhammer, Stuttgart, pp. 371-377. ISSN  0028-0615
  • Markus Rösler: Preservation and promotion of orchards: analysis and concept. Model study presented using the example of the municipality of Boll. 2nd, corrected and supplemented edition. Purchase of NABU orchards dispatch, Bad Boll municipality 1996.
  • Markus Rösler: Surcharge marketing and nature conservation - orchard growing as a trendsetter. To develop new models in nature conservation. In: Natur u. Landscape. 9-10 / 2003, pp. 295-298, Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2003. ISSN  0028-0615
  • Stefan Rösler: The natural and social compatibility of integrated fruit growing. A comparison of the integrated and the ecological low-stem fruit growing as well as the orchard growing in the Lake Constance district, with special consideration of their historical development as well as of fauna and flora. Dissertation . 2nd Edition. University of Kassel , 2007, ISBN 978-3-89117-131-8 , reference to NABU orchards dispatch.
  • Birgit Weusmann: Project book Streuobstwiese. Schneider, Baltmannsweiler 2006, ISBN 3-8340-0018-3 .
  • Friedrich Weller : Protecting orchards. aid infodienst , Bonn, 1999, ISBN 3-8308-0999-9 .
  • Lutz Wetzlar, Marianne Mangold: Planting and maintaining orchards. Evaluation and information service for food, agriculture and forestry (aid), Bonn, 3190/1996, 1996, ISBN 3-89661-101-1 .


Web links

Commons : Orchards  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Streuobstwiese  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: Obstwiese  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Bettina Rinaldini in: Eugen Oberhummer: Romanian journey. Cluj partial report . In: R. Lechner (Ed.): Communications from the Geographical Society of Vienna. Volume 67 No. 9-12, University bookstore Vienna, 1924, pp. 254-262.
  2. Knauer in: P. Gross: The fruit and vegetable market. Volume II: The German cultivation areas. Hamburg / Berlin 1940.
  3. Hans Spreng: Our fruit growing and its future design. In: Atlantis. 52, VIII, 13, 1941, pp. 437-440.
  4. O. Zeller: Ecological groups of types of fruit and their importance for planning appropriate to the location in fruit growing III. In: fruit growing. 8/1953, 1953, pp. 123-126.
  5. Bruno Ullrich: Endangerment of bird species in the ecosystem "meadow orchards" with special consideration of the little owl Athene noctua and strangler species of the genus Lanius. In: Supplements to the publications for nature conservation and landscape management in Baden-Württemberg. Supplement 7, publisher: State Institute for Environmental Protection Baden-Württemberg, Ludwigsburg 1975, pp. 90-110, online at LUBW.Baden-Wuerttemberg.de (PDF; 34 kB), accessed on January 14, 2017.
  6. Definition of "orchard cultivation". Association of Horticultural Associations Saarland / Rhineland-Palatinate e. V.
  7. apfelgut.de: A Württemberg apple story
  8. Corinna Dierichs, Klaus Weddeling: Streuobstwiesen: Continuing on the descending branch? . Nature in NRW 2/2018: 12-16.
  9. zeit.de
  10. Reference to the Emser decision on nabu.de ( Memento from October 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  11. Environmental protection in Bavaria: Farmers fear biotopes in meadow orchards - and cut down their trees Report of the daily Süddeutsche Zeitung of May 15, 2019, accessed on May 18, 2019
  12. NABU, What is orchard growing?
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on February 18, 2005 in this version .