List of apple varieties
Appearance of the variety names
- Since many, especially old varieties, have very different regional names, all known names are listed for each variety.
- Each variety has a main entry with the preferred name (if there is an article for the variety, with a link to its lemma) and, if possible, with a picture and a more detailed description.
- Subordinate variety names each have a secondary entry that only refers to the main entry; possibly also on several main entries, separated by commas. Side entries contain no further information or images and no links.
- In the main entry, in the first column after the preferred name, the other names are added alphabetically in brackets and separated from one another by a comma. To avoid confusion with compound names in parentheses, e.g. B. "Cox Orange Pippin (Potter)", the subordinate names are introduced by an "or:", z. B. "Berlepsch (or: Baron De Berlepsch, Freiherr Von Berlepsch, Goldrenette Freiherr Von Berlepsch)".
- Foreign language names are possible.
- If there are German names, these are used as a preferred designation.
Names are not listed separately for which only
- an umlaut or another letter with diacritical marks was reduced to its basic letter ("Altländer" -> "Altlander")
- a "ß" was replaced by "ss" ("Prussian" → "Prussian")
- a hyphen ("-") has been replaced by a space ("") or vice versa.
Spelling of names
- The names are put in the singular.
- Preceding articles are omitted ("La Nationale" → "Nationale")
- All names are written in the Latin alphabet and transcribed accordingly for other original spellings.
- Old spellings are modernized ("Zimmel-like crown apple" → "Cinnamon-like crown apple")
- The first letter of every word in the name is capitalized, everything else is lowercase.
- Letters and numbers are separated by a space.
- The genitive apostrophe in English variety names is retained.
- Diacritical marks, "ß", hyphens, periods and round brackets are possible.
- The names do not contain commas.
The list is sorted alphabetically according to the variety name.
- No distinction is made between uppercase and lowercase letters.
- Letters with diacritics are treated like the corresponding basic letters. (The Wikimedia table sorting does it a little differently, e.g. it sorts accented letters after the normal alphabet.)
- Hyphens are sorted like spaces.
- Apostrophes and periods are ignored ("Citron D'Hiver" like "Citron DHiver", "Wadey's Seedling" like "Wadey's Seedling").
- "Ss" is sorted like "ss".
Links to individual articles on apple varieties are only placed on main and not on secondary entries.
Sources are only given in the main entries; the side entries remain without references.
Individual evidence is given as usual; the mass verifications come from the following sources:
- (a): Orange Pippin Ltd. . Retrieved January 18, 2020
- (b): East of England Apples and Orchards Project. Bedfordshire apple varieties . Retrieved December 27, 2016
- (c): List of apple cultivars . Retrieved December 28, 2016
- (d): Apple name . Retrieved December 28, 2016
- (e): Apple Fruiting . Retrieved December 28, 2016
- (f): Brogdale Apple List 2012 . Retrieved January 8, 2017
- (g): Joan Morgan, Allison Richards: The New Book Of Apples: The Definitive Guide to Apples, Including Over 2000 Varieties. Rev. Ed., Ebury Press, London 2002, ISBN 978-0-09-188398-0 . The page numbers are given in brackets.
- (h): Theodor Engelbrecht : Germany's apple varieties. Illustrated, systematic representation of the apple varieties grown in the area of the German Pomologists Association . F. Vieweg and Son, Braunschweig 1889, limited preview in the Google book search.
- (i): (Ed.) Swiss. Agricultural Association: Swiss fruit varieties (volume: apples), St. Gallen / Zurich 1863, approx. 211 pages. ( Online as PDF . Retrieved November 6, 2018) (Note: page numbers refer to the online scan page numbers)
- (j): German fruit genebank . Retrieved March 13, 2017
- (k): Eduard Lucas , Johann Georg Conrad Oberdieck (Hrsg.): Handbuch der Obstkunde. 2nd edition, with the participation of several pomologists. 8 volumes and supplement volumes. Publisher Eugen Ulmer , Stuttgart 1875.
- (l): Franz Jahn , Eduard Lucas , Johann Georg Conrad Oberdieck (Hrsg.): Illustrirtes Handbuch der Obstkunde. 4th volume apples . Verlag der Dorn'schen Buchhandlung, Ravensburg 1865, approx. 579 pages. ( Online at the Bavarian State Library . Accessed November 6, 2018)
- (m): Korbinian Aigner : apples and pears. The complete work. Edited by Judith Schalansky . Verlag Matthes & Seitz Berlin, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-88221-051-4 . From it online: List of names without pictures as PDF . Retrieved November 6, 2018
- (n): G. Kuphaldt: Winke for the sale of fruit trees to the Baltic Sea countries , in: Die Gartenwelt . No. 52 (December 27, 1929) ( Online as PDF . Accessed November 6, 2018)
- (o): Open fruit variety database at Obstgarten.biz . Retrieved November 14, 2018
- Alfred Aeppli: types of fruit. Description and evaluation of pome and stone fruit varieties. 3rd edition, significantly revised and expanded. Agricultural learning resources center, Zollikofen 1989, ISBN 3-906679-06-3 .
- Herbert Bischof: Grandfather's old fruit varieties. Kosmos, Stuttgart 1998, ISBN 3-440-07398-X .
- Johannes Boysen: Fruit varieties in North Frisia. A cross-section of the fruit varieties from northern North Friesland. (With photo CD). Videel Publishing, Niebüll 2001, ISBN 3-89906-381-3 .
- Gerhard Götz , Robert Silbereisen: Fruit types atlas. Pome fruit, stone fruit, soft fruit, nuts. Ulmer, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-8001-5527-3 .
- Walter Hartmann (Ed.): Color atlas of old fruit varieties. Ulmer, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-8001-3173-0 .
- Martina Heilmeyer, Clemens A. Wimmer: Apples for the people (= Potsdam pomological stories ). Vacat, Potsdam 2002, ISBN 3-930752-21-2 .
- Joan Morgan, Allison Richards: The New Book Of Apples: The Definitive Guide to Apples, Including Over 2000 Varieties. Rev. Ed., Ebury Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-09-188398-0 .
- Franz Mühl: Old and new apple varieties. 3rd, expanded edition. Obst- und Gartenbauverlag, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-87596-093-9 .
- Herbert Petzold : Apple varieties. 4th, revised and expanded edition. Neumann, Radebeul 1990, ISBN 3-7402-0075-8 .
- Robert Silbereisen: Apple varieties. Market varieties, novelties and cider apples. 3rd, revised and expanded edition. Ulmer, Stuttgart 1986, ISBN 3-8001-5524-9 .
- Willi Votteler: Directory of apple and pear varieties. 3340 double names, 1360 variety descriptions. 3. Edition. Obst- und Gartenbauverlag, Munich 1993, ISBN 3-87596-086-6 .
- Hans-Joachim Bannier: Modern apple breeding: Genetic impoverishment and tendencies towards inbreeding Loss of vitality only visible when the use of fungicides is not used. In: Commercial fruit growing. January 2011, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp. 85–110, doi: 10.1007 / s10341-010-0113-4 , Apfelzüchtung.Genet_.Verarmung-u.Tendenz-z.Inzucht.Erwerbsobstbau-04.01.2011.pdf online ( PDF; 1.18 MB), from Kultur Pflanzen-nutztiervielfalt.org, accessed on February 8, 2017.
- Johann-Heinrich Rolff (Ed.): The apple - variety names and synonyms. Volume 1, Kiefersfelden 2001, ISBN 978-3-8311-0956-2 .
- Commodity: Apples from German cultivation.
- Apple variety genebank of the Province of Carinthia.
- Swiss apple varieties: list of names.
- Red list including types of fruit (557 entries under "Malus").
- Online list based on the 4th edition of the Federal Fruit Types Directory.
- Germany's fruit varieties.
- Fruit variety recommendations from BUND Lemgo, old identification books and numerous beautiful apple and cherry variety drawings.
- Society for Pomology and Fruit Variety Conservation Bavaria.
- Comprehensive variety database for old apple varieties.
- Variety descriptions on Noah's Ark - Society for the Conservation of Cultivated Plants Diversity & Their Development