fruit juice

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Grapefruit and orange juice

Fruit juice , especially fruit juice, is a liquid product obtained from fruits of one or more types of fruit, which is intended for human consumption . The fruit content must be 100%. A distinction is made between not- from- concentrate juice and fruit juice made from concentrate . With the latter, fruit juice is concentrated in the country of origin and diluted back in the country of destination.

Fruit nectars and fruit juice drinks to which other ingredients may be added are distinguished from fruit juice .


For the EU , Directive 2001/211 / EC defines the fermentable , but not fermented, product obtained from the edible part of healthy and ripe fruit of one or more types of fruit as fruit juice , which has the characteristic color, the characteristic aroma and the characteristic taste having. The fruits were fresh or preserved by cold. Fruit pulp can be added. The aroma, pulp and cells obtained from the same type of fruit using appropriate physical processes may be restored in the juice. Pieces or parts of kernels, seeds and peel must not be in the juice unless they cannot be removed by good manufacturing practice . With citrus fruits - except limes - the fruit juice must come from the endocarp . Tomatoes are considered fruit here.

For Germany, the Fruit Juice and Refreshment Drinks Ordinance (FrSaftErfrischGetrV) implements the provisions of the directive in connection with the Food and Feed Code (LFGB). According to the supplementary findings of the German Food Book for the Traffic Conception, the term "not fermented" in this fruit juice definition does not mean that fruit juice is alcohol-free : Accordingly, the juice is to be regarded as not fermented if not more than 3 g alcohol per liter, for grape juice 1 % vol. is in it.

In fruit juice, i.e. not -from- concentrate juice , which is often called direct juice in Germany by food companies , the fruit content is 100%. Fruit juice from fruit juice concentrate is restored to the concentrate by adding drinking water , fruit pulp, fruit pulp, aromas (with grape juice also possible: tartaric acid salts) and / or cells from this type of fruit , so that the fruit content is 100% equivalent and the other chemical, physical, organoleptic and nutrient-related characteristics correspond to those of not -from-concentrate juice. The fruit juice was concentrated by physical extraction of water in the country of origin and is more or less diluted again later.

The German Nutrition Society (DGE) classifies fruit juice as a plant-based food. A glass of fruit juice (150 to 200 milliliters) can replace one of five recommended servings of fruit and vegetables daily.



The regulations of the Food Information Ordinance are decisive for the labeling of all packaged foods . Mandatory information is the sales name, manufacturer's information, filling quantity, best-before date, list of ingredients, nutritional declaration and lot number. In the case of fruit juices made from two or more types of fruit, the types of fruit used must be specified in descending order of the volume percentage of the fruit juices used. If necessary, the packaging can be provided with information on storage or use.

Information such as “not-from-concentrate” or “100% fruit content” were given on a voluntary basis. The same applies to the nutrition claim “no added sugar”. The fruit juice and soft drinks ordinance regulates special labeling for fruit juice. In the case of products made from only one type of fruit, the word “fruit” must be replaced by the name of the type of fruit.

According to the legal situation in Austria, fruit from abroad can also be used for fruit juice from Austria. This is also practiced after crop failures in 2016.


Filling line for apple juice

Direct juice

Ripe, clean, fresh or preserved fruits are used for fruit juice production. Citrus fruits are pressed in special citrus presses . Other fruits are in a mill to mash ground, which is then mechanically pressed. Special enzymes can facilitate the escape of juice from the cells and increase the juice yield.

In the case of stone and berry fruit , the stones and stems are removed before pressing. By centrifugation and filtration results from the first naturally cloudy fruit pulp-containing juice is a clear fruit juice.

Not-from-concentrate juice made from highly acidic fruits is also called mother juice and is usually only consumed diluted and, if necessary, sweetened. If it is sweetened by sugar or other sweeteners and not just by other sweet fruit juices that have to be identified, it can no longer be marketed as “fruit juice” since the correction of sugar was banned .

Fruit juice from concentrate

After juicing, flavors are first removed so that they are not lost when the juice is subsequently evaporated. The water is removed under almost vacuum . The concentrate can be temporarily stored and transported inexpensively. To make juice from the concentrate again, water and the fruit's own aroma and, if necessary, the pulp and cells are added.

In addition to the advantage of cost savings for transport, this process also means that manufacturers are independent of the harvest season. To preserve the juice for a few seconds at 85 ° C pasteurized .

Related drinks

Fruit nectar and fruit juice drinks differ from fruit juice in that they have a lower juice content, which is achieved by diluting them with water. The addition of sugar or honey is also common.

Fruit nectar

Some fruits naturally have so much fruit acid or pulp that they cannot be offered as fruit juice, but only as nectar. The legally prescribed minimum content of fruit juice or fruit pulp is at least 25% (e.g. currant, banana, mango) to 50% (elderberry, quince, peach) depending on the type of fruit. Fruit nectar may contain up to 20% of the total weight of sugar or honey ( Section 2 (6 ) FrSaftErfrischGetrV ).

Fruit juice spritzers , i.e. mixtures of fruit juice or fruit juice concentrate and carbonated mineral water, are also fruit nectars according to the definitions of the applicable fruit juice regulation.

Fruit juice drink

Fruit juice drinks are not subject to the Fruit Juice Ordinance, but are described in the guiding principles for soft drinks of the German food book. The fruit content should be at least 6% (citrus fruits) to 30% (pome fruit, grapes), depending on the type of fruit. In addition to sugar, flavorings may also be added to round off the taste (Section 2 (7) FrSaftErfrischGetrV).

Ingredients and additives

The ingredients used must be specified for all foods.

After the implementation of the basic version of the EU directive in the member states, according to which corrective sugar was allowed to remove a "sour taste", German juice manufacturers increasingly competed with fruit juices that had been supplemented with sugar based on this exception rule. Since German juices traditionally do not contain any corrective sugar additives, the intention was to make this clear to distinguish it from the other juices, for which the label “No added sugar” was established. This notice on the packaging is voluntary and promises that there really is no additional sugar, i.e. no corrective sugar in the juice. This sugaring is no longer permitted since October 31, 2013 following changes to the EU Fruit Juice Directive and subsequently also to the German Fruit Juice Regulation. So no corrective sugar either. Therefore, the expression “without added sugar” became superfluous, but is still used for marketing reasons and suggests to consumers that other fruit juices are illegally added.

There are a variety of substances that are not considered an ingredient. These substances, often called processing aids, do not appear in the list of ingredients for fruit juices, but may be used in the production process. The use of gelatine and other substances such as enzymes , tannins , aromas and bentonite is permitted.

In addition, in the case of fruit juice made from fruit juice concentrate, all the ingredients that are essential to restore the original condition do not have to be listed on the packaging.

Key figures of the fruit juice industry

In 2019, Germans drank 30.5 liters of juice and nectar from fruits and vegetables per capita. This makes them the European front-runner, ahead of Norway (23.5 liters) and Austria (21.8 liters) and well above the EU average (18.0 liters). Consumption has decreased slightly since 2003.

The most popular fruit juices in Germany are orange and apple juice with an average per capita consumption of 7.2 and 6.8 liters respectively (2019). Multivitamin juice (3.8 liters) as well as grape and pineapple juice (1.1 and 0.4 liters) are also important.

The approximately 350 German fruit juice manufacturers processed around 900,000 t of fruit in 2019 and produced a total of 4.0 billion liters of fruit juice, nectar and fruit juice drinks. The 7,500 employees generated sales of 3.27 billion euros.

Packaging structure in Germany

In addition to disposable PET and cardboard packaging, the reusable glass system in Germany plays an important role in the fruit juice segment. The share within the overall packaging structure is around 11 percent, and the trend has been rising slightly in recent years. Around 300 fruit juice manufacturers in Germany use the reusable glass system of the VdF (Association of the German Fruit Juice Industry).

Packaging structure 2019.jpg

Development of per capita consumption in Germany

Figures in liters
2005 2010 2016 2017 2018 2019 *
Apple juice spritzer 8.3 11.0 6.5 5.7 5.1 4.5
Apple juice 12.4 8.1 7.5 7.6 7.0 6.8
orange juice 8.9 8.7 7.5 7.4 7.4 7.2
Multivitamin fruit juice 3.8 4.1 4.1 4.1 3.9 3.8
Grape juice 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.1
Pineapple juice 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4

* preliminary figures

Major manufacturers of fruit juices and fruit nectars

Companies Head office Sales 2011 total
(million liters)
Sales 2011 in Germany
(million liters)
Sales 2011 total
(million euros)
riha Richard Hartinger drinks GermanyGermany Rinteln 508.2 276.7 176.7 Fruchtquell, Naturella, Wesergold, Quelly, trademarks
GerberEmig Group (merged to RefrescoGerber in 2013 ) United KingdomUnited Kingdom Somerset
(Emig GmbH in Rellingen )
433.0 238.2 185.0 * Emig, Junita, trademarks
Eckes - Granini Germany GermanyGermany Nieder-Olm 395.0 395.0 329.0 Eckes, Fruchttiger, Granini, Hohes C, Dr. cook
Refresco (merged in 2013 to RefrescoGerber ) NetherlandsNetherlands Dordrecht
(Refresco Germany in Mönchengladbach )
389.0 * 241.0 * 137.0 * Hardthof, Krings , trademarks ( e.g. for Rewe Group , Aldi , Lidl )
Mare Food Works GermanyGermany Paderborn 275.0 * 229.0 * 96.0 * Mare, trademarks ( e.g. for Aldi )
Valensina / Sportfit GermanyGermany Mönchengladbach 271.0 221.0 65.0 Valensina, Wolfra, Freshness, Hitchcock, Tropicana
Lower Rhine Gold Tersteegen GermanyGermany Moers 232.5 * 139.5 * 57 * Copeo, Niederrhein-Gold, trademarks
Albi (2017 takeover by Edeka) GermanyGermany Buhlenhausen 138.0 * 132.0 * 94.0 Albi, Multi12, private labels (e.g. for Edeka and Netto Marken-Discount )
PepsiCo United StatesUnited States Purchase
(PepsiCo Germany in Neu-Isenburg )
127.0 * 127.0 * 127.0 * Punica
ELRO Group (2012 insolvency, 2013 takeover by EDEKA Association) GermanyGermany Rostock 124.0 * 114.0 * 57.4 * Elmenhorster, Röthaer

* estimated dates

See also

Web links

Commons : Fruchtsaft  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Fruchtsaft  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikiquote: Juice  - Quotes
Wikiquote: Most  - Quotes

Individual evidence

  1. a b Fruit juices and similar products. Directive 2001/112 / EC (PDF) . In: Council of Europe, December 1, 2001, accessed September 17, 2017 .
  2. Annex I Section I. 1.a) of the Council Directive 2001/112 / EC of December 20, 2001 on fruit juices and certain similar products for human consumption
  3. Appendix II No. 1 p. 2 of Directive 2001/211 / EC
  4. to the manufacturing requirements in accordance with Appendix 1 1.a) FrSaftErfrischGetrV
  5. IC1 of the guidelines for fruit juices
  6. 1. b) of Annex I to the guideline or Annex. 1 to the regulation
  7. Harvest failures: fruit is bought in. In: November 5, 2016, accessed November 6, 2016 .
  8. AID information brochure "Fruit juices and soft drinks". 2011, archived from the original on March 23, 2017 ; accessed on September 17, 2017 (brochure was not linked directly and cannot be found in the web archive).
  9. Fruit nectar. In: Archived from the original on December 14, 2014 ; accessed on September 17, 2017 .
  10. by Directive 2012/12 / EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of April 19, 2012 amending Council Directive 2001/112 / EC on fruit juices and certain similar products for human consumption; s. Recitals 3) and Art. 3, according to which the declaration “without added sugar” was still permissible until 2016
  11. Hendrik Kafsack, Brussels: New rules for juices. In: . December 14, 2011, accessed December 13, 2014 .
  12. Appendix 4 FrSaftErfrischGetrV
  13. Data and facts on the German fruit juice industry 2018. In: Association of the German Fruit Juice Industry V., accessed on January 6, 2020 .
  14. a b c Beverage Info / Hohmann / Kelch, July 2012
  15. After joining Edeka, Albi struggles with a drop in sales , at , accessed on January 5, 2019
  16. Insolvent Elro Group: Brinkmann sells six companies to Edeka. February 25, 2013. Retrieved September 17, 2017 .