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A concentrate , especially with liquids also essence , is a substance - a powder or a liquid - without or with a small amount of additional fillers , in the case of a liquid from solvents . Before using the concentrate, the original volume is restored by adding the filler or the solvent again.

One advantage is the reduced transport costs when large quantities, e.g. B. in pressed fruit juices , from the producer to the consumer countries have to be transported ( thick juice ). Many concentrates can also be stored better and require less packaging.

In order to produce a concentrate, the filler or the solvent must be removed from the original mixture . In the case of solids, this is done by freeze-drying or centrifugation . In these cases the concentrate, like the original mixture , is a solid. Similarly, it is possible to process liquids by boiling or distillation into concentrated liquids. An originally liquid substance can be converted into a solid substance by drying , e.g. B. soluble coffee .

In membrane filtration such as reverse osmosis or nanofiltration , the retained phase, which contains the concentrated ingredients, is referred to as concentrate or retentate .

Individual evidence

  1. Search for "Essenz (concentrate)" ,
  2. Mechthild Krüger: On the history of elixirs, essences and tinctures. Braunschweig 1968 (= publications from the pharmacy history seminar of the Technical University of Braunschweig , 10).
  3. Sh. Rahman (Ed.): Handbook of food preservation. Dekker, New York and Basel 1999, ISBN 0-8247-0209-3 . P. 235 ff.
  4. ^ The Royal Academy of Engineering: Engineering for sustainable development: guiding principles. London 2005, ISBN 1-903496-21-7 . ( PDF ( Memento of the original from July 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ). @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  5. K. Masters: Spray drying handbook. 4th edition. Godwin, London 1985, ISBN 0-7114-5805-7 . P. 608 ff.