The pomology (from Latin pomum tree fruit , or Pomona , the goddess of the garden fruits) or fruit growing is the study of the types and varieties of fruit as well as their determination and systematic classification . The term pomology was coined in 1758 by Johann Hermann Knoop in his work Pomologia .
The first pomological writings were written in the 18th century . In this context, in a letter published in 1801 in the pomological journal Der Teutsche Obstgärtner , Hofrat Ludolph Friedrich von Laffert also referred to literature from the 16th century, the little apple book of Elector August von Sachsen with early descriptions of the varieties. In the 19th century , with the increase in interest in breeding new varieties, many extensive books were created , including some richly illustrated, artistic works. The main centers of pomological research were Germany and France .
The historical authors (the pomologists ) mostly not only described the types of fruit, but grew them themselves, occupied themselves with the improvement and selection and devoted a large part of their time to recognizing the varieties and giving them names. In the period from 1860 to 1919, the German pomologists were organized in the German Pomologists Association , which campaigned for the expansion of knowledge of varieties and for issues relating to fruit growing.
The current areas of activity for pomologists, now often organized in the new pomologists association (founded in 1991), have shifted significantly into new areas. One of the most important tasks is the collection and preservation of old varieties that are threatened with extinction. In addition, there is a search for missing types of fruit that are known from literature or vernacular . These partially international searches have already achieved success.
Many of the varieties described in the literature of the 19th century are no longer known today or can no longer be assigned unequivocally. Once recognized, pomologists can recognize a variety at any time, but this variety can often not be assigned unequivocally to one of the varieties described in the old literature.
Often, within the framework of thematically appropriate events, such as campaign days by fruit growing associations, the identification and presentation of fruit varieties for visitors is offered. In the meantime, expert reports are also being drawn up on professionally planted fruit plantations in order to prove that the correct types of fruit suitable for the planned use were actually used. The problem here is the lack of robustness of certain types of fruit. Many of the varieties suitable for professional fruit production are not able to survive on an extensively farmed area without the use of pesticides. Wrong varieties mean increased costs for replanting in the future.
- Johann Hermann Knoop : Pomologia, that is descriptions and illustrations of the best varieties of apples and pears, which are respected in Holland, Germany, France, Engeland and elsewhere and are therefore cultivated.
- Johann Prokop Mayer - Pomona Franconica or natural illustration and description of the best and most exquisite European types of fruit trees and fruits which are grown in the Prince's Court Garden in Würzburg , 1776–1801.
- Johann Kraft : A treatise on the fruit trees in which their shape, upbringing and care are displayed and described, with a hundred very fine illustrations engraved in copper and depicted in colors according to nature , Vienna bey Rudolph Grässer und Compagnie, 1792, 2 volumes.
- Johann Friedrich Benade (Ed.): Des ... Churfürstl. Saxon. Secret Land-Cammerraths Karl Heinrich v. Heinecken [† 1791] ... message and description of a complete collection of fruit varieties, which the same formerly mainly built in Altdöbern near Calau in Nieder-Lausitz , and which are mostly still located there and in the vicinity; revised, expanded and corrected by JFB , Sorau and Leipzig 1804f.
- Adrian Diel - Attempt to systematically describe the common pome fruit varieties in Germany , 21 issues 1799–1819, extract from it in five volumes 1829–33; Systematic list of the most excellent types of fruit in Germany , 1818, with two continuations 1829–33.
- Johann Ludwig Christ - Complete pomology in two volumes, pome fruit 1809, stone fruit 1812
- Georg Liegel - Systematic instructions for the knowledge of the most excellent varieties of stone, stone, shell and berry fruit , 1825
- Friedrich Jakob Dochnahl - Systematic description of all apple varieties 1855, Systematic description of all pear varieties 1856, Systematic description of all stone fruit varieties 1858
- Friedrich Jakob Dochnahl - Pomona. General German magazine for the entire fruit and wine growing monthly published between 1851 and 1867
- Franz Jahn , Eduard Lucas , Johann Oberdieck - Illustrirtes Handbuch der Obstkunde in 9 volumes and some additional volumes, 1859–1883, the pomological standard work of the 19th century.
- André Leroy - Dictionnaire de pomologie contenant l'histoire, la description, la figure des fruits anciens et des fruits modern les plus généralement connus et cultivés in four volumes, 1867–1873
- Johann Georg Conrad Oberdieck - Germany's best fruit varieties , 1881
- Wilhelm Lauche - German pomology in several episodes, 1882–1883 (E-Text: apples , pears )
- JG Sänger: Die Obstbaumzucht , Schopfheim 2nd A. 1884 ( digitized version )
- Theodor Engelbrecht : Germany's apple varieties . Braunschweig 1889. The Braunschweig professor and medical advisor Engelbrecht was the "first board member" of the German Pomologists Association and published the work mentioned on behalf of this association. It contains detailed descriptions of a total of 688 apple varieties
- Nicolas Gaucher - Pomology of the practical fruit tree grower , 1894
- Rudolf Goethe , Hermann Degenkolb and Reinhard Mertens : apples and pears. The most important German pome fruit varieties., Berlin, Paul Parey, 1894
- Germany's fruit varieties , Eckstein & Stähle publishing house, from 1905, the standard work from the beginning of the 20th century, richly illustrated and extensively described varieties.
- Fruit varieties worth cultivating , Verlag Bechtold & Comp., Wiesbaden, first edition 1909, contains 55 plates in twelve-color printing with descriptive text
- Theodor Zschokke - Schweizerisches Obstbildwerk , 1925. Contains 10 deliveries with 10 tablets each with apples and pears.
- Karl Duhan - The Most Valuable Fruits , 1957.
- Hans Krümmel, Wilhelm Groh, Gerhard Friedrich - German fruit varieties , 1956–1960.
- Uta Lohwasser, Matthäus Mäuser: Beautiful little fruits. Special exhibition in the Natural History Museum Bamberg June 17, 1998 - February 28, 1999. Booklet. 1998.
- Annette Braun-Lüllemann and Hans-Joachim Bannier Old sweet cherry varieties (fruit variety plant): Genetic diversity in the cherry-growing areas of Hagen am Teutoburg Forest and Witzenhausen. Verlag des Pomologen-Verein, Detmold 2010, ISBN 978-3-943198-05-8 ( online as PDF file, 31.1 MB)
Gardens, museums, sights
- Bodengut Vorarlberg is a study that examines the development and diversity of Vorarlberg's cultural landscapes.
- Collegium Augustinianum Gaesdonck : A pomological peculiarity is the apple variety Gaesdoncker Renette, which in the former monastery garden of the Collegium Augustinianum…
- German Horticultural Museum in Erfurt. The only specialist museum in Germany, central point of contact for questions about the development of horticulture.
- Döllingen : The opening and laying of the foundation stone for the pomological show and teaching garden took place in 2000.
- Eldena (Greifswald)
- Geisenheim Research Institute
- Fructus (association)
- Higher Federal College and Federal Office for Viticulture and Fruit Growing Klosterneuburg, Austria
- Spielberg orchard near Gunzenhausen
- Fruit variety garden of Upper Lusatia in Ostritz
- Reutlingen Pomology , originally founded in 1860 as the Reutlingen Pomological Institute , was the first private training center for tree maintenance and gardeners in Germany. The Pomologie park, which in 1984 was the center of the fifth state horticultural show in Baden-Wuerttemberg, is now located on the former premises of the Reutlingen college .
- Wörlitzer Park : originally the library of the house in which Prince Franz's pomological collection, consisting of 200 wax fruits, was later kept.
- Zwinger (Dresden) : The elector, together with his wife Anna, is generally considered to be the founder of Saxon horticulture.
- The National Fruit Collection is located in Brogdale .
- Eduard Lucas variety garden in Mähringen
- Fruit Arboretum Bielefeld
- Pomarium Anglicum fruit museum in Sörup -Winderatt, Schleswig-Flensburg district
- Herbert Petzold : 'Apple varieties' Neumann Verlag Radebeul, 1979 p. 13
- Ludolph Friedrich von Laffert: Excerpt from a letter from Mr. Hof- und Canzleyrath von Laffert, regarding the little orchard book from Churfürst August zu Sachsen, dated March 11, 1801 in Teutsche Obstgärtner ( digitized version )
- Variety determination and identification problems in “Snow white to rose pink”, interview with pomologist Jens Meyer about the determination of apple varieties, by Michael Güthlein, accessed at chrismon.de, 25.9.18