Fruit is a collective term for raw edible, mostly water-containing fruits or parts thereof (e.g. seeds ) that come from trees , bushes and perennial shrubs .
In Germany , the average daily consumption of fruit and fruit products (excluding fruit juices) is 230 grams for men and 278 grams for women, according to a 2008 study.
The term fruit ( Old High German obaz , Middle High German z if (s) , Frühneuhochdeutsch obs ; "Fruit Tree Fruit") consists of the preposition if and one with food related verbal noun with an output Meaning, side dish '(the staple food), probably originally legumes, together. The inorganic -t ending has been around since the 16th century. The term is common West Germanic, see Middle Low German ōvet, āvet, ōves, ōvest , Middle Dutch and Dutch ooft and Old English ofet (t) .
The distinction between fruit and vegetables is not biological, but cultural and therefore blurred. As a rule, fruits come from perennial plants and vegetables from annual plants (according to the food definition). The sugar content in fruit is usually higher. From a botanical point of view, fruit arises from the fertilized flower , vegetables arise from other parts of the plant. Peppers , tomatoes , pumpkins , zucchini , aubergines and cucumbers are fruits and belong to fruit according to the above (botanical) definition (since they arise from fertilized flowers), but are considered annual plants (food definition: vegetables) and generally because of the lack of sweetness or acid called fruit vegetables . Rhubarb, on the other hand, is a leaf stem, but is also used as a fruit.
The division of fruit into fruit type groups (pome fruit, stone fruit, exotic fruit, etc.) described below is the one that is common in trade today . In botany, on the other hand, the collective term fruit is used to summarize “all those seeds and fruits of cultivated or wild plants that are generally eaten raw and have a pleasant, mostly sweet or sour taste. If these are seeds , they are also very nutritious because of the calorie content, while fruits , the seeds of which are often not consumed, usually have pulp with a high water content and therefore only low nutritional value. Thanks to their content of vitamins and mineral salts , they are [...] an important supplement to food [...]. "
Types of fruit
Different plant groups of the useful plants and their types give fruits, which are called fruit. The division of fruit into horticulture and trade is not strictly botanical. The typical species groups are pome fruit , stone fruit , soft fruit , nuts , classic tropical fruits and other exotic fruits.
In addition, there is also a classification according to "domestic" and imported goods of various types (such as flying fruit ) from the point of view of origin and transport and, for some time, from organic cultivation in the sense of a quality specification. In addition, there is hardly any wild fruit that is used commercially .
In Germany, the diversity of fruit species and varieties is collected and preserved at the German Fruit Genebank (DGO) in Dresden-Pillnitz.
Types of fruit
Within a fruit-bearing species there are numerous breeding varieties , i.e. varieties with different properties in terms of appearance, content and properties with regard to ripeness, storage and use. Protected commercial varieties are subject to plant variety protection ; There are also numerous traditional varieties, known as old varieties , which have developed in the regional agricultural history. Here one speaks of noble variety and farm fruit .
For the varieties of individual species see:
- List of apple varieties
- List of pear varieties
- List of table grape varieties (varieties for pressing are grape varieties .)
Depending on the use of fruit , a distinction is made between table and commercial fruit , the first are varieties of the best quality for retail and direct consumption, the second for further processing, i.e. juice production, preserving fruit and the like, and industrial fruit as a raw material for special products such as gelling agents or food additives and colorings.
Typical use varieties are about bearing fruit , which only matures and does not require refrigeration or consumed immediately, or special cooking fruit explants with developing only after warming taste. Nowadays, types of storage no longer play a role in commercial cultivation, as improved storage options ( CA storage ) and inexpensive imports from the southern hemisphere mean that fresh fruit can be offered all year round.
The individual fruits are sorted into different commercial classes according to size and quality . Specimens that do not meet the requirements for the commercial classes are sorted out and used for other purposes. The three quality classes are Extra, I and II, they are defined as an EU quality standard.
Pineapples, bananas, papaya and citrus fruits are sensitive to cold and should not be stored at refrigerator temperatures of 4 to 8 degrees Celsius, but at 8 to 12 degrees.
- Wolfgang Franke : Crop science: usable plants of the temperate latitudes, subtropics and tropics. 6th edition. Thieme, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-13-530406-X .
- G. Dearest: Fruit knowledge. Hädecke, 1999, ISBN 3-7750-0301-0 .
- Pierre-Marie Valat, Pascale de Bourgoing: The apple and other fruits. Mannheim 1992, ISBN 3-411-08541-X .
- Lothar Bendel: The great fruit and vegetable dictionary. Patmos, 2002, ISBN 3-491-96066-5 .
- Jules Janick, Robert E. Paull: The Encyclopedia of Fruit and Nuts. CABI, 2008, ISBN 0-85199-638-8 .
- Odilo Duarte, Robert Paull: Exotic Fruits and Nuts of the New World. CABI, 2015, ISBN 978-1-78064-505-6 .
- James A. Duke: Handbook of Nuts: Herbal Reference Library. CRC Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8493-3637-6 .
- Helmut Pirc: Encyclopedia of Wild Fruit and Rare Fruit Types. Leopold Stocker Verlag, 2015, ISBN 978-3-7020-1515-2 .
- Philip A. Clarke: Aboriginal Plant Collectors. Rosenberg, 2008, ISBN 978-1-877058-68-4 .
- Siegfried Tatschl: 555 types of fruit for the permaculture garden and balcony. Löwenzahn Verlag, 2015, ISBN 978-3-7066-2780-1 .
- Hugo Meinhard Schiechtl, Georg Gärtner: Wild fruits of Europe. Berenkamp, 2000, ISBN 978-3-85093-124-3 .
- Henry David Thoreau : Wild Fruits. Manesse, 2012, ISBN 978-3-7175-6006-7 .
- Fruit variety conservation network - Pomologists' Association
- Seasonal calendar for local fruit and salad (PDF) NABU - Naturschutzbund Deutschland e. V.
- ↑ National Consumption Study II, Result Report Part 2. (PDF; 2.4 MB) Ed .: Max Rubner Institute , Karlsruhe 2008, p. 35, BMEL.de; accessed on January 14, 2017.
- ↑ Wolfgang Pfeifer: Etymological Dictionary of German . 7th edition. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-423-32511-9 , pp. 942 .
- ↑ Wolfgang Franke: Nutzpflanzenkunde: usable plants of the temperate latitudes, subtropics and tropics . 6th edition, Thieme, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-13-530406-X .
- ↑ Henryk Flachowsky, Monika Hofer: apples, pears, berries: The German Fruit Gene Bank, a network of living collections with special challenges . In: Nicole C. Karafyllis : Theories of the living collection. Plants, microbes and animals as biofacts in gene banks . Karl Alber, Freiburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-495-48975-8 , pp. 287-307.
- ↑ Instructions for use Bosch fridge-freezer, 2012