The Botany ( ancient Greek βοτανική (ἐπιστήμη) botaniké [EPISTEME] , of botáne , pasture, forage plant '[EPISTEME -science], also Phytology and botany ) explores the plants . It deals with the life cycle , metabolism , growth and structure of plants; also with their ingredients (see medicine ), their ecology (see biocenosis ) and their economic benefits (see useful plants ) as well as their systematics . In its origins, botany goes back to the medical / medicinal treatment of medicinal plants. The writings of Theophrastus from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC testify to a first abstract scientific investigation and systematization of the plant kingdom . Chr.
More recently, botany has been increasingly referred to as plant science in the academic field based on international usage (“Plant Science”) . For example, the leading university textbook on botany , which can be traced back to Eduard Strasburger , was renamed Textbook of Plant Science from the 37th edition (2014) , and some botany courses in the German-speaking area are now listed as plant science courses.
In addition to vascular plants , plants in the narrower sense also include mosses and green algae . In the past, fungi , lichens and the prokaryotes ( bacteria and archaea ) were also considered plants. Although one recognizes today that these (like all algae except the green algae) are not phylogenetically related to the plants, algae groups such as red algae , brown algae , diatoms as well as fungi and lichens are still treated in botany.
areas of expertise
Due to the different questions and methods, the following sub-areas of botany have developed:
Plant morphology - research into the structure and shape of plants with the sub-areas
- Morphology in the narrower sense - the external structure of the plants
- Anatomy - internal structure of plants
- Histology - tissue theory
- Cytology - fine structure of the cell
Plant physiology - research into the general functional processes of plants with the sub-areas
- Metabolic physiology
- Stimulus and movement physiology
- Developmental physiology
- Ecophysiology of plants - deals with adaptations of plant physiology from an ecological point of view
- Plant systematics - description and order of the plant world with the sub-areas
Geobotany - research into plants under competitive conditions and their dependence on the location. Sub-areas are:
- Vegetation science (synonymous are plant sociology, phytocoenology) - deals with the structure and structure of the plant cover
- Areal studies or chorology - examines the distribution of the plant species
- historical-genetic geobotany - researches the distribution of the plant clan in the past
- Plant Ecology - studies the relationships between plants and plant communities and their environment
- Field botany - collecting species during excursions and creating reference collections to determine the flora in an area
Applied botany / applied plant science - research into the possible applications of basic plant science knowledge for human areas of life:
- Use of plants in agriculture and forestry , horticulture , medicinal plant cultivation and landscape architecture ,
- plant-based food processing and food safety ,
- Use of plants in environmental protection and biomonitoring ,
- Plant biotechnology ,
- Medical botany as research into the application of active plant substances in human and veterinary medicine .
In many cases there is also a division into general and special botany , whereby general botany deals with the plant-biological fundamentals that extend across the plant kingdom, while special botany provides in- depth knowledge of the biology of selected clans of plant systematics .
Special areas and related disciplines
- Algology (phycology)
- Forest botany
- Genetic engineering (genetic engineering)
- Geobotany (phytogeography)
- Medicinal Herbology (Phytopharmacognosy)
- Wood biology
- Molecular biology
- Plant breeding
- Renaturation Ecology
- Botanical Florilegia
- German Society of Plant Sciences. Imprint of the German Botanical Society in English, accessed on May 12, 2020 (English).
- Andreas Bresinsky, Christian Körner, Joachim Kadereit, Günther Neuhaus, Uwe Sonnewald: Strasburger Textbook of Botany . 36th edition. Spectrum / Springer, Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8274-1455-7 .
- Joachim Kadereit, Christian Körner, Kost Benedikt, Uwe Sonnewald: Strasburger Textbook of Plant Science . 37th edition. Spectrum / Springer, Heidelberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-642-54434-7 .
- Master's degree in plant. University of Graz - Institute of Botany, accessed on May 12, 2020 .
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- Robyn Klein: Medical Botany . In: Veterinary Herbal Medicine . Elsevier, New York 2007, pp. 139-158 ( sciencedirect.com ).
- Lewis Walter, Elvin-Lewis Memory: Medical Botany: Plants Affecting Human Health . 2nd Edition. Wiley, New York 2003, ISBN 978-0-471-62882-8 .
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- K. Giesenhagen: Special botany . In: Textbook of Botany . Vieweg and Teubner, Wiesbaden, ISBN 978-3-663-15326-9 , pp. 224-376 ( springer.com ).
- Ulrich Lüttge, Manfred Kluge, Gabriela Bauer: Botany . 5th completely revised edition. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2005, ISBN 3-527-31179-3 .
- Gerhard Wagenitz : Dictionary of botany. The terms in their historical context . 2nd expanded edition. Spectrum Academic Publishing House, Heidelberg / Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-8274-1398-2 .
- Andreas Held: Examination trainer biology of plants . Elsevier / Spektrum Akademischer Verlag , 2004, ISBN 3-8274-1472-5 .
- Anna Pavord: How the plants got their names. A cultural history of botany. Berlin 2008.
- Rudolf Schubert , Günther Wagner: Botanical dictionary. 12th edition. Verlag Eugen Ulmer , 2000, ISBN 3-8001-2742-3 .
- Eckehart Johannes Jäger, Stefanie Neumann, Erich Ohmann: Botany . 5th revised edition, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg / Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-8274-0921-7 .
- Herder Lexicon of Biology . Herder Verlag , 1996, ISBN 3-86025-156-2 .
- Eduard Strasburger : Textbook of botany for universities. Fischer, Jena 1894.
- Hermann Fischer : Medieval botany. Munich 1929 (= History of Science. History of Botany. Volume 2); Reprint (with a foreword by Johannes Steudel ) Hildesheim 1867.