Landscape architecture

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Plan of the Berlin Botanical Garden at the beginning of the 20th century

Under landscape architecture refers to the design , the planning and transformation of non-built-up space. This includes all outdoor spaces, mainly parks, sports fields and leisure facilities, public spaces and gardens, but also other open spaces in rural and urban areas. The current landscape architecture defines itself as an aesthetic- artistic discipline on a scientific-technical basis, the central aim of which is to create ecologically and socially intact living environments.

In the urban context, the term “ open space planning” is sometimes used as a synonym for “landscape architecture in the city”. Open space planning endeavors at all levels of spatial planning that are important for the settlement area to achieve a balanced relationship between settlement areas and open spaces . Their legal task is justified by the objectives of spatial planning and urban land-use planning, taking into account nature and environmental protection.

Renaturation is also becoming increasingly important . In many places, previous river straightening and dyke structures are being dismantled. This serves both to revitalize and enrich the local ecosystem and to protect against flooding in inhabited areas, which in turn is achieved by defining suitable retention areas.

Historically, landscape architecture is based on urban green planning (artistic town planning and rationalistic town planning) and regional landscape development ( land beautification and landscape planning ).

In contrast to architecture , the space-forming elements of landscape architecture are plants, coverings, surfaces, hedges, walls, etc. as well as topographical modeling. Terracing, newly created roundels for staffage with staircases are also part of this. Landscape architectural spaces are constantly changing due to the use of dynamic vegetation and, in contrast to architectural spaces, are never "finished" or in their development.


Orangery of the Palace of Versailles

Outdoor spaces, green spaces and open spaces have existed in all European cities since ancient times . The historical roots of landscape architecture are anchored in the cultural history of the landscape . The garden art , the historic forerunner of landscape architecture, its history developed over time as an independent, especially in the Baroque highly respected art form . Examples of historically significant parks are the Park of Versailles , the Park of Stourhead south-west of London, the English Garden in Munich , the Central Park in New York or the Parc de la Villette in Paris , all of which reflect the ideals of society, landscape and nature were designed accordingly.

At the instigation of the liberal nobility, but also through the initiative of citizens ( Peter Joseph Lenné , 1824), the first public gardens and public parks were created , which followed the idea of ​​the English landscape park and, above all, were supposed to provide aesthetic pleasure.

Urban growth in the wake of the Industrial Revolution has gradually and profoundly changed the general understanding of nature and landscape. The rural landscape outside the cities moved further and further away and could no longer be reached easily and at any time. The one-sided use of the aesthetic pleasure of green and open spaces was increasingly criticized. This had a major impact on the development of garden art and garden culture, because the functional demands on the landscape and garden changed significantly, while artistic concerns increasingly faded into the background. With a socio-political objective, differently usable green and open spaces were created.

Aspects of urban hygiene and urban structuring were also included in the open space policy called for by Wagner , Berlin's city planning officer. The issue of open space planning is particularly pronounced in the garden city idea developed by Howard (urban structure planning).

Since the Athens Charter at the latest, open space planning has been recognized in principle as an important part of urban development planning.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, open space planning has primarily been understood as a social concern serving human health and urban structure. After the Second World War, landscape structural goals were added (green corridors) and the job description changed to landscape architecture.

Historically, landscape architecture is a relatively new term, especially in the German-speaking area, which differs from the historical terms garden art or garden architecture. The English garden designer Humphry Repton was the first to describe himself as a landscape architect . The garden architect Frederick Law Olmsted was - according to the Encyclopedia of Gardens - probably the first in the USA to coined the term landscape architect in connection with his work on Central Park in New York in the mid-19th century . In view of the huge planning and construction task in New York, he was of the opinion that "landscape gardening" limited the focus too much to the garden . In 1899 the ASLA , the American Society of Landscape Architects, was founded and a few decades later the term landscape architecture prevailed over the term garden architecture in Europe . In view of the profound changes in the appearance of the landscape in Europe in the 1930s and 1940s, according to experts, a new profession was needed that was not only the purely technical of the engineer , the only structural aspects of the architect or the purely horticultural , but the whole, the landscape and whose design should oversee. The same applies to the non-European area.

Landscape architecture today

Current landscape architecture in a historical-urban setting: Promenade (Linz)

Today, the aesthetic qualities of the living environment are once again given increasing importance, which is clearly reflected in the current landscape architecture. Two further specializations have been added, on the one hand the goal of nature conservation and landscape management, and on the other hand the communicative importance of green and open spaces.

Open space planning continues to find it difficult to assert itself against other municipal policy areas, because the green and open spaces created or secured within the framework of open space planning usually do not bring in any money. However, a market-oriented change of heart can be observed, as attractive open spaces are increasingly perceived as a "soft" location factor and a value-adding factor for the development of urban real estate.

In Germany, the upgrading of public spaces is the top priority in state funding programs, such as that of the federal transfer office "Active city and district centers". In some German cities (e.g. Munich), open space design statutes include landscape architecture planning in the approval process for building construction projects. Awarded by the Bund Deutscher Landschaftsarchitekten (BDLA), the German Landscape Architecture Prize has been awarded since 1993 - since 2011 under the patronage of the Federal Minister for Transport, Building and Urban Development, which honors exemplary projects in the discipline that have been implemented in German-speaking countries.

Study and training

The protected job title landscape architect or landscape architect may only be used by persons who are registered members of a chamber of architects . As a rule, entry requires a relevant university degree (degree: Dipl.-Ing. Or Master ). Other names such as B. Open space planners, garden designers or designers, however, are not legally protected and therefore do not say anything about the professional qualifications of the owner.

In German-speaking countries, landscape architecture can be studied at universities and technical colleges (usually together with the second specialization in landscape planning). In addition, several architecture courses and art colleges offer specialization opportunities in landscape architecture.

University courses

  • Technical University Berlin
  • Technical University Dresden
  • Leibniz University Hannover
  • University of Kassel
  • Technical University of Munich
  • University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)
  • Technical University of Dresden (to be discontinued)

Universities of applied sciences

Landscape architecture magazines

  • Anthos - magazine for landscape architecture. Une review pour le paysage. Ast & Fischer Verlag Bern.
  • Arch + - magazine for architecture and town planning. Arch + Verlag Aachen.
  • Freiraumgestalter - magazine for planning, construction and equipment. Publisher Eugen Ulmer Stuttgart.
  • Garten + Landschaft - magazine for landscape architecture (Die Gartenkunst). Callwey publishes Munich.
  • Journal of landscape architecture (JoLa). Callwey Verlag Munich.
  • nodium. Journal of the Alumni Club Landscape of the Technical University of Munich. Self-published by TU Munich.
  • Stadt + Grün (The Garden Department). Patzer Verlag Hannover, Berlin.
  • Topos - The international review of landscape architecture and urban design. Callwey Verlag Munich.


sorted alphabetically by authors / editors

  • Bettina von Dziembowski, Dominik von König, Udo Weilacher (eds.): NEULAND. Fine arts and landscape architecture. Birkhäuser Verlag , Basel / Berlin / Boston 2007, ISBN 9783764386191 .
  • Christophe Girot : Landscape architecture yesterday and today. A cultural story. Edition Detail, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-95553-331-1 .
  • Hans Loidl, Stefan Bernard: Free spaces. Birkhäuser, Basel / Berlin / Boston 2003, ISBN 3-7643-7012-2 .
  • Claus Lange: In search of the roots - the garden architecture between continuity and a new beginning after 1945 in the FRG. In: Die Gartenkunst  29 (1/2017), pp. 155–180.
  • Günter Mader: Open space planning. House gardens, green spaces, urban landscapes. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-4210-3448-6 .
  • Martin Prominski: Landscape Design. On the theory of current landscape architecture. Dietrich Reimer, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-4960-1307-9 .
  • Peter Reed, Libby Hruska (Eds.): Groundswell. Constructing the Contemporary Landscape. Birkhäuser, Basel / Berlin / Boston 2005, ISBN 3-7643-7240-0 .
  • Udo Weilacher: In gardens. Profiles of current European landscape architecture. Birkhäuser, Basel / Berlin / Boston 2005, ISBN 3-7643-7084-X .
  • Udo Weilacher: Between landscape architecture and land art. Birkhäuser, Basel / Berlin / Boston 1999, ISBN 3-7643-6120-4 .
  • Peter Zöch (Ed.): European landscape architecture. Selected projects from 2000 to today. Callwey, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-7667-1655-7 .
  • Juliane Feldhusen, Sebastian Feldhusen, ed .: Mensch und Landschaftsarchitektur, JOVIS Verlag Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-86859-405-8

Web links

Commons : Landscape Architecture  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files
  • Internet presence of the Association of German Landscape Architects
  • Internet presence of the Federation of Swiss Landscape Architects
  • Website of the Austrian Society for Landscape Architecture and Landscape Planning
  • Internet presence of the German Society for Garden Art and Landscape Culture eV
  • Website Bundesfachschaft Landschaft eV organizes the landscape student conference (students in DA-CH)

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Mary Keen 1989, The Glory of the English Garden. London, Bulfinch, 118
  2. See: Dominik Geilker: Landscape architecture in Saudi Arabia since the 1970s using the example of Richard Bödeker's work . In: Die Gartenkunst  17 (2/2005), pp. 369–386.
  3. Anne Hoffmann, Dietwald Gruehn: Significance of open spaces and green areas in German large and medium-sized cities for the value of land and real estate - short version . Ed .: Dietwald Gruehn. Chair for Landscape Ecology and Landscape Planning, Technical University Dortmund, March 2010, ISSN  1866-9883 ( ).
  4. Archived copy ( Memento from January 6, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  7. Landscape architecture (B.Sc.) Technical University of Berlin
  8. Landscape architecture (B.Sc.) Technical University of Dresden
  9. Landscape architecture and environmental planning (B.Sc.) Leibniz University Hannover
  10. Landscape Architecture and Landscape Planning (B.Sc.) University of Kassel ( Memento of the original from April 13, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  11. Landscape architecture and landscape planning (B.Sc.) Technical University of Munich / Weihenstephan
  12. a b University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna
  13. Landscape Architecture (M.Sc.) Technical University of Berlin
  14. Landscape architecture (M.Sc.) Technical University of Dresden
  15. Landscape Architecture (M.Sc.) Leibniz University Hannover ( Memento of the original from September 13, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  16. Landscape architecture / landscape planning (M.Sc.) University of Kassel ( Memento of the original from July 30, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  17. (MA) Technical University of Munich
  18. Landscape architecture (Dipl.) Technical University of Dresden (to be discontinued)
  19. Anhalt University ( Memento of the original from November 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  20. ^ Beuth University of Applied Sciences Berlin
  21. University of Applied Sciences Erfurt
  22. ^ RheinMain / Geisenheim University of Applied Sciences
  23. Ostwestfalen-Lippe University of Applied Sciences
  24. ^ University of Applied Sciences Neubrandenburg
  25. Nürtingen-Geislingen University of Economics and Environment
  26. University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück
  27. Weihenstephan-Triesdorf University of Applied Sciences: Landscape architecture
  28. HSR University of Applied Sciences Rapperswil
  29. ^ Journal of landscape architecture (JoLa)
  30. nodium TU Munich