Landscape planning is the application of an instrument that focuses on people and their needs and proposes a sustainable development of nature and landscape . It is located in the field of tension between urban and regional planning as well as ecological and economic interests.
Landscape planning is precautionary and pursues a holistic, comprehensive approach to the protection, maintenance, development and, if necessary, the restoration of natural spaces and cultural landscapes . It not only refers to “landscape” in the colloquial sense (free landscape), but also integrates parts of the landscape such as villages, settlements , cities, traffic routes and industrial areas into the planning work. Related subject areas include a. Regional geography and regional planning.
During the industrialization from around 1850 to 1890, the administration could use only a few control mechanisms to cope with the immense urban growth. Her main aim was to maintain or improve hygienic conditions. This included, above all, the definition of the building's alignment in order to positively influence the lighting conditions and the air circulation in the residential areas.
In the Weimar Republic, some progress was already evident, such as B. through the establishment and activities of the Ruhr coal district settlement association in the largest industrial conurbation in Germany. The uncontrolled growth of cities during industrialization had led to high pollution of the soil, water and air, especially in this part of Germany. One approach to alleviating these problems has been to create so-called “green lungs” as recreational areas.
Landscape planning received a tremendous boost during National Socialism. On the one hand, leading landscape planners managed to get in touch with the Wehrmacht and the SS and offer them their specialist knowledge. The conquests of the National Socialist regime made extensive planning possible, especially in Eastern Europe ( General Plan East ).
Alwin Seifert made early contact with the Nazi regime , who, as the Reich Landscape Attorney for the General Inspector for German Roads under Fritz Todt, took on the task of inserting the highways built by the National Socialists into the landscape. The highways and landscape should form an "organic structure".
After the construction of the west wall was completed around 1940, Seifert and his landscape lawyers managed to take on further military planning tasks. So z. B. the camouflage of the Atlantic Wall .
Other landscape planners were already working on a special staff at Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler . You worked for him as Reich Commissioner to consolidate the German nationality . There the aim was to redesign the landscape of the eastern areas conquered after 1939 and the like. a. to prepare in Poland in order to create an environment for German settlers in this new “living space” that corresponds to “their German soul”.
This task was carried out by leading nature conservation experts who mapped the conquered areas in terms of plant sociology, collected the fauna, assessed and documented the landscape images encountered there from their point of view. Nature reserves have also already been designated.
On the other hand, one needed concrete visions of a “German landscape”. You were z. B. by Heinrich Wiepking-Jürgensmann - special representative of the Reichsführer SS for questions of landscape design - developed in the aforementioned planning staff. In 1942 he formulated his basic perspective as follows: “The landscape is always a shape, an expression and a characterization of the people living in it. It can be the noble countenance of his spirit and his soul as well as the grimace of the demon, of human and spiritual depravity. (...) So the landscapes of the Germans differ in all their characteristics from those of the Poles and the Russians - like the peoples themselves (...). The murders and atrocities of the Eastern peoples are cut razor-sharp in the grimaces of their traditional landscapes. "
Another actor on the above-mentioned staff was the lawyer Erhard Mäding , who came from the Security Service (SD) in the Reich Security Main Office . In doing so, he developed specific ideas in collaboration with his colleagues. So was z. B. stipulated in detail that in rural towns "a sufficiently large and spatially designed community garden with seats ..." had to exist, hiking trails had to be laid out or that telecommunication lines should run along protective plantings and forest edges. Indigenous species should be used when creating forests.
Auschwitz was to become a prime example of such planning . Here H. Wiepking-Jürgensmann got involved and let his colleague Max Fischer work out the green design. Landscape lawyer Werner Bauch (1902–1983) also worked. He took over the implementation of a “green border” between the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp and the city itself, as well as the creation of a green belt around crematoria I and II to integrate them into the landscape.
In 1943, Mäding published the book Landespflege . In it he gave an overview of the existing legal situation in the German Empire with its statutory instruments. Implementing regulations, guidelines, agreements and instructions. The Reich Nature Conservation Act of 1935 was still fundamentally in force. In his opinion, building law already had a number of features that allowed the landscape to be developed according to plan. The same applied to individual regulations of planning and settlement law, in particular with regard to land allocation. He also referred to the water laws of the states and special provisions in the Reichsautobahngesetz. However, he complained that the general legal situation primarily made it possible to prevent negative interventions in the landscape, but that an offensive planning idea was not secured. And: "A generous green construction of the landscape is currently only possible on own land of the public sector or ... with hydraulic structures, reallocations or other reorganizations." a. through the preparation of regional plans for landscape design, through general departments for land maintenance at the lower and middle level of authorities, through the understanding of landscape planning as a cross-sectional task and the training of specialists. The aim of these activities and measures was to design the landscape as the image of a "national worldview". The landscape planning of the Federal Republic of Germany later emerged from these approaches.
Implementation of the General Plan East: The planning staff also considered expelling the local population. These concepts have been partially implemented, including a. in the Lublin district in the Generalgouvernement of Poland . In the Zamosc district in the Lublin district alone , 29,900 “ethnic German resettlers” were to get a new home, although in 1943 this had been achieved for 8,500 people.
Federal Republic of Germany
After 1945, important protagonists of the “Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Volkstum” were able to occupy central positions in university teaching on landscape planning.
In 1956 Konrad Meyer received the chair for regional planning and spatial planning at the University of Hanover , a leading institution for the training of the relevant generations of landscape planners. He taught until 1964.
From 1946 to 1959, H. Wiepking-Jürgensmann represented horticulture and regional culture as a professor at the Technical University of Hanover.
In Germany, landscape planning has the task of specifying the goals and principles of nature conservation and landscape management for the respective country ( landscape program ) formulated in the nature conservation laws of the federal government ( Bundesnaturschutzgesetz BNatSchG) and the states ( state nature conservation laws ) . This is also done for regions or districts ( landscape framework plan ), for the respective municipality ( landscape plan ) and in some federal states also for parts of municipalities ( green space plan ).
The tasks of landscape planning are regulated inthe BNatSchG 2002:
“(1) Landscape planning has the task of presenting and justifying the requirements and measures of nature conservation and landscape management for the respective planning area. It serves to implement the goals and principles of nature conservation and landscape management, also in planning and administrative procedures, the decisions of which can affect nature and the landscape in the planning area.
(2) The federal states issue regulations on landscape planning and the procedure to be applied in accordance with §§ 13 to 17. "
The BNatSchG provides the framework for the federal states which, like the other issues of nature conservation, also regulate landscape planning in their state nature conservation laws. Other laws (e.g. the Building Code BauGB) also regulate certain aspects of landscape planning.
In Austria there is no explicit legal protection of landscape planning. The issues of landscape planning belong to the area of responsibility of the federal states, an official allocation and a financial security is not given.
Essentially, the legal framework for landscape planning is laid down in five legal texts. This includes, first of all, the Environmental Constitution Act , in the first two sections of which (Sections 1 and 2) statements are made with regard to responsibility and objectives. Furthermore, the Spatial Planning Act, the Nature Conservation Act and the National Park Act specify the legal basis for landscape planning.
The Environmental Impact Assessment Act, which is drawn up by the federal government, and guidelines drawn up by the European Union stand above the state laws.
Landscape planning in Switzerland is the responsibility of the cantons and is described in section four (environmental and spatial planning) of the Federal Constitution . In this case, the federal government creates the framework; all further actions come from the cantons. The protection of nature and the environment in Switzerland is a matter for the Confederation, the implementation is based on a so-called enforcement obligation of the cantons.
Similar to Austria and Germany, there is also an environmental impact assessment ( EIA for short ) in Switzerland as well as corresponding regulations (e.g. the ).
Tasks and contents of landscape planning
The legally formulated mandate of landscape planning is to represent the interests of nature and landscape . The task of this ecological and creative planning discipline is essentially to develop goals and measures of nature conservation and recreational provision in an area and to present them in text and maps.
Landscape planning should help to maintain the efficiency of the natural balance as a basis for human existence or (in the event of damage) to restore and secure it in the long term. The sub-areas of an area should also be able to develop economically. As a result, landscape planning, in addition to its original function of nature conservation, is increasingly playing the role of helping to shape this economic development as ecologically compatible as possible.
In order to adequately capture the complexity of the ecosystem in analysis and planning based on it, the different environmental media are differentiated into the following protected assets:
- Air , noise and (local) climate
- Flora , fauna and biotopes
- Landscape and outdoor recreation .
Participation in the land-use planning
Compared to (or within) other overall planning, such as B. the urban land use planning , the landscape planning must "also" avert damage to the natural balance ("interventions") with the help of the intervention regulation . The aim of the intervention regulation is to "balance or compensate for unavoidable impairments" (BNatSchG). The most important legal bases of landscape planning in Germany are the Federal Nature Conservation Act, the nature conservation laws of the federal states and the Building Code (BauGB).
Landscape planning is part of the integrative spatial (area-related) planning aimed at in Germany. This spatial planning should ensure the orderly development of an area. In all sub-areas of a planned area, the living conditions of the people, the natural foundations of life and the economic, infrastructural conditions should be equivalent.
Landscape planning instruments
Official landscape planning is handled differently in the individual countries of the Federal Republic and Austria as well as in the cantons of Switzerland due to national laws. It is operated (legally implemented) by various state institutions on this country-specific legal basis. Accordingly, the tasks, standards and the respective depth of information in the plans may vary. In principle, however, landscape planning is always included in the planning of other planning levels and planning categories (e.g. those of the spatial plans, area development plans or land use plans of the various planning agencies).
In North Rhine-Westphalia, for example, landscape planning is a task for independent cities and (rural) districts. A North Rhine-Westphalian landscape plan always ends in an urban or district statute, i.e. H. the plan is decided by the council of the respective independent city or the respective district council. In various other federal states, however, z. B. a landscape plan is only recommended and is therefore not legally binding on everyone. It is only binding on the authorities; this means that the contents of the plan must be observed by all public planning authorities.
In the Federal Republic of Germany, landscape planning takes place on several levels, whereby it is sometimes juxtaposed with regional planning as specialist planning , but can also refer to individual protected areas . For certain plans that interfere with nature and the landscape, such as the construction of traffic routes, the extraction of raw materials (quarries, gravel pits), the construction of wind turbines , leisure and tourism facilities and others, accompanying ecological planning (mostly in the form of accompanying landscape maintenance plans) is required.
|Planning level / carrier||Spatial planning||Landscape planning||usual yardstick|
|state||State development program||Landscape program||1: 200,000-1: 100,000|
|Administrative district / regional association||Regional plan||Landscape master plan||1: 50,000-1: 25,000|
|Municipality or planning association ; in North Rhine-Westphalia: districts, independent cities or planning associations||Zoning plan||Landscape plan||1: 10,000-1: 15,000|
|local community||Zoning plan||Green area plan||1: 2,500-1: 000|
|for protected areas||-||Maintenance and development plan||1: 10,000-1: 500|
|Intervention project||-||landscaping accompanying plan||1: 5,000-1: 500|
To work as a landscape planner, you must study at a university or college. The study of landscape planning is very different from that of most other academic subjects. It is extremely interdisciplinary; in addition to scientific (especially ecological) content, there is artistic and creative, social science, humanities, engineering and planning specialist content. The course makes it possible to work primarily in authorities and in independent planning offices or in nature conservation associations in the field of nature conservation and landscape planning. Further professional fields are development aid, open space planning and environmental education.
You can study landscape planning in Germany at a number of universities (diploma, bachelor, master) and universities of applied sciences. The names of the courses are not uniform. In addition to landscape planning, the term environmental planning is quite common; environmental planning is common in English-speaking countries . Despite the different names, the course content is very similar.
Criticism and problems
Since its introduction in the 1970s, landscape planning has been caught in a field of tension between a comprehensive claim and an implementation in practice that is often regarded as inadequate. The following were identified as important reasons: The often very positive assessment of the feasibility of plans and plans in the past has given way to a certain disillusionment in this area too: based on ecology and systems theory, it has been shown that highly complex plans in particular rarely achieve the intended goals . The convertibility of ecological knowledge into plannable actions was overestimated; moreover, planning was often based on theoretical approaches that are outdated today, such as the concept of ecological balance . In addition to the ecologically derived guiding principles, the planning was often based on more aesthetically oriented models such as the “traditional rural cultural landscape”; as a result, the fundamentals were often heterogeneous and the intended goals contradicting themselves. The planning approaches were based, in line with the prevailing thought patterns of the time, often on technocratic, expert-based approaches; participatory approaches involving users and interest groups were neglected and only developed gradually. Landscape planning was often unable to keep pace with changes in environmental and planning law, such as the Water Framework Directive or the changed environmental impact assessment .
Newer approaches to landscape planning try to overcome the earlier mistakes. New ecological approaches such as minimum areas (the smallest viable population ) and the concept of ecosystem services should be given greater consideration. Numerous questions about the applicability remain unsolved, however, with the first one being how the securing of sustainable agricultural land use with the means of landscape planning could be achieved.
sorted alphabetically by author
- Christina von Haaren: landscape planning . Stuttgart 2004.
- Katharina Homann, Maria Spitthöver: Significance of the fields of work of open space and landscape planners from 1900 to 1970 - A contribution to the history of the discipline . In: Die Gartenkunst 19 (1/2007), pp. 205–233.
- Wolfgang Riedel, Horst Lange, Eckhard Jedicke, Markus Reinke: Landscape planning . Heidelberg 2016.
- Information on the subject from the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation
- Online portal Landschaftsplanung.net
- Association of German Landscape Architects
- Information on landscape planning in Switzerland (PDF file; 80 KB)
- F. Wagner: For a new set of instruments in public planning. In: Academy for Spatial Research and Regional Planning (ed.): Spatial planning - development planning. Research reports from the “Law and Administration” committee of the Academy for Spatial Research and Regional Planning. (Research and meeting reports, Vol. 80, Law and Administration 1). Hannover 1972, ISBN 3-7792-5067-5 , p. 24.
- cf. Ministry for the Environment, Energy, Food and Forests Rhineland-Palatinate (Ed.): The West Wall in the landscape. Activities of nature conservation in the time of National Socialism and its actors . Edit v. N. Franke. Mainz 2015, ISBN 978-3-00-049532-8 , pp. 31/32.
- Ministry for the Environment, Energy, Nutrition and Forests Rhineland-Palatinate (ed.): The Westwall in the landscape. Activities of nature conservation in the time of National Socialism and its actors. Edit v. N. Franke. Mainz 2015, ISBN 978-3-00-049532-8 , p. 62.
- C. Madajczyk (Ed.): From the General Plan East to the General Settlement Plan. Documents . Munich 1994. ISBN 978-3-598-23224-4 , pp. III, VII. / M. Rössler, S. Schleiermacher: The "General Plan East" and the "modernity" of the urban planning . In: M. Rössler, S. Schleiermacher (Ed.): The "General Plan East". Main lines of the National Socialist planning and extermination policy . Berlin 1993, ISBN 978-3-05-002445-5 , pp. 7-12. / K. Fehn: community of people and space. For the National Socialist spatial and landscape planning in the conquered eastern areas . In: J. Radkau, F. Uekötter (Hrsg.): Nature protection and National Socialism . Frankfurt, New York 2003, ISBN 978-3-593-37354-6 , pp. 208-210.
- See e.g. B. Copy of the Gaunaturschutzstelle for the Wartheland to the Posen Forest Office . October 2, 1941. In: Federal Archives Koblenz. Stock 245 File 137. No. 163
- H. Wiepking-Jürgensmann: The landscape primer. Berlin 1942. p. 13
- Nils Franke: Trees for Auschwitz: The ominous alliance between conservationists and National Socialists . In: Time history. Issue 1/2016. Pp. 66-71
- E. Mäding: Rules for the design of the landscape. Introduction to General Order No. 20 / VI / 42 of the Reichsführer SS, Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Volkstum, on the design of the landscapes in the incorporated eastern areas. Berlin 1943. Appendix p. 59
- E. Mäding: Rules for the design of the landscape. Introduction to General Order No. 20 / VI / 42 of the Reichsführer SS, Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Volkstum, on the design of the landscapes in the incorporated eastern areas . Berlin 1943. Appendix pp. 55/59
- Ministry for the Environment, Energy, Food and Forests Rhineland-Palatinate (ed.): The Westwall in the landscape. Activities of nature conservation in the time of National Socialism and its actors . Edit v. N. Franke. Mainz 2015, ISBN 978-3-00-049532-8 , pp. 58/59.
- E. Mäding: Landespflege. Berlin 1943.
- E. Mäding: Landespflege . Berlin 1943, pp. 224/225
- E. Mäding: Landespflege . Berlin 1943, pp. 225/226
- E. Mäding: Landespflege . Berlin 1943, pp. 227-230
- C. Madajczyk (Ed.): From the General Plan East to the General Settlement Plan. Documents . Munich 1994, ISBN 978-3-598-23224-4 , pp. III, XIII.
- B. Water: Himmler's spatial planning in the east. The General Plan East in Poland 1940-1944 . Basel 1994, pp. 65/66, 69
- E. Klee: The personal dictionary for the Third Reich . (Fischer paperback no.1684). Frankfurt a. Main 2003, ISBN 978-3-7632-5425-5 , p. 408.
- G. Gröning, J. Wolschke-Bulmahn: Green biographies. Biographical handbook on landscape architecture of the 20th century in Germany . Berlin / Hannover 1997, ISBN 978-3-87617-089-3 , pp. 415-417.
- For example, environmental planning at the Technical University of Berlin or landscape architecture and landscape planning at the universities of Munich and Vienna .
- Beate Jessel (2016): Ecology, nature conservation and ecologically oriented landscape planning. Nature and Landscape 31 (9/10): 456-463.