An industrial area , also an industrial zone , industrial center , industrial site , is - similar to an industrial area - a construction area preferably intended for production companies or, more generally, an intensely industrialized area (industrial region, industrial area).
An industrial area differs from a commercial area in the true sense of the word in the fact that companies are located there that generate a certain level of environmental pollution such as noise , air pollutants , dust and odors and should therefore be kept away from residential areas in particular . It should be sufficiently separated from residential and mixed areas (mixed use), made accessible for heavy traffic and other infrastructure (e.g. rail connection , energy , disposal ) and subject to special environmental requirements . Depending on the location, industrial areas can be subject to further restrictions or permits.
In a geographical sense, industrial areas (industrial regions) are generally and also more spaciously all regions that have an above-average industrial density. Since ancient times one usually means heavy industry , for example the Ruhr area , Upper Silesia or the Donets Basin (then in the German often especially industrial area ). Such old industrialized areas have already been partially de- industrialized .
Industrial space is a very modern spatial planning term for a settlement and economic geographic unit that consists of one (or more) “more or less contiguous, sometimes also cross-border” industrial areas.
In Germany, an industrial area is always shown in the zoning plan. The uses permitted in an industrial area are regulated in Section 9 of the German Building Use Ordinance (BauNVO). Further details for an industrial area are determined by a development plan. Particularly annoying companies that are not permitted in a commercial area for noise protection reasons should be located in an industrial area in order to comply with the orientation values of DIN 18005. These guide values for commercial areas are 65 dB during the day and 55 dB at night, so that the noise level in an industrial area can be significantly higher. In doing so, a corresponding distance must be maintained, especially from residential areas.
The zoning plan and the development plan , in which the development and use is specified, are laid down in the building and spatial planning laws of the federal states.
Country-specific regulations (selection):
- In Carinthia , industrial areas are to be defined as "those areas that are intended for company buildings and associated other structures of commercial small and medium-sized enterprises, large commercial enterprises and industrial companies that cause significant environmental pollution" ( Carinthian Municipal Planning Act 1995 - K-GplG)
- In Upper Austria , industrial areas are an extension of the company building area , in which companies and storage areas can also be accommodated "which, due to their type of operation, significantly disturb the environment (in particular through noise, dust, smell or vibrations)" or "(in particular through vapors, gases, Explosives or by radiation) "( Upper Austrian Regional Planning Act 1994 - Upper Austrian ROG)
- Salzburg : Industrial area (IG): in such a building, "structures for companies that cause excessive impairment of the environment" are permitted ( Spatial Planning Act 1998 - ROG)
According to the Austrian topographical settlement designation , industrial zone (Indz) is also an independent form of settlement , which mostly refers to the small-scale development planning designation: These small-scale industrial areas are consistently scattered along the local and regional traffic and development axes, which is also the purpose of the designation in spatial and building regulations is.
Large-scale industrial areas, that is, clusters of small-scale industrial concentration, traditionally exist in Austria in the area of Vienna and the surrounding area - the model industrial district of Lower Austria, in the Upper Austrian central area of Linz – Wels – Lower Traun Valley, in Upper Austria's Inn Valley in the vicinity of the Bavarian Chemical Triangle , in the Tyrolean Inn Valley , in Vorarlberg Rheintal , in the Graz Basin area , as well as in the Styrian Mur-Mürz-Furche with the ancient iron industry of the Erzberg . With the exception of the latter, which is still a structurally weak problem region after the collapse of heavy industry in the later 20th century, the industrial zones of Austria are nationwide economic engines that continue to have an impact in neighboring countries.
Industrial area is also the proper name of numerous city districts or districts of cities, such as B. Bayreuth , Konstanz , Landshut , Greifswald , Radevormwald , Koblenz (dissolved by division between neighboring districts on January 1, 2007) and Halle (Saale) (here: industrial area north). These district names go back to the predominant historical use as an industrial area.
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- ^ Federal Highway Research Institute
- ↑ a b industrial region . In: Gabler's Wirtschaftslexikon online.
- ↑ Notes on considering noise protection , published by the Office for Environmental Protection, Stuttgart
- ↑ DIN 18005-1 Noise protection in urban development, assessment level , published by the Office for Environmental Protection, Stuttgart
- ↑ § 3 Building Land Z. 9 Carinthian Municipal Planning Act 1995 - K-GplG 1995 , StF: LGBl No. 23/1995 (as "Business buildings / structural facilities [...] that do not fall under Par. 7 Commercial areas ")
- ↑ § 22 Dedications in Building Land Paragraph 7 Upper Austria. Regional Planning Act 1994 - Upper Austria. ROG 1994 , StF: LGBl. No. 114/1993 (with para. 6 no. 1 as an exclusion criterion for industrial park in the narrower sense; delimitation only to para. 1–5)
- ↑ § 30 Building Land Z. 8 [Sbg.] Regional Planning Act 1994 - ROG 1998, StF: LGBl No. 30/2009