|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 54 ° 6 ' N , 13 ° 23' E
|State :||Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania|
|Height :||7 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||50.74 km 2|
|Residents:||59,232 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1167 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||17489, 17491, 17493|
|Area code :||03834|
|License plate :||HGW|
|Community key :||13 0 75 039|
|LOCODE :||DE GRD|
|City structure:||8 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Stefan Fassbinder ( Alliance 90 / The Greens )|
|Location of Greifswald in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district|
Greifswald ( Low German Griepswold ) is the district town of the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in the north-east of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . The university and Hanseatic city is located on the river Ryck, which flows into the Baltic Sea on the Greifswalder Bodden between the islands of Rügen and Usedom .
On May 14, 1250, Greifswald was granted the town charter of Luebi. The University of Greifswald, founded in 1456 with around 10,000 students and around 6,000 employees, is the second oldest university in the Baltic region.
The city has 59,232 inhabitants (December 31, 2019), making it the fifth largest city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Together with Stralsund , Greifswald forms one of the four regional centers in the state. The university town is a member of the transnational federation of the Euroregion Pomerania .
The joint regional center of Stralsund and Greifswald has a combined population of 114,210.
Greifswald is located in Western Pomerania between the islands of Rügen and Usedom at the mouth of the Ryck River in the Danish Wiek . This is a bay of the Greifswalder Bodden , a 514 km² large lagoon in the Baltic Sea .
The area around Greifswald is flat; the terrain barely reaches 20 m above sea level. NN . The highest elevation in the south is the Ebertberg located in the Eldena nature reserve with a height of 29.5 m above sea level. NHN , followed by the Studentenberg ( 27.2 m above sea level ), Martensberg ( 24.7 m above sea level ) and Helmshäger Berg ( 24.3 m above sea level ).
Greifswald includes the islands of Koos and Riems , which are outside the urban area, as well as part of the mainland opposite the Riems.
According to § 20 of the main statute of October 6, 2015, there are eight districts under local law, in which several of the historically grown districts or quarters are combined. In each of these districts under local law, a district council with nine members each is elected.
(under municipal law)
( ha )
|"Downtown"||City center (old town)||87.0||4,786||3,756||4,619||4,887|
|Northern mill suburb||173.8||4,400||4.149||4,389||4,777|
fruit growing settlement
|Südstadt (see below)|
|Markings "Groß Schönwalde" and "Koitenhagen" (incorporated in 1974)|
(including Koitenhagen )
|Markings "Eldena", "Ladebow" and "Wieck" (1939), "Riems" (1957), "Friedrichshagen" (1974)|
|"Wieck / Ladebow"||Loading bow||544.4||578||525||681||796|
|"Riems"||Riems / Koos Island / Riemserort||233.6||1,020||665||545||483|
Clockwise (starting from the north): Mesekenhagen , Neuenkirchen , Loissin , Kemnitz , Weitenhagen , Hinrichshagen , Levenhagen and Wackerow (all municipalities in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district ).
The original name of the settlement, which developed into the independent city of Greifswald, has not been passed down. A confirmation certificate from Duke Wartislaw III. from 1248, in which the Eldena monastery was confirmed to have the oppidum Gripheswald cum omnibus pertinentiis suis (the Gripheswald patch with all its accessories), is the first documented mention of the current name. In the feudal deed of Wartislaw III. from June 1249 we find the explicit indication that the oppidum Gripheswald in German Gripeswald is called, suggesting that the settlement originally had another Slavic, Danish or German names. There is no evidence for the theory that the original name was a Danish one based on Gripscogh, the name of a forest near Esrom in Denmark, the mother monastery of Eldena Monastery . The written names Gripeswald (1249), Grifeswolde (1250), Gripesuuolde (1280), Gripesuualde (1280), Gripswalt (1285), Gripeswald (1383), Gripeswolde (1383), Gripswald (1491) are also from the following years and centuries , Gripswolde (1577), Greipßwalde (1601), Gripheswalde (1602), Gripheswaldt (1602), Greypffswald (1604) and already Greifswald (1621).
The Middle Low German grip stands for the griffin and is probably to be understood as a reference to the heraldic animal of the Pomeranian dukes, who were later also referred to as griffins ; the wolt / wold stands for forest. Greif and forest can also be found in Greifswald's coat of arms .
The Latin name of Greifswald is Gryphisvaldia .
Since 1990, the city has had the addition of the Hanseatic city again and now describes itself as a university and Hanseatic city .
Greifswald's founding in Pomerania goes back to the Eldena monastery , to whose estate it initially belonged. The settlement was opposite the salt pans on the other side of the Ryck , which has been proven to have existed since 1193 at the latest; it was probably built in the second quarter of the 13th century as a settlement for the workers of the Greifswald salt works . For the settlement, where two old trade routes crossed, the monastery received in 1241 both from the Ruegen Prince Wizlaw I and from the Pomeranian Duke Wartislaw III. officially granted market rights. In June 1249 Wartislaw III. persuade the monastery to give him the market settlement of Greifswald as a fief, and on May 14, 1250 he granted it the town charter of Luebeck , which made Greifswald much more independent from the Pomeranian dukes. In 1254 Wartislaw made the Ryck estuary a free port and promised the merchants compensation for losses suffered by pirates. On May 17, 1264, he allowed the city to defend itself and build a protective wall, after which the fortifications were built. In addition to the old town, the new town developed to the west with today's Rubenow-Platz as the market square and the St. Jacobi Church as the ecclesiastical center; an order of Wartislaw III. of 1264, according to which there should be only one market, one bailiff and one right, prevented the new town from developing its independence compared to the old town. In 1278 Greifswald was first mentioned in a document as a member of the Hanseatic League . The city belonged to the influential " Wendish quarter ". One of the first Hanseatic Days took place in Greifswald as early as 1361 . However, as early as the 14th and then in the 15th century, the Greifswald port no longer met the requirements of shipping traffic, as it silted up - unlike the ports in Stralsund, Wismar or Rostock. As a result, Greifswald fell behind the other Hanseatic cities.
In 1296, Duke Bogislaw IV freed Greifswald from his army succession and promised not to keep a court in the city and not to build any fortifications towards the Peene . In 1289 he had already allowed a Jewish settlement in the city, presumably to stimulate trade. However, the privilege was not used.
In 1412 Greifswald clashed with the Pomeranian Duke Wartislaw VIII when his citizens attacked his vassals. The dispute dragged on until 1415 before a reconciliation was reached through the mediation of the estates. The city also received the fishing rights in the Greifswalder Bodden. When Duke Wartislaw IV died in 1326 and the First War of Succession with Mecklenburg broke out around his underage children , Greifswald and its neighboring cities Stralsund , Anklam and Demmin formed a state peace alliance to keep the Pomeranian dukes in power. With the help of the Danish king, the Mecklenburgers could be turned away. The same city alliance was concluded again when it was necessary to protect oneself from pirates and robber barons at the end of the 14th century. When disputes arose between Pomerania and the Teutonic Order around 1390 , which also impaired relations with Poland, Greifswald granted the Polish merchants transport privileges in order to maintain trade with them. 1452, with the award of the golden privileges by the Pomeranian Duke Wartislaw IX. , Greifswald received extensive trading rights that helped the city to achieve economic power and prosperity.
In 1456, Duke Wartislaw IX followed. the initiative of Mayor Heinrich Rubenow and founded the university as a Pomeranian state university. The foundation of the university has had a positive effect up to the present day.
16th to 18th century
The Reformation found its way into Greifswald in 1531. At the instigation of the citizens, the Stralsund Lutheran clergyman Johannes Knipstro came to the city and was able to introduce Luther's teaching there without much resistance. A new evangelical school was founded in 1561 in the abandoned Franciscan monastery . Under the rector Lucas Tacke she won many students around 1600.
With the Thirty Years War , hardship and misery came to the city. On May 19, 1626, sovereign Bogislaw XIV ordered the Greifswalders that the fortifications, some of which had become dilapidated, were to be improved as much as possible, but on November 10, 1627 the seriously ill Duke surrendered Pomerania to the imperial troops. These moved into Greifswald under Wallenstein on November 20, 1627 and established a regime of horror in which the population was looted in the worst possible way. To repel the Swedish troops, Wallenstein had the fortifications reinforced and used the population to do forced labor. The inhabitants were so deeply decimated by a plague epidemic that at the end of the war only half of the houses were still inhabited. In June 1631 the troops of King Gustav Adolf II stood in front of the city and took it after a short battle.
The following period, the so-called Sweden Era , lasted 184 years. Until the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Swedes were masters of Western Pomerania and thus also responsible for Greifswald's fate. However, they left the Pomeranian cities quite independently. Greifswald was upgraded to the extent that it became the seat of the highest judicial and church authorities for Swedish Pomerania. With the relocation of the higher tribunal in 1803, Greifswald received a higher appeal court in addition to the existing court of appeal and thus became the location of three court instances. Brandenburg tried several times to recapture the lost territory, and in 1678 it was possible to occupy Greifswald for a year. In the previous battles, the city center including St. Mary's Church was badly damaged. In the walls of the church there are still a number of Brandenburg cannonballs. The wars of the 18th century placed a heavy burden on the city. During the Great Northern War in 1712 and 1713 the passing Danish, Saxon and Russian troops had to be supplied, and in the Seven Years War in 1758 a powder magazine set up in the city by the Prussians exploded, destroying large parts of the city. Before that, major fires in 1713 and 1736 had cremated parts of the city center. The efforts of the Swedes for the University of Greifswald have been fondly remembered. After its decline at the end of the Thirty Years' War, they revived teaching and had the main university building that still exists today erected in 1747.
After the coup d'état of the Swedish King Gustav IV Adolf and the legal separation of Swedish Pomerania from the Holy Roman Empire , the Swedish constitution was introduced on June 26, 1806 and serfdom was revoked on July 4. The Greifswald Landtag in August 1806 primarily served to represent the new conditions.
During the Napoleonic Wars , troops of France and its allies occupied the city from 1807 to 1810 and 1812/13. In the course of the Peace of Kiel in January 1814, Greifswald and Swedish Pomerania were to fall to Denmark, but came to Prussia during the Congress of Vienna by ceding the then Prussian Duchy of Lauenburg to Denmark . It was handed over to Prussia on October 23, 1815. In the course of the Prussian administrative reform, Greifswald became the administrative seat of the district of the same name in 1818. With the connection to the Berlin – Stralsund trunk road in 1836 and the connection to the railway network in 1863, the prerequisites were created for an - albeit modest - industry to develop in the former country town. In 1848, 53 merchant ships were based in Greifswald. In 1864, the Boddenstadt was the seat of 14 shipowners, who owned 60 sailing and four steamers with a total of 8,744 loads and employed 575 seafarers. The biggest Greifswald sailing ships were at that time the Bark unity of the shipowner Carl Graedner (303 loads, master: JCF Brown, 13 men Bes.) And the Bark Greifswald the same shipowner (277 loads, Captain. Hermann Vorbrodt, 13 men Bes) . This was followed by the Bark Rubenow of the shipowner JD Hagen (259 loads, captain: CD Stüdemann, 13 man owner ) and the barque Louise of the ship owner H. Odebrecht (255 loads, captain: Robert Beckmann, 13 man owner), finally the barque Hermann of the shipowner W. Haeger (253 loads, captain: L. Reetz, 13 man owner ) and the barque Fomalhaut of the ship owner L. Wittenberg (245 loads, captain: Robert Bülow, 13 man owner). In addition to several mechanical engineering companies and foundries , the main railway workshop built in 1863 was an important economic factor. For many decades, it was one of the largest employers in the city. The university was still of the greatest importance. The construction of the clinic district in the northwest of the city had already started in 1856.
In 1871 - late compared to other cities - an independent Jewish community with around 100 members was established, which was separated from the Stralsund community. A Jewish cemetery on its own property had existed on the road to Gützkow- Jarmen since 1860 . When the community moved away, the community dwindled until it had shrunk to just a few people before 1938 during the Nazi era. A memorial plaque on the site of the former prayer room in the Marktostquartier reminds of the community today.
On November 13, 1872, a storm flood led to 2.64 m above sea level. NN to the highest high water level since the beginning of the recording.
At the turn of the century, lavishly built new streets were built, in which the increasingly affluent citizens settled. In 1912 Greifswald received the status of an independent city. At the beginning of the First World War , 1,500 students were enrolled at the university. In 1915 a new theater was opened. A donation of land from the city to the university in 1925 enabled the university to grow beyond the boundaries of the old town. In 1929 a modern skin clinic was opened on the new university campus in the east of the city. In 1934 the construction of the arboretum began there; In 1935 the Clinic for Ear, Nose and Throat Diseases opened .
In 1926, the railway workshop - called RAW (Reichsbahn repair shop ) since the DR ( Deutsche Reichsbahn ) was founded in 1920 - was closed after labor disputes. The Great Depression of the 1930s was reflected by large unemployment. On the occasion of the regional reform carried out in 1939, the towns of Wieck and Eldena were incorporated. This increased the population to over 37,000. From 1940 to 1945 the large prisoner-of-war camp, main camp IIC, existed on today's Franz-Mehring-Strasse , in which many prisoners of war from numerous countries occupied by Germany were interned and used in sub-camps for forced labor . The city, which housed a large garrison of the Wehrmacht , survived the Second World War without being destroyed. On April 30, 1945, at the instigation of city commandant Rudolf Petershagen, it was handed over to the Red Army without a fight . The then rector of the University of Carl Engel , the deputy city commander Max Otto Wurmbach and Gerhardt Katsch as head of the university clinics and senior medical officer in the city were involved in the negotiations .
In the immediate post-war years, functions for the part of Pomerania that remained with Germany were relocated from Stettin to Greifswald. a. the management of the Pomeranian regional church , the regional archive and the Reich Railway Directorate . In 1945 the Soviet occupiers reopened the railway works. From the RAW and a few other companies, the KAW (Kraftwagen- repair shop ) was formed later ; there was also a motor vehicle depot (KBW).
The damage and loss of important parts of the building structure of the historically valuable old town can be traced back to demolition as well as neglected restoration and maintenance in the GDR; Due to demolitions, for example the classicist Steinbecker Tor (also known as the Brandenburg Gate) by Carl August Peter Menzel in 1951, and historicizing new (slab) buildings in the north of the old town, around half of the historical building fabric was lost between 1945 and 1990.
"It was the slaughter of a historic old town," said Conrad. Similar to the West Pomeranian historian Norbert Buske in 1991: "Anyone who comes to Greifswald today must think that Greifswald was also hit by the war roller and left the city in ruins."
At the end of the 1960s, the redesign of an inner-city sub-area between Brüggstrasse and Bachstrasse, Old Harbor and Markt began as part of a research project by the GDR Building Academy in "adapted panel construction". In the process, some listed objects were restored, including the city library , the captain's house, today's funeral home and the buildings on the north side of the market. After this renovation was completed in the late 1970s, other parts of the northern old town were redesigned according to this pattern .
From around 1965 to 1988 the large prefabricated residential areas Schönwalde I / Südstadt (1496 apartments (WE)), Schönwalde II (5250 WE), Old Ostseeviertel (731 WE), Ostseeviertel / Parkseite (2202 WE) and Ostseeviertel / Ryckseite (804 WE) in the south and east of Greifswald.
The renovations of the historic city center that have been carried out since 1991 within the framework of urban development funding have meanwhile made the remaining parts of the old town worth seeing again. In particular, the market square with its free-standing town hall is considered to be one of the most beautiful in northern Germany . Since 1993 the redesign and upgrading took place and from 2000 also the demolition in the prefabricated housing estates ( urban redevelopment ).
In the course of the district reform Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 2011 on September 4, 2011, Greifswald lost its district freedom and became part of the newly formed district of Vorpommern-Greifswald . The city therefore tried to maintain its status as an independent city of a special kind . Together with some neighboring communities, which all remain independent, the Hanseatic city wanted to form its own urban district .
In 2017, Greifswald was awarded the honorary title “ Reformation City of Europe ” by the Community of Protestant Churches in Europe .
In 1989 the population of the city of Greifswald reached its historical high of over 68,000. In the years following the fall of the Wall in the GDR, the city lost around 15,000 inhabitants by 2004 due to a decline in the birth rate, relocation due to high unemployment and relocation to surrounding communities. The number of students at the university, however, increased and reached its highest level in 2012 with around 12,500 students. In a 2008 study, Greifswald was the “youngest” city in Germany; it had the highest proportion of households with people under 30 years of age. Between 2005 and 2018 the city grew moderately by around 6,000 inhabitants to just under 58,800. With second residences, Greifswald has a population of almost 61,500.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. Up to 1833 these are mostly estimates, then census results (¹) or official updates from the respective statistical offices or the city administration itself. From 1843 onwards, the information relates to the "local population", from 1925 to the resident population and since 1966 to the “Population at the place of the main residence”. Before 1843, the number of inhabitants was determined according to inconsistent survey methods.
¹ census result
In the Greifswald citizenship, the CDU has been the strongest parliamentary group since 1990. In the first legislative periods until 1999 there was temporary cooperation with the SPD, Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen and other smaller groups, which was replaced in 2004 by a cooperation with the FDP and the citizens' list, and later also the SPD. Since the local elections in 2009 there has been no cooperation and changing majorities have to be created.
On May 10, 2015, Stefan Fassbinder was elected Lord Mayor of the Hanseatic City of Greifswald by Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen with 50.05% of the vote. Behind him stood an electoral alliance that, in addition to his own party, also included Die Linke , the SPD and the Pirate Party . However, the election was contested because of possible irregularities in a polling station (a polling station was temporarily only accessible to a limited extent because of a slipped doormat, which was now on display in the Pomeranian State Museum). On September 28, 2015, the citizens of Greifswald confirmed the validity of the election and rejected the objections.
coat of arms
Blazon : "In silver an erect, gold- reinforced red griffin ,standingwith the left hind paw on a split , but still green natural tree stump ."
The coat of arms redrawn in 1994 was registered under number 69 of the coat of arms of the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
|Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms, designed after the seal of the SIGILLVM BVRGENSIUM DE GRIPESWOLD - first handed down as an imprint in 1308 - and redrawn in 1994 combines a symbol of power, the coat of arms of the Pomeranian dukes, with a city symbol. Griffin and tree stump symbolize the name of the city as speaking symbols. At the same time, the griffin refers to the ruler of the city at the time. From the second half of the 19th century to the mid-30s of the 20th century, the city had a coat of arms based on the SIGILLVM CIVITATIS DE GRIPESWOLD - handed down as an imprint from 1262: In silver on green ground an erect, golden-armored red griffin, with the right muzzle grasping a broken but greening oak trunk. After that it had returned to the traditional coat of arms design based on the seal image from 1308, but carried the national emblem in a slightly modified version until 1994: in silver an upright, black armored red griffin with a folded tail over a split natural tree trunk with green leaves growing from the lower edge .|
The flag is striped lengthways with red, white, red, white, red, white and red. The red and white stripes on the top and bottom edges each take three eightieth notes, the other two red stripes each one eighth and the white median strip takes three Fifth the height of the flag cloth. In the middle of the white central stripe are the figures of the city's coat of arms: an erect, yellow-armored red griffin, standing with the left rear paw on a split, but still green natural tree stump, which together take up three eighths of the height of the flag cloth. The relationship between the height of the flag cloth and the length is as 4: 7 (Section 1 (7) of the main statute).
The official seal shows the figure of the city arms with the inscription "UNIVERSITÄTS- UND HANSESTADT GREIFSWALD".
The city of Greifswald has been twinned with the Lower Saxon city of Osnabrück since 1988. International twinnings exist with the following cities:
- Kotka in Finland (since 1959)
- Hamar in Norway (since 1997, friendship since 1992)
- Szczecin in Poland (since 2010, friendship since 1996)
- Gollnow in Poland (since 2006, friendship since 1986)
- Lund in Sweden (since 1990)
- Newport News in the United States (since 2007)
In addition, there are city friendships with the following cities:
- Tartu in Estonia (since 2006)
- Bryan / College Station in the United States (student and citizen encounters since 1994)
- Pomerode in Brazil (since 2001)
- Benxi in China (since 2015)
- Vyborg in Russia (since 2018)
- Drohobych in Ukraine (since 2019)
Greifswald as namesake for ships
After the university and Hanseatic city of Greifswald as a port city on the Greifswalder Bodden , several ships of civil shipping as well as the Reichsmarine and the Volksmarine were named in the past and present : The Huker - Galeasse Greiff von Greiffswald (1782), the Fregatt-Schiff ( full ship ) Greifswald (1783 – after 1791), the Schalup -Galeasse Greifswald (1816–1824), the Rahschoner Mercur von Greifswald (1861), the paddle steamer Greifswald (1864– around 1924), the Brigg Mentor von Greifswald (around 1868), the Bark Greifswald (1857–1877), the small cargo steamer Greifswald (121 BRT , 1889–1953), the large cargo steamer Greifswald (1712 BRT, 1902–1939), the Greifswald steam excavator (1902–1969), the Greifswald steam tug (1940– 1945), the hospital ship Greifswald (1923–1944), the motor cargo ship Greifswald, later Privy Councilor Löffler (1927–1982), the motor tug Greifswald (1955–1967), the fishing cutter Greifswald (1949–1974), the coaster , Kümo 500 Greifswald ( 1 955–1973), the bucket chain - floating dredger Greifswald (1975–1992), the inland motor goods ship (Mogü) Greifswald (since 1987), the railway ferry Greifswald (1988 – after 1997), the mine-laying and clearing ship (MLR) Greifswald (1955 –1968), the minesweeper and clearing ship (MSR) Greifswald (1969–1990), the cargo motor ship Greifswald (since 1993).
Culture and sights
Museums and other cultural institutions
Considering its size, Greifswald has a rich cultural offer for citizens and guests. The largest cultural institutions in the city are the Theater Vorpommern and the Pommersche Landesmuseum , which u. a. Exhibits pictures by the Greifswald-born painter Caspar David Friedrich .
On April 12, 2010, the city council decided on its own Caspar David Friedrich Museum. The house, which costs around ten million euros, is to be built in the immediate vicinity of the Pomeranian State Museum by 2015. It is intended to document the life and work of the romantic with his artistic environment, such as Philipp Otto Runge , who was born in the neighboring town of Wolgast , his teacher Johann Gottfried Quistorp and his friend Carl Gustav Carus . The project is financed by the city, the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and the federal government.
The Greifswald City Hall, completed in 1915, has been extensively restored and, together with the adjacent theater building, is the central event and conference complex of the city of Greifswald. The town hall has 500 seats including a comprehensive Imperial Hall and the 150 seats comprehensive Rubenow -Saal .
The Caspar David Friedrich Center stands on the site of the birthplace of the Greifswald-born Romantic painter and is dedicated to his life and work. From there, a Caspar-David-Friedrich-Bildweg leads to 15 stations related to the life of the painter. In the museum harbor Greifswald , located directly on the Ryck in the city center, historic ships are restored, cared for and made accessible to the public. The “Socio-cultural Center St. Spiritus”, the “Literature Center Vorpommern” in the Koeppenhaus (after Wolfgang Koeppen ) and the “IKuWo” (international culture and living project) are among others. a. regular places of cultural events.
With Radio 98eins is a free radio stations for Greifswald and the surrounding area. Art objects are also exhibited in some public institutions. a. in the gallery "KunstimGericht".
In addition, several collections of the university, including the Obstetrical and Gynecological Collection, the Medical History Collection and the Pathological Collection, as well as the Loeffler House of the Friedrich Loeffler Institute on the island of Riems, are open to the public.
The city includes architectural styles from almost all epochs from medieval brick Gothic to modern forms of architecture. In particular, the city's older buildings are characterized by the style common in northern Germany and the Baltic Sea region, which can also be found in other Hanseatic cities such as Lübeck or Wismar . But the architecture of classicism and the beginning of the Wilhelminian era have also left their mark on Greifswald. During the GDR era, large parts of the northern old town were demolished and prefabricated apartments were built there. Since 1990, great efforts have been made to rescue and restore historically grown architecture.
The marketplace, which is unique in size and shape in northern Germany, is outstanding. The Gothic-Baroque town hall of Greifswald, dating from the 13th century, is located on the market square . The two medieval-Hanseatic town houses Markt 11 and 13 in the brick Gothic style are particularly significant in terms of architectural history . On the corner of Mühlenstrasse is the white, classicist building of the picture gallery of the Pomeranian State Museum , which was built according to plans by Johann Gottfried Quistorp .
The old town is also characterized by buildings from the University of Greifswald , such as the main campus with the Audimax, several clinic buildings and various institute buildings. The largest sacred buildings are the three Gothic brick churches that can be seen from afar. The St. Nikolai Cathedral (built around 1263) is a landmark of the city and is located in the western center, in the vicinity of the main building of the university . It is the main or bishop church of the Pomeranian Evangelical Church District ("Pomeranian Church District") of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany ("Northern Church"). St. Marien - also popularly known as " Dicke Marie " - is the oldest of the three large city churches (built around 1260). St. Jacobi (1280) is located on the western edge of the city center and is the smallest of the three main churches.
There are also various important historical town houses in the old town, for example at the main churches and along the east-west axis Schuhhagen or Mühlenstraße and Lange Straße . The Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg is a new building close to the university with intensive international and scientific use. The northern old town in the direction of the harbor was largely demolished due to a GDR model project despite being spared during the war and replaced by prefabricated prefabricated buildings, only a few old buildings such as the city library in Knopfstraße were spared this destructive measure.
The baroque main building of the University of Greifswald was built in 1747 according to plans by Andreas Mayer . The old town campus is grouped around the main building of the university with the old university library from 1882 according to plans by Martin Gropius , the auditorium building with detention room from 1886, the physics institute with observatory from 1891, the eye clinic from 1887 and the physiological institute from 1888. Im To the north of the old town is the former clinic complex with buildings for internal medicine, surgery and a gynecological clinic. This area is to be redesigned for the humanities and law in the next few years.
The new campus at Berthold-Beitz-Platz houses the institutes for natural sciences and medicine. From an architectural point of view, the Institute for Physics and Biochemistry and the Institute for Pharmacology should be emphasized as factual buildings of modernity.
- As former warehouse buildings : including the horse warehouse in Baderstraße 25, in Hunnenstraße, Kuhstraße 25; also the old warehouse at the port (Hafenstrasse / corner of Marienstrasse) with the Greifswald heraldic animal on the western front
- Residential buildings such as the youth house “Pariser”, residential buildings Bahnhofsstrasse 2/3, 31/32, 52, 54 and 55, Fleischerstrasse 3, Gützkower Strasse, Lange Strasse 8, 52, 54, 60, 68, 75 and 77, Steinbecker Strasse 28
- Commercial buildings such as the former Albert Erdmann textile department store on Markt from 1902 and houses No. 6, 20/21 and 30 on Markt
- The housing project Living in the Wall from 1998 based on plans by Gottfried Böhm in the western city center (Hirtenstrasse)
- Groß Schönwalde waterworks from around 1914, which is still in operation
As cinemas , the film club "Casablanca", which was founded in 1992 and continues its focus on the culture of 35mm film, Koeppen House and the initiative to work cinema supervisor leeches on the grounds of Greifswald Museum shipyard, which was founded, 2015. All three are members of the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Film Communication Association .
Wieck and Eldena
The two seaward districts Wieck and Eldena have developed from former fishing villages and have been able to retain their small-scale maritime character.
The former Eldena Monastery, founded in 1199, is the nucleus of the later founding of the city and a motif of the romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich .
There is a historic post mill in Eldena. The historic Wieck wooden bascule bridge connects the north and south sides of the Ryck River and is one of the city's landmarks.
Parks and green spaces
Botanical garden and arboretum
The university's botanical garden and arboretum cover a total of around nine hectares, spread over two different locations. The arboretum (7 hectares) is located near the Greifswald University Library , while the botanical garden (2 hectares) is adjacent to the old town to the southwest. Founded as early as 1763, it is one of the oldest botanical gardens in Germany and one of the oldest scientifically used gardens in the world currently in existence.
The Greifswald zoo is located on the edge of the north-western old town on a park-like area of around 3.6 hectares. Around a hundred different animal species, mainly native but also foreign, are located on the site. A petting zoo and an adventure playground are also part of it. In front of the zoo, located around a lake, there are public lawns with individual old deciduous trees.
The Eldena nature reserve is a 407 hectare forest area south of the Greifswald district of Eldena, which has been under protection since 1961. Going back to a donation made in 1634 by the last Pomeranian Duke, Bogislaw XIV , a large part of the forest area is still owned by the university today. In addition to its role as a recreational space for the general public, it also plays a role as an excursion area for students. Other nature reserves are the NSG Ladebower Moor and the NSG Insel Koos, Kooser See and Wampener Reef . There are also five areas of natural monuments and 14 individual trees as natural monuments.
The city of Greifswald is crossed by the River Ryck , on the north side of which there are wide meadows. From the old town in the direction of Greifswalder Bodden , the river can be hiked all year round along a towpath . The Ladebower Loch , which has been a protected landscape component since 1994, is also located on the Ryck .
Through active university and civic engagement, numerous international festivals and annual events have established themselves in the city of Greifswald.
Every year in Greifswald summer festivals such as the well-known “Fischerfest Gaffelrigg ” with the final fireworks “ Ryck in Flames” and the Greifswald International Students Festival (GRISTUF) take place every two years .
The Nordic Sound Culture Festival is the largest festival for Nordic culture outside of the Nordic countries. Another cultural festival is the annual German-Polish “ polenmARkT ”. The Greifswald Bach Week is a music festival with numerous musical performances in and around Greifswald, which is dedicated to various aspects of the life and work of Johann Sebastian Bach . The Greifswald Music Night and the Eldena Jazz Evenings also have a wide national reach. Greifswald is also one of the musical venues for the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Festival .
Throughout the year, numerous scientific and popular science events take place at the University of Greifswald and the Alfried Krupp Wissenschaftskolleg , which are often open to the general public.
Greifswald has been awarding the Wolfgang Koeppen Prize since 1998 in memory of the Hanseatic city's son.
Sports events include, for example, various sailing and rowing competitions ( e.g. during the gaff rigging ), charity and competition runs ( e.g. the Greifswalder City Run), swimming pools , the Sparda Bank Cup and the Greifswald Dragon Boat Festival.
- The Rubenov monument on the square in front of the Theological Faculty
- The atonement stone for the executed Landvogt von Rügen Raven von Barnekow , which was apparently set after 1453, on the left side of the road (formerly B 96) between Greifswald and Neuenkirchen near the Holländermühle
- The Bismarck Column on Wolgaster Strasse on the Epistelberg opposite the Volksstadion; Completed in 1900, rededicated to the Olympic column from 1960 to 1991
- VdN honor grove from 1970 on the New Cemetery for the victims of fascism , and since 1974 a memorial plaque for 172 victims of the Peenemünde concentration camp
- Two communal graves in the New Cemetery for 641 mostly Soviet prisoners of war as victims of forced labor , as well as 65 German Wehrmacht deserters who were murdered at the end of the war
- Stone stele from the 1950s on Bahnhofsplatz in memory of anti-fascist resistance fighters
- The bronze door of the town hall, which was created in 1966 by the sculptor Jo Jastram , in honor of the town commander Colonel Rudolf Petershagen's handover of the town to the Red Army on April 30, 1945 without a fight
- Memorial plaque from 1958 on the corner of Bahnhofstrasse and Erich-Böhmke-Strasse in memory of the communist city councilor Erich Böhmke, who was murdered in Sachsenhausen concentration camp in 1939
- Memorial plaque on the corner of Pastor Wachsmannstrasse and Bahnhofstrasse in memory of the anti-fascist Catholic pastor Alfons Maria Wachsmann , who was murdered in the Brandenburg-Görden prison in 1944 . Since 1985 there has also been a portrait bust of Wachsmann on Rubenow Bridge , which was commissioned at the suggestion of CDU chairman Gerald Götting and created by the sculptor Klaus Freytag .
- Memorial stone from 1954 for the social democratic teacher Karl Krull (* 1905) in front of the school named after him in Bleichstrasse. He was shot dead in 1932 by a police squad who had been thrown up because of a visit by Hitler.
- The memorial stone on the site of the former Greifswald- Eldena coast water management department on the southern Ryckufer commemorates the agricultural worker and chairman of the KPD local group Eldena, Franz Wehrstedt (1899–1933), who was killed by local SA people in the wake of the Nazi terror . July 1933 murdered in the immediate vicinity and pushed into the Ryck .
- Commemorative plaque from 1960 in what was then Entrance C of the main post office for the anti-fascist communist Auguste Bollnow (1874–1942), who died in 1942 in the Leipzig women's prison from the abuse she had suffered. The plate was removed in 1993 by the post office manager because its content allegedly "no longer met with the unreserved approval of all employees and postal customers".
- Memorial stone from 1970 for the Chilean doctor and president Salvador Allende (1908–1973), on the site of the now defunct company vocational school Dr. Salvador Allende of the Rostock Engineering, Civil Engineering and Transport Construction Combine (ITVK) in Greifswalder Brandteichstraße. The monumental boulder with the inscription Dr. Salvador Allende is now in front of the no longer used school building (low-rise) next to the VCH Hotel, built in 1998 , on Wilhelm-Holtz-Straße.
- Memorial stone from 1982 for the Chilean poet, diplomat and Nobel laureate Pablo Neruda next to the main entrance of today's Alexander-von-Humboldt-Gymnasium-Greifswald, formerly POS Pablo Neruda, Makarenkostraße. Inscription: Pablo Neruda 1904–1973 .
- Plaque 1992 in Goethestrasse 5 to the Jewish mathematics professor Felix Hausdorff , who shortly before the deportation to a concentration camp with his wife in the suicide went
- The Greifswald fortifications, which have been under monument protection since 1975, with ramparts, city walls and catch tower
- 13 Stolpersteine by the artist Gunter Demnig , see list of Stolpersteine in Greifswald .
- Sculptural memorial for Caspar David Friedrich in Lappstraße, near the cathedral, which was created on the initiative of Helmut Maletzke by the Lübeck sculptor Claus Görtz and was inaugurated on May 8, 2010
Economy and Transport
After Stralsund, Greifswald is the most populous city in Western Pomerania and is also the university location and district town of the district of Western Pomerania-Greifswald, which extends to the Polish border, as well as an important economic and administrative location in Western Pomerania.
In the sparsely populated part of Western Pomerania, the city has a spacious catchment area that also includes the island of Usedom . Together with Stralsund, Greifswald forms one of the four regional centers in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.
Like many cities in the new federal states, Greifswald has struggled with increased unemployment since reunification, which, however, has fallen significantly in recent years to 10.8% (November 2010; October 2010: 11.1%). In December 2016, underemployment was 12.6%. The population decline caused by the emigration of workers has been offset by the influx of students over the past ten years, and the population has even increased slightly.
According to a survey by the Swiss company Prognos , Greifswald developed the most positively of all German cities between 2004 and 2007, making it the most dynamic city in Germany in 2007. Growth, a reduction in unemployment, innovative strength and demographic development were all taken into account. This would put the Hanseatic city in 101st place in the statistics and have made up 224 places in three years.
University, Health and Research
The University of Greifswald with around 12,000 students and the associated University Medical Center Greifswald are currently the largest employers in the city.
Numerous smaller companies have been founded in the vicinity of the university and are based in the biotechnology center or the technology center. There are also various, partly independent research institutions such as the Friedrich Loeffler Institute , the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics and the Leibniz Institute for Plasma Research and Technology .
The Medigreif group of companies with the Park Clinic, which emerged from the former military medical section , has existed since 1990 .
Riemser Pharma , an international pharmaceutical company, is located in the Riems district .
In addition to pharmaceuticals, Cheplapharm Arzneimittel GmbH also sells medical products, food supplements and cosmetics worldwide.
Maritime economy and industry
The Hanse Yachts shipyard is the world's third largest series manufacturer of sailing yachts . Due to its location on the Greifswalder Bodden , the city is a popular sailing harbor and, in addition to the museum shipyard, is also home to various yacht outfitters and sailmakers.
From the Greifswald location of the former Siemens Communications (formerly Nachrichtenelektronik Greifswald ), a medium-sized manufacturer of electronic components emerged as part of a spin-off in 2002 with ml & s manufacturing, logistics and services . The remaining areas of the fixed network division of Siemens AG were transferred to the joint venture Nokia Siemens Networks in 2007 and taken over by the network supplier Adtran in 2012 ; in Greifswald development of network access technologies.
The Nord Stream Baltic Sea pipeline , which transports Russian natural gas to Central and Western Europe, lands in Lubmin , 20 kilometers east of Greifswald . Energiewerke Nord has established itself at the port there, emerging from the decommissioned and dismantling Greifswald nuclear power plant and specializing in the dismantling of nuclear power plants.
As a daily newspaper, the Ostsee-Zeitung is based in Greifswald with a local editorial office; a local edition appears Monday to Saturday.
The official announcements of the city of Greifswald are published in the Greifswalder Stadtblatt .
The North German Broadcasting operates in Greifswald one of four regional studios in the country MV with u. a. Information from Western Pomerania.
The cartographic and social science magazine Katapult is produced and published in Greifswald.
Greifswald benefits from tourism in MV from the islands of Usedom and Rügen . There are three German national parks in the vicinity. The shopping and recreational opportunities, the cultural and pub life of the university town and various cultural institutions such as the Museum Harbor, the Caspar David Friedrich Center, the Vorpommern Theater , the Cinestar cinema and the Pomeranian State Museum attract numerous day visitors to Greifswald.
With the Caspar-David-Friedrich-Bildweg, opened in December 2008, the city offers a 1½-kilometer inner-city circular route with 15 stations. A longer path, 18 kilometers long, also leads to the city, from where the artist often painted his city.
The city is a meeting place for tourism in the MICE sector. Conferences take place in the university and its institutes, in the Alfried-Krupp-Wissenschaftskolleg and in the event and congress center of the town hall.
If the use of bicycles for everyday trips is taken as the basis for assessment, Greifswald is the bicycle capital of Germany even before Münster , since 44 percent of the population use bicycles for their everyday trips. In addition, Greifswald is connected to some long-distance cycle routes, e.g. B. the Baltic Sea Cycle Route and the Iron Curtain Trail , the longest European long-distance cycle route along the former Iron Curtain from Norway to the Black Sea.
The A 20 runs southwest of Greifswald with the Greifswald junction , through which Greifswald is also connected to Hamburg and Berlin by motor vehicle. The federal highways 105 and 109 run through the city . From Greifswald you can drive to the island of Usedom in about 30 minutes and to the island of Rügen in half an hour . Greifswald is also by long-distance bus to reach . These stop at the Greifswald ZOB .
Greifswald has the (not officially named) main train station and a south train station , both of which are on the Stralsund – Berlin route . There are train connections to the metropolitan areas of Hamburg (via Stralsund , Rostock and Schwerin ) and to Berlin . Since December 2008 there has been a daily IC connection via Hamburg and the Ruhr area to Stuttgart during the week . A direct ICE connection to Munich has existed since March 27, 2011, and since then the Bavarian capital can be reached in 8½ hours without changing.
The Usedomer Bäderbahn (UBB) connects Greifswald with the seaside resorts on the island of Usedom . Since September 20, 2008, the Usedomer Bäderbahn has been running across the border to the Polish city of Swinoujscie (Świnoujście) on the island of Usedom . The island of Rügen can also be reached by train from Greifswald (via Stralsund and the Stralsund – Sassnitz line ). Until 1999 there was also a connection to Lubmin , which was mainly used by employees of the nuclear power plant until the fall of the Wall . This railway line is still used for freight traffic when required. Furthermore, after it was closed in 2002, there will again be a freight siding from January 2014 from Greifswald main station via the museum harbor to the municipal seaport Greifswald-Ladebow. There are also plans to set up excursion traffic (e.g. for the annual fishing festival in the Wiek district).
From 1897 the place also had a railway connection of the Greifswald – Jarmener Kleinbahn (GJK) and since 1898 the Kleinbahn-Gesellschaft Greifswald-Wolgast . The line was shut down in 1945 and the tracks were dismantled as reparations . Until 1945 (reparations to the USSR; remaining stretch Tessin – Sanitz – Rostock) there was a (private) standard-gauge railway connection Greifswald – Grimmen – Tribsees –Bad Sülze – Tessin – Sanitz – Rostock (Greifswald – Grimmener Railway 1896–1945).
Greifswald is located at the navigable mouth of the Ryck River into the Baltic Sea and has a seaport . The sailing area in and around the Greifswalder Bodden , located between the largest German islands of Rügen and Usedom , is a popular sailing area, which also strengthens Greifswald's sailing location . In addition to the seaport, there are also various marinas and boat berths along the Ryck. In the Greifswald museum harbor, located in the city center, there are around 40 traditional ships, as well as a number of sailing and work ships and a former icebreaker that is now used as a restaurant. In 2013, 222,000 tons of goods were handled in the Greifswald seaport.
Greifswald's drinking water needs are covered by the wells of the Groß Schönwalde and Hohenmühl waterworks near Hinrichshagen (and earlier also from Levenhagen ); The drinking water for the island of Riems , which also belongs to Greifswald, comes from Tremt. Greifswald is supplied by Wasserwerke Greifswald GmbH, a subsidiary of Stadtwerke Greifswald GmbH . It pumps around 3.4 million m³ of drinking water per year.
At the beginning of the 18th century, water demand was mainly met by water from surface waters: In a plan from 1704 of the water supply, 51 public wells are drawn, which mostly draw their water unfiltered from the Ryck and the city moat using pumps. Only six wells were fed by groundwater alone. The latter, however, had the disadvantage that when the water level in the Ryck was high, their water also tasted brackish. Only the well-to-do could make use of the possibility of getting good water from a spring four kilometers southeast of Greifswald in Koitenhagen .
The first municipal waterworks to supply Greifswald was built in Diedrichshagen in 1887/1888 . In 1906 another water intake was completed in the Koitenhäger area. The Groß-Schönwalde waterworks, whose building is now a listed building, was built around 1914. Initially only to supply the barracks, the Hohenmühl waterworks was built in the 1930s. Finally, the waterworks in Levenhagen was built in the 1970s.
- As the district town of the Vorpommern-Greifswald district, it is an important administrative center
- Seat of the Sparkasse Vorpommern
- Stadtwerke Greifswald
- State constitutional , higher administrative , financial court Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , administrative court and district court
- Professional fire department , one of the oldest professional fire departments in Germany
Education and Research
University of Greifswald and non-university institutions
- The University of Greifswald was founded in 1456, making it one of the oldest universities in the world. To her belong among other things
- the University Hospital Greifswald
- the University Library Greifswald , grouped in:
- Alfried Krupp Science College Greifswald
- Friedrich Loeffler Institute (Federal Research Institute for Animal Health), Riems Island (part of Greifswald)
- Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics with the Wendelstein 7-X nuclear fusion research reactor
- Leibniz Institute for Plasma Research and Technology
- Center of Drug Absorption and Transport (C_DAT)
- Technology center Vorpommern
- Biotechnikum Greifswald
- Institute for Diabetes "Gerhardt Katsch" eV (formerly Central Institute for Diabetes "Gerhardt Katsch"), Karlsburg (near Greifswald)
- Greifswald observatory
- German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE); the common location is made up of Rostock and Greifswald.
Public events take place regularly in the university and in the institutions it cooperates with, such as B. Lecture series and lectures. The city of Greifswald is also a “Corporate Supporting Member” of the Max Planck Society.
- Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Gymnasium , founded in 1561 as schola senatoria and thus one of the oldest German schools .
- Alexander von Humboldt High School
- Evening high school Wolfgang Koeppen
- Specialized high school
- Independent schools that offer high school education: the Ostseegymnasium Greifswald, the Waldorf School Greifswald, the Montessori School Greifswald and the Evangelical School Center Martinschule (winner of the German School Prize 2018)
- Other municipal schools:
- five elementary schools
- two regional schools
- an integrated comprehensive school
- a special school
- several vocational schools
- The district of Vorpommern-Greifswald and Greifswald operate an adult education center , a music school and art workshops.
Churches and religions
The city's Protestant parishes belong to the Pomeranian Evangelical Church District of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany ( Northern Church ). In addition to the three historic churches of St. Jacobi , St. Marien and St. Nikolai Cathedral in the city center, it maintains four other churches in the districts of Nördliche Mühlenvorstadt (Johanneskirche), Schönwalde II (Christ Church), suburban settlement and Wieck. Before the merger to form the Northern Church in 2012, Greifswald was the bishopric of the Pomeranian Evangelical Church , which was incorporated into the new structure as a church district with the reform. The theological faculty of the University of Greifswald is a Protestant faculty; it is related to the north church.
The regional church community in Greifswald works as a free agency within the Evangelical Church .
In March 2017 Greifswald was accepted as the only city from the area of the North Church in the Federation of Reformation Cities in Europe. Johannes Bugenhagen , who later became an important companion of Luther, studied here from 1502 to 1504 .
Evangelical Free Churches there are also in Greifswald, including the Adventistengemeinde , a Brethren Church , a Pentecostal church and a Baptist church located. Furthermore, there is a congregation of the old confessional independent Evangelical Lutheran Church here . A New Apostolic congregation has existed since 1916.
The Catholic Propsteigemeinde St. Joseph in the inner city belongs to the Deanery of Western Pomerania in the Archdiocese of Berlin .
Islam: The Islamic cultural center has been operating a mosque on the premises of the university in the Schönwalde II district since the 1990s . It is supposed to look after around 400 Muslims in Greifswald. The founding imam Abdulrahman Al-Makhadi was accused of Islamist positions. He is said to have contributed to the radicalization of a party involved in the September 11, 2001 attacks and established the connection to the Hamburg terror cell . Little is known about the current orientation of the mosque; However, in 2009 it hosted an event by the controversial Salafi preacher Pierre Vogel .
Jewish community: From the 19th century until around 1940 there was a Jewish community and the Jewish cemetery in Greifswald . But apart from the stumbling blocks, there is no longer any evidence of Judaism in the city. The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the victims of the National Socialist persecution of Jews in Germany (1933–1945) lists 14 Jewish residents of Greifswald who were deported and murdered .
The nearest Jewish communities are currently in Rostock and Schwerin as well as in Berlin.
Current clubs are the HFC Greifswald 92 (formerly Greifswald Hengste ), the Greifswalder SV Puls 1970, the FSV Blau-Weiß-Greifswald, the SV Fichte Greifswald and the HSG Uni Greifswald .
The largest club in town, Greifswalder FC , was created in 2015 from the merger of Greifswalder SV 04 with FC Pommern Greifswald, which was founded in 2010 . The predecessor clubs or clubs that were dissolved in Greifswalder SV 04 are Greifswalder SC , ESV / Empor Greifswald, Einheit Greifswald and BSG KKW Greifswald . In addition, the football department of the GRC Hilda Greifswald was added in 2011.
Greifswalder FC plays in the fifth-class Oberliga NOFV-Nord in 2019/20 and plays its home games in Greifswalder Volksstadion . The other clubs in the city have their own venues or use the adjacent areas of the Volksstadion.
Because of its location on the Ryck River and the Greifswalder Bodden , Greifswald has a long tradition of water sports such as sailing, rowing, swimming, surfing and beach volleyball.
In and around Greifswald, sailing was early on, mostly with fishermen's boats on the bay. However, sailing clubs of their own emerged late. The first sailing club was founded in 1902 after several accidents occurred. Since 1908 exists Academic Seglerverein to Greifswald , the order was the first Academic Seglerverein at a university. To this day, the ASV offers students and employees of the university, but also the general public, a home. The Greifswalder Yacht Club (GYC) was founded in 1926 by citizens of the city because the ASV refused to accept all non-academics. The third major sailing club is the Wieck Yacht Club (YCW). All three Greifswald sailing clubs run joint youth training with the Riemser sailing club, whose members have won German championship titles several times in various boat classes in recent years. In 2007 seven students founded the student regatta club . The marinas are located in the districts of Wieck and Eldena; There are various berths near the center, such as the Holzteichquartier.
On June 22, 1892, the Greifswald merchant Cohn founded the Hilda Commercial Rowing Club, which had several Olympic and world champions in the 1970s. The club has its own club house opposite the old town at the old Greifswald harbor.
In addition to sailing, rowing and canoeing on the Ryck and the adjoining waters, kite surfing and surfing on the Greifswalder Bodden and the Baltic Sea are very popular sports. German master, runner etc. can also Seesportclub Greifswald have.
For swimmers, Greifswald has had an indoor leisure pool with a sports and leisure pool operated by the municipal utility since 1998 . In the Eldena district there is a lido on the Danish Wiek with a sandy beach and a beach bar. In 2006 the German beach volleyball championships were held here, organized by ESV Turbine Greifswald . Since 1921 there has been continuous swimming across the Danish Wieck over 2600 m, which is known today as "Bodenschimmen".
In Greifswald and the surrounding area there is a golf course, several tennis facilities, various fitness and wellness centers. In boxing, the IBF middleweight world champion Sebastian Sylvester from Greifswald is known. Many sports clubs and university sports at the university offer all common sports.
Greifswald is home to the state performance center of the Association for Disabled and Rehabilitation Sports Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, making it one of the nationwide pioneers in disabled sports, especially in swimming, table tennis, wheelchair dance and wheelchair rugby . Greifswald Paralympic participants like the wheelchair athlete Karl-Christian Bahls (gold medal in archery - Barcelona 1992) and the blind swimmer Natalie Ball (3 silver, 1 bronze - Athens 2004) are role models for disabled people. The national swimmer Sven Lodziewski and the lifeguard world champion Alexandra Berlin also trained at the Hanse swimming club in Greifswald .
sons and daughters of the town
Personalities who have worked locally
- Johannes Bugenhagen (1485–1558), reformer
- Heinrich Brandanus Gebhardi (1657–1729), orientalist, theologian and general superintendent
- Andreas Mayer (1716–1782), mathematician and master builder
- Thomas Thorild (1759–1808), Swedish poet
- Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769–1860), poet, historian
- Alwine Wuthenow (1820–1908), Low German poet
- Heinrich August Hahn (1821–1861), Protestant theologian and professor at the Universities of Königsberg and Greifswald
- Emil Odebrecht (1835–1912), engineer and cartographer in Brazil
- Samuel Oettli (1846–1911), Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor
- Johannes Rehmke (1848–1930), philosopher
- Adolf Schlatter (1852–1938), Swiss Protestant theologian and professor of the New Testament and Systematic Theology
- Hugo Schulz (medical doctor) (1853–1932), pharmacologist at the University of Greifswald, co-developer of the Arndt Schulz rule , father-in-law of Ferdinand Sauerbruch
- Gustaf Dalman (1855–1941), Protestant theologian, orientalist, Palestine researcher , consul in Jerusalem , university professor, publicist
- Wilhelm Altmann (1862–1951), historian, music critic and writer
- Hermann Löns (1866–1914), poet, studied in Greifswald
- Felix Hausdorff (1868–1942), German mathematics professor
- Gertrud Berger (1870–1949), landscape painter
- Auguste Bollnow (1874–1942), communist resistance fighter
- Johannes Stark (1874–1957), physicist, Nobel Prize winner
- Ferdinand Sauerbruch (1875–1951), surgeon, worked in Greifswald from 1905 to 1908, where he also married
- Gustav Bastel (1878–1956), architect and city builder
- Karl Hans Walther (1895–1965), general physician, major general of the KVP, first commander of the military medical section at the University of Greifswald
- Rudolf Petershagen (1901–1969), officer
- Berthold Beitz (1913–2013), manager, went to school in Greifswald
- Rudolf Biederstedt (1920–1996), head of the city archive
- Helmut Maletzke (1920–2017), painter, graphic artist and writer
- Ursula Meyer (1923–1969), art historian and painter, director of the city museum
- Kurt Ruchholz (1925–2008), geologist and university professor
- Mechthild Hempel (1925–2012), painter and graphic artist
- Jo Jastram (1928–2011), sculptor
- Helmut Sieger (* 1931), naval officer and pedagogue, head of the GST naval school
- Rudolf Bahro (1935–1997), philosopher, GDR civil rights activist
- Manfred Stolpe (1936–2019), politician, went to school in Greifswald
- Hans Peter Günther (1941–2015), state singing and state trombone attendant
- Erwin Sellering (* 1949), politician, was a judge at the Greifswald Administrative Court
- Norbert Braun (* 1950) and Dagmar Braun (* 1956), entrepreneurs and bearers of the Federal Cross of Merit on ribbon
- Wolfgang Joecks (1953–2016), legal scholar and constitutional judge
- Thomas Putensen (* 1959), musician and actor
- Robert Conrad (* 1962), photographer
- Hiroyuki Masuyama (* 1968), Japanese photographer
- Lindy Ave (* 1998), track and field athlete
- List of personalities from the University of Greifswald
- Category: University teachers (Greifswald) (> 1000 entries)
- List of mayors of Greifswald
- List of honorary citizens of Greifswald
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Greifswald
- The asteroid (10114) Greifswald , discovered in 1992, was named after the city.
- An ICE unit of Deutsche Bahn was christened in 2006 with the name "Hanseatic City of Greifswald" (see list of IC / ICE vehicles named according to municipalities and regions ).
- Albert Georg von Schwarz : Diplomatic history of the Pomeranian-Rügischen cities of Swedish sovereignty. Chapter: Historical report of the origin of the city of Greifswald. Hieronymus Johann Struck, Greifswald 1755, p. 94 f. ( Preview in Google Book Search).
- Otto Fock : Rügensch-Pomeranian stories from seven centuries. Volume II: Stralsund and Greifswald in the century of foundation. Leipzig 1862 ( preview in Google book search).
- Gustav Kratz : The cities of the province of Pomerania - an outline of their history, mostly according to documents. Sendet-Reprint-Verlag, Vaduz 1996, ISBN 3-253-02734-1 , pp. 434–502 (unchanged reprint of the 1865 edition) ( preview in Google book search).
- Heinrich Karl Wilhelm Berghaus ( arrangement ): Land book of the Duchy of Pomerania and the Principality of Rügen. IV. Part, Volume I: The Greifswald district according to its general conditions, as well as in particular the historical-statistical description of the city of Greifswald and the Königl. University there. Dietze, Anklam 1866, OCLC 225357317 , p. 231 ff.
- Greifswald and its surroundings (= values of the German homeland . Volume 14). 1st edition. Akademie Verlag, Berlin 1968.
- Edeltraud Dufke, Heinz Karstädt, Lutz Mohr: Greifswald maritim: Shipping, shipbuilding and fishing in the past and present. An overview (= Neue Greifswalder Museumhefte . No. 10/1981). Greifswald 1981.
- Lutz Mohr : Seestadt am Ryck: A journey through the maritime history of Greifswald. In: Yearbook of shipping . Transpress-Verlag, Berlin 1983, ISSN 0075-238X , pp. 141-149.
- Franz Scherer, Hans-Georg Wenghöfer: From the ramparts to the promenade. Edited by Greifswald City Council, Greifswald Information. Greifswald 1989, OCLC 255125584 .
- Horst Wernicke: Greifswald - the way it was. Droste, Düsseldorf 1995, ISBN 3-7700-1015-9 .
- Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Thomas Helms Verlag, Schwerin 2000, ISBN 3-931185-56-7 .
- Uwe Kiel, Fritz Lewandowski: Greifswald. History of the university and Hanseatic city in data. 2nd Edition. Greifswald 2006, ISBN 3-9810677-1-1 .
- Hans Georg Thümmel : Greifswald - history and stories. The city, its churches and its university. Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2011, ISBN 978-3-506-76720-2 .
- Jana Pohl (Red.): What's behind your street name. In: tenant newspaper of the housing and management company mbH Greifswald. No. 2/2017, ZDB -ID 2243920-1 , p. 10, and No. 3/2017, p. 16.
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- Website of the Hanseatic City of Greifswald
- Literature about Greifswald in the state bibliography MV
- The inscriptions of the city of Greifswald (= DI-77). Collected and edited by Jürgen Herold and Christine Magin. Wiesbaden 2009 ( Online via Deutsche Insschriften Online )
- ↑ Statistisches Amt MV - population status of the districts, offices and municipalities 2019 (XLS file) (official population figures in the update of the 2011 census) ( help ).
- ↑ a b c Reading version of the main statutes of the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald. (PDF; 191 kB) In: greifswald.de. January 18, 2019, p. 3 , accessed March 30, 2020 .
- ↑ Euroregion> Basics. In: pomerania.net. November 17, 2015, archived from the original on November 17, 2015 ; Retrieved June 7, 2016 .
- ↑ State Statistical Office MV - population development of the districts and municipalities 2014 (XLS file; 353 kB) (population figures in update of the 2011 census).
- ↑ § 20 Reading version of the main statutes of the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald. (PDF; 191 kB) In: greifswald.de. January 18, 2019, p. 18 , accessed March 30, 2020 .
- ↑ a b c d Günter Mangelsdorf : On the prehistory and early history of the Greifswald area, on the beginnings of the Eldena monastery and the city of Greifswald in the 12th / 13th. Century. In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, p. 27.
- ↑ a b Teodolius Witkowski: The location name of the circle Greifswald (= . Berliner contributions to Namenforschung Band 5). With contributions by H. Berlekamp and J. Wächter. Böhlau, Weimar 1978, DNB 780456823 , p. 65.
- ↑ Teodolius Witkowski: The place names of the Greifswald district. Weimar 1978, p. 64.
- ^ Günter Mangelsdorf: On the prehistory and early history of the Greifswald area, on the beginnings of the Eldena monastery and the city of Greifswald in the 12th / 13th. Century. In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, p. 27; Teodolius Witkowski: The place names of the Greifswald district. Weimar 1978, p. 65; also Dietrich Rahn: The place and field names of the city and district of Greifswald. Their origins and their significance for Pomeranian local history. J. Abel [Bruncken & Co.], Greifswald 1923, DNB 577348310 , p. 22 f. (Zugl .: Greifswald, Phil. Diss.).
- ↑ a b c Franz Scherer. In: Council of the City of Greifswald - Greifswald Information (Hrsg.): From the fortification wall to the promenade. Greifswald 1989, p. 5.
- ↑ Horst Wernicke: Greifswald - as it was (= photographed contemporary history ). Droste, Düsseldorf 1995, ISBN 3-7700-1015-9 , p. 5; Günter Mangelsdorf: On the prehistory and early history of the Greifswald area, the beginnings of the Eldena monastery and the city of Greifswald in the 12th / 13th centuries. Century. In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, p. 26.
- ↑ Norbert Buske: References to the church history of Greifswald from the founding of the city to the time of the two world wars. In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, p. 164.
- ↑ Detlef Kattinger: The urban development from the end of the 13th century to 1500. In: Horst Wernicke (Hrsg.): Greifswald. History of the city. Thomas Helms Verlag, Schwerin 2000, ISBN 3-931185-56-7 , p. 51.
- ↑ Detlef Kattinger: The urban development from the end of the 13th century to 1500. In: Horst Wernicke (Hrsg.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, p. 37 f .; Thomas Brück: The Greifswald shipping in the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period (1250 to 1774). In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, pp. 235 and 241.
- ↑ Franz Scherer. In: From the ramparts to the promenade. Published by Greifswald City Council - Greifswald Information. Greifswald 1989, p. 15.
- ^ Norbert Buske: Pomerania - territorial state and part of Prussia: an overview of the political development. Thomas Helms, Schwerin 1997, ISBN 3-931185-07-9 , p. 55 f.
- ↑ Horst Wernicke: Greifswald - as it was. Droste, Düsseldorf 1995, p. 19 f.
- ↑ E. von Wendt & Co. (Ed.): Overview of the Prussian Merchant Navy . Stettin January 1848, p. 10 f . ( Digitale-sammlungen.de [accessed on June 4, 2015]).
- ^ Heinrich Karl Wilhelm Berghaus ( arrangement ): Land book of the Duchy of Pomerania and the Principality of Rügen. IV. Part, Volume I: The Greifswald district according to its general conditions, as well as in particular the historical-statistical description of the city of Greifswald and the Königl. University there. Dietze, Anklam 1866, OCLC 225357317 , p. 231 ff.
- ↑ Julia Männchen: On the history of the Jewish community in Greifswald. In: Zeitgeschichte regional 5/1 (2001), pp. 8–12.
- ↑ Erik Riebe: Social and medical-historical aspects of the moulages at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald with special consideration of the subject of skin and venereal diseases. Inaugural dissertation, University of Greifswald, 2005, p. 10, urn : nbn: de: gbv: 9-000058-2 .
- ^ Greifswald train station. In: der-egoswalder.de. Retrieved June 8, 2016 .
- ↑ The "slaughter" of a historic old town. Photographer Robert Conrad documents Greifswald's building policy (dapd). In: Thüringische Landeszeitung . October 6, 2012.
- ↑ The Reformation Cities of Europe and the city portrait of Greifswald in the CPKE project site: Reformation City Greifswald. Germany. "You are honorable". In: reformation-cities.org/cities, accessed on March 21, 2017.
- ↑ Numbers, data, facts. (No longer available online.) University of Greifswald , November 19, 2015, archived from the original on April 2, 2016 ; accessed on July 1, 2016 .
- ↑ More than every third German lives alone. GfK , December 4, 2008, accessed on July 1, 2016 .
- ↑ Gabriel Kords: Greifswald is Germany's “youngest city”. In: webmoritz.de. December 9, 2008, accessed July 1, 2016 .
- ↑ dpa / mv: Greifswald continues to grow: Almost 1000 more residents. (No longer available online.) In: Ostsee-Zeitung GmbH & Co. KG. Archived from the original on March 18, 2018 ; accessed on March 18, 2018 .
- ↑ Runoff election for the mayor election 2015. In: greifswald.de. Accessed January 21, 2020 .
- ^ Greifswald: decision on mayor election postponed. In: ndr.de . June 30, 2015, archived from the original on September 21, 2015 ; accessed on July 1, 2016 .
- ^ Greifswald: Green politician becomes new mayor. In: ostseezeitung.de . September 28, 2015, archived from the original on September 30, 2015 ; accessed on July 1, 2016 .
- ^ Fassbinder as Mayor of Greifswald in office. In: ndr.de. October 30, 2015, archived from the original on August 10, 2016 ; accessed on July 1, 2016 .
- ↑ Hans-Heinz Schütt : On shield and flag. production office TINUS, Schwerin 2011, ISBN 978-3-9814380-0-0 , p. 330 ff.
- ↑ Town twinning and international contacts. In: greifswald.de. Retrieved March 31, 2017 .
- ↑ Eckart Roloff , Karin Henke-Wendt: Visit your doctor or pharmacist. A tour through Germany's museums for medicine and pharmacy. Volume 1: Northern Germany. S. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-7776-2510-2 , pp. 67-74.
- ↑ Loeffler House. In: fli.de. Retrieved August 8, 2016 .
- ↑ film club casablanca e. V. In: casablanca-egoswald.de. Retrieved August 8, 2016 .
- ↑ Welcome to the Greifswald museum shipyard. In: museumswerft-egoswald.de. Retrieved March 31, 2017 .
- ↑ Botanical Garden and Arboretum. In: uni-reifswald.de. Retrieved March 31, 2017 .
- ↑ Greifswald animal park. In: tierpark-egoswald.de. Retrieved March 31, 2017 .
- ↑ University property . In: uni-reifswald.de. Retrieved March 31, 2017 .
- ↑ Gaffelrigg fishing festival. The maritime weekend from July 14 to 16, 2017. In: greifswald.de. Retrieved March 31, 2017 .
- ↑ Griffon Dragons. (No longer available online.) In : haben-drachen.de. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017 ; Retrieved December 19, 2017 .
- ^ Stumbling blocks. Political memorials in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Greifswald Gallery . In : political.memoriale.mitten2.de. Archived from the original on January 6, 2013 ; accessed on March 31, 2017 .
- ^ Greifswald stumbling blocks were relocated . Under the motto “Human dignity is inviolable”, thirteen new stumbling blocks were laid today, on the day of the constitution, in the university and Hanseatic city of Greifswald. Eleven of them had been broken out by strangers on the night of November 9th. The Cologne artist Gunter Demnig replaced the stones and added two more. In: greifswald.de. May 23, 2013, archived from the original on October 19, 2014 ; accessed on March 31, 2017 (press release).
- ↑ Page no longer available , search in web archives: mecklenburg-vorpommern.eu (no mementos).
- ^ Skilled workers alliance for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. (PDF; 184 kB) In: rostock.ihk24.de. January 31, 2011, p. 2 , archived from the original on April 6, 2017 ; accessed on September 8, 2019 (2005: 17.5%; data from the Federal Employment Agency).
- ↑ An overview of the labor market - reporting month December 2016 - Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, federal state. In : arbeitsagentur.de, accessed on March 31, 2017.
- ↑ Tobias Koch: Prognos Zukunftsatlas 2007. Special evaluation of the results for the university and Hanseatic city of Greifswald. Wirtschaftsfördergesellschaft Vorpommern 2007 ( digitized version ( memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 2.6 MB]).
- ↑ Olaf Preuß: Sailing yachts: Against the current. In: Abendblatt.de, Hamburger Abendblatt , May 9, 2009, accessed on March 31, 2017.
- ^ Ostsee-Zeitung, contact details Verlagshaus Greifswald. In: ostsee-zeitung.de, accessed on March 31, 2017.
- ^ Greifswalder Stadtblatt online. In: greifswald.de, accessed on March 31, 2017.
- ↑ About us. In: ndr.de, NDR, Vorpommernstudio Greifswald, accessed on March 31, 2017.
- ^ Caspar-David-Friedrich-Bildweg. In: caspar-david-friedrich-gesellschaft.de, Caspar-David-Friedrich-Zentrum, accessed on March 31, 2017.
- ↑ Greifswald is Germany's bicycle capital ( memento from December 28, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ). In: greifswald.de, accessed on March 31, 2017.
- ↑ Iron Curtain Trail - Through Germany. Archived from the original on April 16, 2017 ; accessed on April 15, 2017 .
- ↑ Ostsee-Zeitung. August 2, 2008.
- ^ Peter Kleinort: Northeast ports with a mixed balance. In: Daily port report . May 16, 2014, p. 2.
- ↑ a b drinking water. In: sw-greifswald.de, Stadtwerke Greifswald, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ↑ The plan with commentary is printed in: Horst Wernicke: Greifswald - as it was. Droste, Düsseldorf 1995, p. 14.
- ↑ a b Rudolf Biederstedt: From the Reformation to the loss of independence. In: Horst Wernicke (Ed.): Greifswald. History of the city. Schwerin 2000, p. 68.
- ↑ Festschrift for the 10th anniversary of Stadtwerke Greifswald ( Memento from July 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). (PDF; 1.2 MB) p. 12. In: sw-greifswald.com, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ↑ See the list of corporate sponsoring members under Corporate Sponsoring Members ( Memento from January 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). (PDF; 437 kB) In: mpg.de, December 21, 2010, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ^ Vocational school [n]. In: greifswald.de, accessed on December 19, 2017.
- ^ Pomeranian Evangelical Church District. In: kirche-mv.de. North Church in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ↑ About us. In: lkg- Greifswald.de, accessed on April 1, 2017 (denominational and structural classification of the LKG Greifswald)
- ^ Reformation city of Greifswald. Germany. You are honorable. In: reformation-cities.org, CPCE , accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ↑ Greifswald Adventist Church. In: adventgemeinde-egoswald.de, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ^ Free Church Evangelical Community Greifswald. In: bg-egoswald.de, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ↑ Belief Center Elim Greifswald. In: elim-hgw.de, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ^ Evangelical Free Church Community of Greifswald. In: efg-egoswald.de, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ^ Daniel Focke: Muslims in Greifswald. In: webmoritz.de, November 16, 2010, accessed on March 4, 2011.
- ↑ Thomas Berndt, Stefan Buchen, Christoph Mestmacher: Hamburg death pilots - New tracks, new names. TV magazine Panorama . January 10, 2002, accessed March 4, 2011.
- ↑ Gerhard Piper: Al-Qaida and its environment in Germany - Who's Who? (PDF; 1.3 MB) BITS , Berlin 2008, accessed on March 4, 2011.
- ↑ Pierre Vogel: Pierre Vogel Greifswald Lecture Part 1/5. on YouTube . Lecture at the Islamic Cultural Center Greifswald eV (10:00 min.), Uploaded on August 25, 2009, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ↑ Memorial Book. Search in the name directory. Search for: Greifswald - place of residence. In: bundesarchiv.de, accessed on December 7, 2017.
- ^ Regional Association of Jewish Communities in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania ( Memento from February 13, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ). In: mecklenburg-vorpommern.eu. State portal MV: Churches and denominations, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ^ Greifswalder Yachtclub e. V. In: greifswald-online.de, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ↑ Yacht Club Wieck e. V. In: yachtclub-wieck.de, accessed on April 1, 2017.
- ^ The climate in Greifswald ( Memento from November 13, 2019 in the Internet Archive ). In: wetterkontor.de .