Ear, nose and throat medicine

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Historic cutlery bag of an ENT doctor in the Dithmarscher State Museum

The Otorhinolaryngology (short ENT ) or Oto -Rhino- Laryngology (from ancient Greek οὖς OUS [ Gen. ὠτός Otos ] "ear" ῥίς [Gen. ῥινός Rhinos ] "nose", λάρυγξ larynx [Gen. λάρυγγος láryngos ] "throat" and -logie ) is a branch of medicine that deals with diseases , injuries , injuries, deformities and disorders of the ear , the upper respiratory tract, the oral cavity , the pharynx , the larynx , of the lower airways and the esophagus is concerned ; in a broader sense with the above-mentioned problems in the entire head and neck area.


Ear, nose and throat medicine

In English instead of ENT the abbreviation ENT (for Ears, Nose and Throat ) is used, internationally also ORL (for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology ).

In the preamble of the model further training regulations (model WBO) of the Federal Medical Association i. d. F. von 2010 (the WBO of the respective state medical associations are relevant) on the field of ear, nose and throat medicine (includes the specialist in ear, nose and throat diseases and the specialist in speech, voice and children's hearing disorders (formerly phoniatrics and pediatric audiology ) ) stands:

The field of ear, nose and throat medicine includes the prevention , detection, conservative and operative treatment, follow-up care and rehabilitation of diseases (often infections of the throat or the oropharynx, the ears and the nasal cavity), injuries, malformations, changes in shape and tumors of the ear , the nose, the paranasal sinuses , the oral cavity, the pharynx and larynx and functional disorders of the sensory organs in these regions as well as voice, speech, speech and hearing disorders.

The activities of the ENT specialist overlap with the medical fields of phoniatry + pediatric audiology , paediatrics , pediatric surgery , neurology , orthopedics , oral and maxillofacial surgery , oral surgery , dermatology and allergology and internal medicine, with a focus on pneumology .

The anatomical block ears include: auricle and ear lobes , ear canal , middle ear , inner ear as well as central auditory channels and auditory centers. The upper airways consist of: external nose , main nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx , pharynx and pharynx. The lower airways consist of the larynx and windpipe. The oral cavity includes the oral mucosa, tongue, tonsils and all salivary gland outlets in the narrower sense and the salivary glands in the broader sense. The pharynx merges with the esophageal entrance and the entrance to the larynx, anatomically it is the oropharynx and hypopharynx.

In the operative field , microsurgical operating procedures are increasingly coming to the fore, especially in the area of ​​middle and inner ear surgery, nasal and sinus surgery using endoscopy and larynx surgery . However, these operations are not only carried out in terms of anatomical restoration, but also in terms of function maintenance, function improvement and post-traumatic function restoration. Plastic surgical interventions in the facial area, for auricular malalignments and deformities of the outer nose (especially the bony nasal framework) are among the established treatment methods in ENT medicine today, as are large areas of tumor surgery of the neck and oral cavity.

The endoscopic removal of swallowed or inhaled foreign bodies is another task of ENT medicine.

Specialist in ear, nose and throat medicine (Germany)

In order to work as an ENT specialist after completing a medical degree in Germany , you need a five-year training period, which is divided into two sections:

  • 2 years of basic training in the common field of ear, nose and throat medicine.
  • 3 years of specific specialist training in ear, nose and throat medicine

Guidelines for ear, nose and throat medicine

Under the leadership of the Working Group of Scientific Medical Societies (AWMF), the medical special disciplines, such as ENT, have taken into account the recommendations of the Advisory Council for Concerted Action in Health Care (Special Report 1995) by drawing up guidelines .

Guidelines should reflect the state of medical knowledge valid at the time of their publication. They require continuous adaptation to the development of medical progress.

Professional organizations

At the German Society for Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery , the leading members are an association of mainly scientifically active ENT doctors, many of whom are full professorships at German universities. Any ENT doctor who can nominate guarantors from the scientific field can become a member. The main task of society is to maintain a high scientific standard in ENT medicine.

A member of the German Professional Association of Ear, Nose and Throat Doctors is also on the board . This is an amalgamation of mainly practicing ENT doctors, many of whom are statutory health insurance physicians. Any ENT doctor can become a member and should run a practice if possible. The main tasks of the professional association may be the maintenance of the freelance work of ENT doctors and the exercise of rights vis-à-vis the statutory health insurance and the statutory health insurance associations .


  • Rudolf Probst, Gerhard Grevers, Heinrich Iro: ear, nose and throat medicine. 3rd edition, with audio CD and sound samples on voice, speech and language disorders. Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart / New York 2008, ISBN 978-3-13-119033-8 .
  • Christian von Deuster, Martin Ptok: On the history of ear, nose and throat medicine, especially in Würzburg. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1986 (= Würzburg medical historical research. Volume 42).
  • Christian von Deuster: ear, nose and throat medicine. In: Werner E. Gerabek u. a. (Ed.): Encyclopedia of medical history. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 529 f.
  • Harald Feldmann: Pictures from the history of ear, nose and throat medicine. Median, Heidelberg 2003, ISBN 3-922766-81-1 .
  • Paul Pialoux, Jacques Soudant: History of ear, nose and throat medicine. In: Jean-Charles Sournia, Jacques Poulet, Marcel Martiny, Richard Toellner, Peter Hucklenbroich u. a .: Illustrated history of medicine. Volume I – IX, Andreas, Salzburg 1980–1982; Special edition in six volumes, Andreas, Salzburg 1986, Volume V, pp. 2640–2677.
  • Brigitte Lengersdorf, Carsten Juhran, Margret Liehn, Thomas Grundmann: ear, nose and throat surgery. In: Margret Liehn, Brigitte Lengersdorf, Lutz Steinmüller, Rüdiger Döhler : OP manual. Basics, instruments, surgical procedure. 6th, updated and expanded edition. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg / New York 2016, ISBN 978-3-662-49280-2 , pp. 593–613.

Web links

Commons : Otorhinolaryngology  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikibooks: ENT medicine  - learning and teaching materials
Wiktionary: Ear, Nose and Throat Medicine  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. a b (sample) further training regulations 2003 in the version of June 25, 2010. (PDF; 759 kB) In: bundesaerztekammer.de. German Medical Association, archived from the original on January 21, 2012 ; Retrieved June 10, 2013 .
  2. ^ Marianne Abele-Horn: Antimicrobial Therapy. Decision support for the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. With the collaboration of Werner Heinz, Hartwig Klinker, Johann Schurz and August Stich, 2nd, revised and expanded edition. Peter Wiehl, Marburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-927219-14-4 , pp. 101-107 (ear, nose and throat infections) .
  3. List of guidelines under the leadership or participation of the ENT Society